Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 20 Issue 9

May 5, 2008

Volume 20, Issue 9

Pages 1589–1800

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Communications
    6. Index
    1. Cover Picture: Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoworms for Tumor Targeting and Imaging (Adv. Mater. 9/2008) (page 1589)

      Ji-Ho Park, Geoffrey von Maltzahn, Lianglin Zhang, Michael P. Schwartz, Erkki Ruoslahti, Sangeeta N. Bhatia and Michael J. Sailor

      Article first published online: 5 MAY 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200890033

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The synthesis and biological behavior of tumor-homing magnetic iron oxide nanoworms consisting of a chain-like aggregation of iron oxide nanoparticle cores in a dextran coating are reported by Michael J. Sailor and co-workers on p. 1630. The elongated particles display an enhanced magnetic resonance response and long in vivo circulation times. When conjugated with a tumor-targeting peptide, they interact more effectively with a tumor-based target in vitro relative to spherical nanoparticles.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Communications
    6. Index
    1. Inside Front Cover: Optofluidic Assembly of Colloidal Photonic Crystals with Controlled Sizes, Shapes, and Structures (Adv. Mater. 8/2008) (page 1590)

      Shin-Hyun Kim, Seog-Jin Jeon, Gi-Ra Yi, Chul-Joon Heo, Jae Hoon Choi and Seung-Man Yang

      Article first published online: 5 MAY 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200890034

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The cover shows a schematic of the optofluidic assembly of colloidal photonic crystals against a backdrop of arrays of blue, green, and red photonic spheres self-organized by in situ photo-induced solidification of crystalline colloidal arrays. This high-throughput optofluidic technique can create various structural motifs in photonic crystals, report Seung-Man Yang and co-workers on p. 1649; an example is photonic Janus spheres, as highlighted on the cover.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Communications
    6. Index
    1. Contents: (Adv. Mater. 9/2008) (pages 1593–1602)

      Article first published online: 5 MAY 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200890035

  4. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Communications
    6. Index
    1. Well Ordered Polymer Melts from Blends of Disordered Triblock Copolymer Surfactants and Functional Homopolymers (pages 1603–1608)

      Vijay R. Tirumala, Alvin Romang, Sumit Agarwal, Eric K. Lin and James J. Watkins

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701577

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      Addition of a functional homopolymer induces disorder-to-order transition in commercially available Pluronic surfactant melts. This approach may facilitate the use of amphiphilic surfactants in the industrial fabrication of structured nanomaterials.

    2. Length Fractionation of Carbon Nanotubes Using Centrifugation (pages 1609–1613)

      Jeffrey A. Fagan, Matthew L. Becker, Jaehun Chun and Erik K. Hobbie

      Article first published online: 15 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702353

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      Scalable separation of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs)by length and chirality is critical to the adaptation of these materials for applications. Ultracentrifugation of SWCNTs within a density gradient produces chiral separation of the NTs, and it is shown here that ultracentrifugation can also be used to produce length fractionated SWCNTs by exploiting their transient motion in response to applied centripetal acceleration.

    3. Orthogonally Bifunctional Fluorescent Zeolite-L Microcrystals (pages 1614–1618)

      Michael Busby, Hannes Kerschbaumer, Gion Calzaferri and Luisa De Cola

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702354

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      Microcrystals of zeolite L are functionalized with two different fluorescent dyes in a spatially resolved manner. The multiple functionalities and the selective derivatization of the channel entrances and of the coat of the zeolites result in interesting photophysical behavior as well as potential uses. The concept shown for the dyes can in principle be applied to any type of molecule.

    4. Substrate-Independent Layer-by-Layer Assembly by Using Mussel-Adhesive-Inspired Polymers (pages 1619–1623)

      Haeshin Lee, Yuhan Lee, Andrea R. Statz, Junsung Rho, Tae Gwan Park and Phillip B. Messersmith

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702378

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      A new method for creating layer-by-layer (LbL) assembled films on any substrate using polymers inspired by the high catechol content of mussel adhesive proteinsis presented. Catechol-derivatized polymers permit LbL assembly on challenging substrates without prior surface preparation. Catechol groups incorporated into the LbL film induce the reduction of silver ions to metallic silver when immersedin an aqueous metal salt solution, providing antibacterial properties.

    5. Water-Soluble Polyfluorenes as an Electron Injecting Layer in PLEDs for Extremely High Quantum Efficiency (pages 1624–1629)

      Seung-Hwan Oh, Doojin Vak, Seok-In Na, Tae-Woo Lee and Dong-Yu Kim

      Article first published online: 15 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702229

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      A cationic water-soluble polyfluorene containing ion-transporting side groups and mobile metal ions is synthesized. The material is used as an electron injection layer in polymer light-emitting diodes with high-work-function Al cathodes. The devices show high quantum efficiencies (see figure), with a maximum external quantum efficiency of 4.8%, approaching the theoretical maximum external quantum efficiency of about 5%.

    6. You have free access to this content
      Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoworms for Tumor Targeting and Imaging (pages 1630–1635)

      Ji-Ho Park, Geoffrey von Maltzahn, Lianglin Zhang, Michael P. Schwartz, Erkki Ruoslahti, Sangeeta N. Bhatia and Michael J. Sailor

      Article first published online: 11 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200800004

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The synthesis, in vitro, and in vivo behavior of tumor-homing magnetic nanoworms (NW) are described. The particles consist of a chainlike aggregation of iron oxide (IO) cores in a dextran coating. When conjugated with a tumor-targeting peptide, they interact more effectively with a tumor-based target in vitro relative to spherical nanoparticles. Untargeted NW display similar in vivo circulation times and enhanced passive accumulation in mouse xenograft tumors relative to untargeted spherical IO nanoparticles.

    7. Integrated Direct DNA/Protein Patterning and Microfabrication by Focused Ion Beam Milling (pages 1636–1643)

      Jie Jiang, Xiaomin Li, Wing Cheung Mak and Dieter Trau

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701415

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      Single and binary component patterning and integrated microfabrication of biomolecules, such as DNA and proteins, can be achieved by focused ion-beam (FIB) biolithography. Well-defined micropatterns are obtained by FIB milling on biomolecules immobilized on SiO2 wafers and protected by a thin Au film. The retention of biofunctionality is excellent (68–90%) and a feature size of down to 500 nm can be achieved for the patterns without significant loss of functionality.

    8. Nanowire-Based High-Performance “Micro Fuel Cells”: One Nanowire, One Fuel Cell (pages 1644–1648)

      Caofeng Pan, Hui Wu, Cheng Wang, Bo Wang, Lu Zhang, Zhida Cheng, Ping Hu, Wei Pan, Zhaoying Zhou, Xing Yang and Jing Zhu

      Article first published online: 11 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200700515

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      A micrometer-sized fuel cell based on Nafion/poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) nanowires is presented. The high-performance micro fuel cell containing a single NPNW proved easy to fabricate and delivered reproducible results. Values for the open-circuit voltage, maximum current-density, and power density were orders of magnitude higher than those of traditional fuel cells (see figure). Micro fuel cell assemblies may have future applications in integrated self-powered nanodevices.

    9. Optofluidic Assembly of Colloidal Photonic Crystals with Controlled Sizes, Shapes, and Structures (pages 1649–1655)

      Shin-Hyun Kim, Seog-Jin Jeon, Gi-Ra Yi, Chul-Joon Heo, Jae Hoon Choi and Seung-Man Yang

      Article first published online: 15 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200703022

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      Various structural motifs of colloidal crystals are prepared by UV-induced consolidation over fast time scales. Our strategy with a high-throughput optofluidic technique allows unprecedented control over the 3D organization of the colloids, as well as the combination of different materials over multiple length scales, thus expanding the potential for specific applications such as e-papers and light emission modulators.

    10. Size-Controlled Ex-nihilo Ferromagnetism in Capped CdSe Quantum Dots (pages 1656–1660)

      Mohindar S. Seehra, Prasanta Dutta, Sonnathi Neeleshwar, Yang-Yuan Chen, Cheng Lung Chen, Shang Wei Chou, Chia Chun Chen, Chung-Li Dong and Ching-Lin Chang

      Article first published online: 15 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702382

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      Hysteresis loops in D = 1.8 nm CdSe-TOPO nanoparticles show ferromagnetism at 5 K and 300 K. Charge transfer from Cd to the Cd–O bond is shown by arrow in the Fourier transforms amplitudes of the EXAFS k2χ data at the Cd K-edge in the smaller 2.8 and 4.1 nm particles. This charge transfer produces holes in the Cd 4d band yielding ferromagnetism varying as 1/D with magnetic moment µ = 0.0075 µB per Cd surface atom.

    11. Nanowire Waveguides and Ultraviolet Lasers Based on Small Organic Molecules (pages 1661–1665)

      Yong Sheng Zhao, Aidong Peng, Hongbing Fu, Ying Ma and Jiannian Yao

      Article first published online: 15 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200800123

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      Single crystalline nanowires of 2,4,5-triphenylimidazole, a small organic functional compound, are prepared by adsorbent-assisted physical vapor deposition. As-prepared nanowires are shown to propagate multimode UV light and serve as single wire active optical waveguides and optically driven ultraviolet lasers (see figure).

    12. Encapsulation and Growth of Gold Nanoparticles in Thermoresponsive Microgels (pages 1666–1670)

      Rafael Contreras-Cáceres, Ana Sánchez-Iglesias, Matthias Karg, Isabel Pastoriza-Santos, Jorge Pérez-Juste, Jessica Pacifico, Thomas Hellweg, Antonio Fernández-Barbero and Luis M. Liz-Marzán

      Article first published online: 11 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200800064

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      Gold nanoparticles are encapsulatedwithin thermoresponsive pNIPAMmigrogels through an easy two-stepprotocol. The core/shell structure ofthe composite is characterized by TEM,AFM, PCS, and UV-vis spectroscopy. The restricted environment and thehigh porosity of the microgel shell arestudied through the overgrowth of thegold core.

    13. Dendrimer-Functionalized Shell-crosslinked Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for In-Vivo Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Tumors (pages 1671–1678)

      Xiangyang Shi, Su He Wang, Scott D. Swanson, Song Ge, Zhengyi Cao, Mary E. Van Antwerp, Kevin J. Landmark and James R. Baker Jr

      Article first published online: 11 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702770

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      A powerful magnetic nanoprobe with folic acid (FA)-targeting ligands is fabricated by dendrimer functionalization of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) precoated with crosslinkable and biocompatible polymer multilayer shells. This magnetic probe allows for magnetic resonance imaging of FA receptor-overexpressing tumor cells in vitro and of an early-stage tumor model in vivo (see picture).

    14. Polymer Transfer Printing: Application to Layer Coating, Pattern Definition, and Diode Dark Current Blocking (pages 1679–1683)

      Lichun Chen, Patrick Degenaar and Donal D. C. Bradley

      Article first published online: 15 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702304

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      Fabrication of polymer multilayer structures has previously been difficult to achieve due to the need for solvent orthogonality to ensure that sequential deposition does not damage any underlying layers. In this paper we report an alternative approach based on a stamp transfer printing process. We demonstrate its suitability for uniform and patterned multilayer deposition (c.f. figure) and use it as a means to engineer enhanced performance photodiode structures.

    15. Two-Dimensional Patterning of Flexible Designs with High Half-Pitch Resolution by Using Block Copolymer Lithography (pages 1684–1689)

      Toru Yamaguchi and Hiroshi Yamaguchi

      Article first published online: 5 MAY 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702546

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      A two-dimensional patterning method that allows for flexible designs is demonstrated by combining bottom-up diblock copolymer self-assembly with top-down electron beam lithography (EBL), which increases the applicability of block copolymer lithography to nanodevice fabrication. Both bent lamellae and concentric cylinders (see figure) can be formed between the intentionally designed 2D EBL guiding patterns, and can be successfully transferred to a semiconductor substrate with a 16 nm half-pitch resolution.

    16. A Microfluidic Conjugated-Polymer Sensor Chip (pages 1690–1694)

      Soo-Han Eo, Simon Song, Bora Yoon and Jong-Man Kim

      Article first published online: 11 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200703007

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      A new, microfluidic polydiacetylene (PDA) sensor system based on the hydrodynamic focusing principle is developed. Narrow fluorescent bands are observed when the focused stream of a PDA solution contacts the sheath flows of cyclodextrin (CD) receptor molecules (see figure). The system allows for continuous and rapid monitoring of molecular recognition events.

    17. A Black Perylene Bisimide Super Gelator with an Unexpected J-Type Absorption Band (pages 1695–1698)

      Frank Würthner, Christoph Bauer, Vladimir Stepanenko and Shiki Yagai

      Article first published online: 11 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702935

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      Self-assembled nanofibers of a chiral core-unsubstituted perylene bisimide dye exhibit an almost black color, which can be attributed to an unusual packing motif based on slipped J-type aggregation.

    18. Self-Assembly of Pseudoperiodic Arrays of Nanoislands on YSZ-(001) (pages 1699–1705)

      Michael D. Rauscher, Andrew Boyne, Suliman A. Dregia and Sheikh A. Akbar

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701383

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      A planar film of gadolinia-doped ceria (GDC) was deposited on the (100) surface of an yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) single crystal substrate. Upon annealing, the film breaks up into an array of nanoislands (see figure) due to stress driven instability, providing an inexpensive route to the formation of ordered nanoarrays.

    19. Highly Conductive Carbon-Nanotube/Graphite-Oxide Hybrid Films (pages 1706–1709)

      Dongyu Cai, Mo Song and Chenxi Xu

      Article first published online: 5 MAY 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702602

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      Conductive hybrid carbon nanotube (CNT( films are prepared by a new and simple method. Thee graphite oxide nanoplatelet/carbon-nanotube hybrid films exhibit an extremely low square resistance. The SEM image shows the surface morphology, and reveals that one-dimensional carbon nanotubes form a conductive percolated network by covering the two-dimensional graphite oxide nanoplatelets.

    20. When “Metal Atom Clusters” Meet ZnO Nanocrystals: A ((n-C4H9)4N)2Mo6Br14@ZnO Hybrid (pages 1710–1715)

      Fabien Grasset, Yann Molard, Stéphane Cordier, Fréderick Dorson, Michel Mortier, Christiane Perrin, Maryline Guilloux-Viry, Toshio Sasaki and Hajime Haneda

      Article first published online: 15 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701845

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      Preparation and characterization of a luminescent hybrid nanocomposite, ( (n-C4H9)4N)2Mo6Br14@ZnO, is achieved by using a straightforward fabrication process. The hybrid nanocomposite can be applied both under organosol and solid-state conditions. PL experiments show that the intrinsic photophysical properties of the cluster anion [Mo6Br14]2− are not affected by its inclusion in the ZnO organosol. The obtained nanocomposite can be applied as a versatile luminescent nanomaterial with emissions ranging from 430 to 850 nm.

    21. Facile One-Step Growth and Patterning of Aligned Squaraine Nanowires via Evaporation-Induced Self-Assembly (pages 1716–1720)

      Chengyi Zhang, Xiujuan Zhang, Xiaohong Zhang, Xia Fan, Jiansheng Jie, Jack C. Chang, Chun-Sing Lee, Wenjun Zhang and Shuit-Tong Lee

      Article first published online: 15 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200703142

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      Single-crystal squaraine dye nanowires are prepared on solid substrates by solvent evaporation. The nanowires can self-assemble into aligned arrays and patterns on substrates in parallel stripes. This simple one-step method for growth and patterning of aligned organic nanostructures would facilitate easy and low-cost fabrication of organic devices with one-dimensional nanostructures, especially for the fabrication of parallel arrays of devices.

    22. Synthesis and Single-Particle Optical Detection of Low-Polydispersity Plasmonic-Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles (pages 1721–1726)

      JitKang Lim, Alexander Eggeman, Frederick Lanni, Robert D. Tilton and Sara A. Majetich

      Article first published online: 15 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702196

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      The synthesis, magnetic characterization, and optical properties of nanoparticles with iron oxide cores and gold shells are presented. The nanoparticles are superparamagnetic at room temperature and can be reversibly collected by a permanent magnet. They display a localized surface plasmon resonance peak at 605 nm, and their large scattering cross-section allows them to be individually resolved in darkfield optical microscopy as they undergo Brownian motion in aqueous suspension.

    23. Precursor-Controlled Formation of Novel Carbon/Metal and Carbon/Metal Oxide Nanocomposites (pages 1727–1731)

      Linjie Zhi, Yong-Sheng Hu, Bassem El Hamaoui, Xuan Wang, Ingo Lieberwirth, Ute Kolb, Joachim Maier and Klaus Müllen

      Article first published online: 15 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702654

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      Precursor-controlled thermolysis has been developed to specifically prepare structured carbonaceous materials (see figure) by using simple, but structurally defined, organic–cobalt complexes as starting compounds. The carbon–metal nanocomposites show excellent lithium storage properties as an anode material in lithium-ion batteries after controllable oxidation. They may also be useful as catalysts for fuel cells and other heterocatalytic reactions and as sensors for detecting chemicals and biomaterials.

    24. Microcantilevers with Nanochannels (pages 1732–1737)

      Pyung-Soo Lee, Junghyun Lee, Nayoung Shin, Kun-Hong Lee, Dongkyu Lee, Sangmin Jeon, Dukhyun Choi, Woonbong Hwang and Hyunchul Park

      Article first published online: 11 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701490

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      Novel microcantilevers withnanochannels fabricated from anodicaluminum oxide (AAO) are described. Cantilevers based on AAO canprecisely control the dimensions ofthe nanochannels and provide surface areas several orders of magnitudelarger than conventional siliconcantilevers with flat surfaces.

    25. Superelastic and Spring Properties of Si3N4 Microcoils (pages 1738–1743)

      Chuanbao Cao, Hongli Du, Yajie Xu, Hesun Zhu, Taihua Zhang and Rong Yang

      Article first published online: 11 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701021

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      Silicon nitride with helical structure was prepared on a large scale by CVD. On the microscale, these coiled Si3N4 ceramics still possess superelasticity and can recover their original shapes after cyclic loadings without noticeable deformations. These results suggest helical microcoils could have potential in microdevices for MEMS, motors, electromagnets, generators, and related equipment.

    26. On the Limited Operational Lifetime of Light-Emitting Electrochemical Cells (pages 1744–1749)

      Thomas Wågberg, P. Ralph Hania, Nathaniel D. Robinson, Joon-Ho Shin, Piotr Matyba and Ludvig Edman

      Article first published online: 29 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702595

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      Light-emitting electrochemical cells offer efficient light-emission but suffer from short operational lifetimes. The latter is demonstrated to stem from photoinduced chemical reactions involving the conjugated polymer in the light-emitting p–n junction region, as evidenced by, e.g., optical and Raman microscopy (see figure). It is possible to alleviate the extent of these side reactions, and accordingly improve the operational lifetime, by improved heat control of the junction region.

    27. Direct Real-Space Observation of Stochastic Behavior in Domain Nucleation Process on a Nanoscale (pages 1750–1754)

      Mi-Young Im, Peter Fischer, Dong-Hyun Kim, Kyeong-Dong Lee, Sung-Hyun Lee and Sung-Chul Shin

      Article first published online: 11 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702034

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      Stochastic behavior of nucleationprocess during magnetization reversalon a nanoscale in a nanogranularCoCrPt alloy film is directly observedutilizing magnetic soft X-raytransmission microscopy, whichprovides a spatial resolution of 15 nm.Thermal fluctuations in the orientationof the magnetic moments of the grainsplay a dominant role for the stochasticnature of domain nucleation in this system.

    28. A One-Step Approach to the Synthesis of ZrO2-Modified TiO2 Nanotubes in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (pages 1755–1759)

      Rahima A. Lucky and Paul A. Charpentier

      Article first published online: 11 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702287

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      Zr-TiO2 nanotubes are synthesized viaa new surfactant-free sol-gel route in supercritical CO2. The morphology of the Zr-TiO2 nanotubes can be tailored by changing either the concentration of the starting materials or the acid-to-metal-alkoxide ratio. This synthesis procedure is simple and scaleable, using mild reaction conditions and a green solvent, and provides a high yield and high-quality nanotubes (see figure).

    29. A Facile Synthetic Route for the Preparation of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanorods and Nanorices with Tunable Surface Functionality (pages 1760–1765)

      Aldo F. Rebolledo, Oscar Bomatí-Miguel, José F. Marco and Pedro Tartaj

      Article first published online: 15 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701782

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      A simple procedure is used to prepare anisometric iron oxide nanoparticlesexhibiting superparamagnetic behavior. The figure shows the nanorod/nanorice morphology of these novel structures. Superparamagnetism is engineered in these structures by favoring thermally activated processes by adopting small particle sizes, introducing defects, and doping with cations. Positively and negatively charged particles are obtained by varying the surface coating.

    30. High-Performance Programmable Memory Devices Based on Hyperbranched Copper Phthalocyanine Polymer Thin Films (pages 1766–1771)

      Seungchel Choi, Sang-Hyun Hong, Shin Hyo Cho, Samdae Park, Su-Moon Park, Ohyun Kim and Moonhor Ree

      Article first published online: 15 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702147

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      Electrically programmable fuse-type polymer memory devices based on hyperbranched copper phthalocyanine polymer thin films are fabricated. The devices have novel write-once-read-many (WORM) memory characteristics, with a high ON/OFF current ratio (of 106) and a high electrical stability, thus opening up the possibility of a low-cost mass production of high-performance, nonvolatile polymer memory devices.

    31. Individual Water-Filled Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes as Hydroelectric Power Converters (pages 1772–1776)

      Yuanchun Zhao, Li Song, Ke Deng, Zheng Liu, Zengxing Zhang, Yanlian Yang, Chen Wang, Haifang Yang, Aizi Jin, Qiang Luo, Changzhi Gu, Sishen Xie and Lianfeng Sun

      Article first published online: 11 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702956

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      A voltage difference is detected in the “generator” part of individual water-filled SWNTs when a current is applied on their “motor” part. It is suggested that the measured voltage difference reveals a newly induced electromotive force, which is generated by a water flow inside the SWNT. The water molecules in the nanotube channel are in turn dragged to flow by the current applied on the “motor” part.

    32. Large-Scale Synthesis of Nitrogen-Rich Carbon Nitride Microfibers by Using Graphitic Carbon Nitride as Precursor (pages 1777–1781)

      Yuanchun Zhao, Zheng Liu, Weiguo Chu, Li Song, Zengxing Zhang, Dongli Yu, Yongjun Tian, Sishen Xie and Lianfeng Sun

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702230

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      One-dimensional structures of nitrogen-rich carbon nitride are synthesized via a thermal evaporation process. The C[BOND]N atomic rings (s-triazine and/or tri-s-triazine) present in the precursor remain stable during the thermal evaporation and vapor transfer. They act as basic building blocks during the microstructure assembly; thus ensuring a high nitrogen content in the final product.

    33. Structural Evolution of Superconductor Nanowires in Biopolymer Gels (pages 1782–1786)

      Zoe A. C. Schnepp, Stuart C. Wimbush, Stephen Mann and Simon R. Hall

      Article first published online: 15 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702679

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      A simple synthesis of superconductor nanowires (see figure) is carried out by rational design of the synthetic protocol. This technique is based on the selection of a component (in this case BaCO3) that remains invariant throughout the synthesis. A biopolymer matrix ensures antisintering of BaCO3 nanoparticles, leading to single-crystal outgrowth of the superconductor in this most technologically useful of morphologies.

    34. Carbon–Inorganic Hybrid Materials: The Carbon-Nanotube/TiO2 Interface (pages 1787–1793)

      Dominik Eder and Alan H. Windle

      Article first published online: 15 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702835

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      A nondestructive, simple process for the synthesis of CNT–TiO2 and various other hybrid materials, using benzyl alcohol as surfactant (see figure), is described. ππ interactions enable the use of pristine CNTs without the need of covalent functionalization. Furthermore, benzyl alcohol acts as a growth inhibitor to produce very small and uniform rutile nanocrystals without too great a reduction of the anatase to rutile transformation.

    35. The Growth of Complex Nanostructures: Synergism of Dipolar Force and Stacking-Defects in Anisotropic Self-Assembly (pages 1794–1798)

      Xueyun Gao, Gengmei Xing, Weiguo Chu, Xingjie Liang, Yuliang Zhao, Long Jing, Hui Yuan, Yanyan Cui and Jinquan Dong

      Article first published online: 11 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702900

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      Nanocrystalline gold dendrimers with multiple generations of branching are produced by the fusion of gold nanoparticles along {111} planes induced by dipolar forces generated upon plasmon excitation. Branching in these structures originates from the imperfect fusion of gold nanoparticles onto growing gold structures due to the introduction of stacking faults, as schematically illustrated in the figure.

  5. Index

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Communications
    6. Index
    1. Author Index and Subject Index Adv. Mater. 9/2008 (pages 1799–1800)

      Article first published online: 5 MAY 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200890036

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