Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 21 Issue 10‐11

March 20, 2009

Volume 21, Issue 10-11

Pages 1027–1200

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Essay
    7. Review
    8. Progress Report
    9. Progress Reports
    10. Communications
    11. Research News
    12. Index
    1. Single-Molecule Imaging: Defocused Wide-field Imaging Unravels Structural and Temporal Heterogeneity in Complex Systems (Adv. Mater. 10–11/2009)

      Peter Dedecker, Benoît Muls, Ania Deres, Hiroshi Uji-i, Jun-ichi Hotta, Michel Sliwa, Jean-Philippe Soumillion, Klaus Müllen, Jörg Enderlein and Johan Hofkens

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200990034

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      The front cover shows an artist's impression of a conjugated polyfluorene polymer doped with perylene-diimide fluorophores. The blue luminescence of the fluorenes is transferred to the PDI moieties, allowing spectral tuning of the emission. This process is difficult to quantify due to the large structural freedom of the polymer chains. In their article on p. 1079, Johan Hofkens and co-workers describe how single-molecule imaging can tackle this complexity.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Essay
    7. Review
    8. Progress Report
    9. Progress Reports
    10. Communications
    11. Research News
    12. Index
    1. Two-Step Energy Transfer: Energy Transfer in Fluorescent Nanofibers Embedding Dye-Loaded Zeolite L Crystals (Adv. Mater. 10–11/2009)

      Varun Vohra, André Devaux, Le-Quyenh Dieu, Guido Scavia, Marinella Catellani, Gion Calzaferri and Chiara Botta

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200990035

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      The inside cover displays a confocal image of electroluminescent polymeric nanofibers embedding dye-loaded zeolite L crystals obtained by electrospinning. Varun Vohra and co-workers show on p. 1146 that such nanofibers exhibit a two-step energy transfer (FRET) from the polymer to the dye molecule inside the zeolites. The stopcock molecule present at the channel entrances is the key to this two-step energy transfer.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Essay
    7. Review
    8. Progress Report
    9. Progress Reports
    10. Communications
    11. Research News
    12. Index
  4. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Essay
    7. Review
    8. Progress Report
    9. Progress Reports
    10. Communications
    11. Research News
    12. Index
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      Taming Complexity: From Supramolecules to Suprafunctions (pages 1037–1040)

      Paolo Samorì, Franco Cacialli, Giovanni Marletta, Roberto Faria and Mario Ruben

      Article first published online: 23 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200900161

  5. Essay

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Essay
    7. Review
    8. Progress Report
    9. Progress Reports
    10. Communications
    11. Research News
    12. Index
    1. The European Science Foundation Promotes Excellence in Materials Science Research (pages 1041–1042)

      Antonella di Trapani

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200900164

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      The European Science Foundation (ESF) with its 34 year history in funding scientific networking activities that span across European borders has been the instigator of several programs within the field of materials science. The main results of these programs have made a real impact in the field, and are contributing to a new class of researchers that will be the leaders of the European Research Area.

  6. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Essay
    7. Review
    8. Progress Report
    9. Progress Reports
    10. Communications
    11. Research News
    12. Index
    1. Nanopatterning Soluble Multifunctional Materials by Unconventional Wet Lithography (pages 1043–1053)

      Massimiliano Cavallini, Cristiano Albonetti and Fabio Biscarini

      Article first published online: 19 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200801979

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      The use of unconventional wet lithographies in the fabrication of small and regularly spaced nanostructures of soluble functional materials, including molecules oligomers, macromolecules, polymers, nanoparticles, clusters, and more generally, soft matter, is reviewed. This is important because most of the functional materials are synthesized in solution or are soluble.

  7. Progress Report

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Essay
    7. Review
    8. Progress Report
    9. Progress Reports
    10. Communications
    11. Research News
    12. Index
    1. Atomic-Level Studies of Molecular Self-Assembly on Metallic Surfaces (pages 1055–1066)

      Giulia Tomba, Lucio Colombi Ciacchi and Alessandro De Vita

      Article first published online: 2 MAR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200802610

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      Precise control over the self-assembly of functional supramolecular architectures on metallic substrates requires highly detailed information, which is more and more extensively accessed through the combined use of theory and experiments. We briefly report on recent developments in the study and selection of suitable building blocks and binding motifs.

    2. Polyphenylene-Based Materials: Control of the Electronic Function by Molecular and Supramolecular Complexity (pages 1067–1078)

      Bruno Schmaltz, Tanja Weil and Klaus Müllen

      Article first published online: 23 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200802016

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      The design of polyphenylene-based materials for electronic and opto-electronic applications is addressed in this Progress Report. The possibilities to achieve the desired function for electronics by controlling the complexity of organic molecules at the molecular and supramolecular level are particularly highlighted.

  8. Progress Reports

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Essay
    7. Review
    8. Progress Report
    9. Progress Reports
    10. Communications
    11. Research News
    12. Index
    1. Defocused Wide-field Imaging Unravels Structural and Temporal Heterogeneity in Complex Systems (pages 1079–1090)

      Peter Dedecker, Benoît Muls, Ania Deres, Hiroshi Uji-i, Jun-ichi Hotta, Michel Sliwa, Jean-Philippe Soumillion, Klaus Müllen, Jörg Enderlein and Johan Hofkens

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200801873

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      Revealing heterogeneity in macromolecular systems such as polymer matrices is difficult to achieve using traditional methods, but is highly suited to single-molecule imaging. In this Progress Report we discuss some approaches that can provide detailed information on the structure and dynamics of such systems. In particular, we focus on a recent technique, defocused wide-field imaging, which provides the position and orientation of a single molecule, and how this can be applied to explore phenomena such as polymer dynamics, nanoscale structuring, and energy transfer.

    2. Semiconducting Thienothiophene Copolymers: Design, Synthesis, Morphology, and Performance in Thin-Film Organic Transistors (pages 1091–1109)

      Iain McCulloch, Martin Heeney, Michael L. Chabinyc, Dean DeLongchamp, R. Joseph Kline, Michael Cölle, Warren Duffy, Daniel Fischer, David Gundlach, Behrang Hamadani, Rick Hamilton, Lee Richter, Alberto Salleo, Maxim Shkunov, David Sparrowe, Steven Tierney and Weimin Zhang

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200801650

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      Thienothiophene semiconducting polymers can exhibit a planar backbone conformation, leading to highly crystalline structures, often with good orientation and inter-grain alignment. This thin-film microstructure is optimal in achieving high charge-carrier mobilities in organic field-effect transistors.

  9. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Essay
    7. Review
    8. Progress Report
    9. Progress Reports
    10. Communications
    11. Research News
    12. Index
    1. Rough and Fine Tuning of Metal Work Function via Chemisorbed Self-Assembled Monolayers (pages 1111–1114)

      Maria L. Sushko and Alexander L. Shluger

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200801654

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      The sign of the monolayer-induced metal work function change is mainly determined by the relative polarizabilities of the head- and tail-groups of the molecules, while its magnitude can be finely tuned by adjusting the strength of depolarization in the SAM, which depends on the choice of length of the nonpolarizable spacer between the polar groups.

    2. Blue-Gap Poly(p-phenylene vinylene)s with Fluorinated Double Bonds: Interplay Between Supramolecular Organization and Optical Properties in Thin Films (pages 1115–1120)

      Maria Losurdo, Maria M. Giangregorio, Pio Capezzuto, Antonio Cardone, Carmela Martinelli, Gianluca M. Farinola, Francesco Babudri, Francesco Naso, Michael Büchel and Giovanni Bruno

      Article first published online: 12 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200802269

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      Blue-light-emitting poly(p-phenylene vinylene)s with fluorinated vinylene units are presented. It is demonstrated that self-aggregation governs the strength and polarization of the absorption spectra of thin films of these polymers. This indicates that self-assembly of the polymer chains in the films provides a means of tuning the electronic and optical properties of the π-conjugated systems.

    3. Hyperbranched Polymers for Photolithographic Applications – Towards Understanding the Relationship between Chemical Structure of Polymer Resin and Lithographic Performances (pages 1121–1125)

      Christos L. Chochos, Esma Ismailova, Cyril Brochon, Nicolas Leclerc, Raluca Tiron, Claire Sourd, Philippe Bandelier, Johann Foucher, Hassan Ridaoui, Ali Dirani, Olivier Soppera, Damien Perret, Christophe Brault, Christophe A. Serra and Georges Hadziioannou

      Article first published online: 4 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200801715

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      A chemically amplified resist based on a hyperbranched polymer resin is demonstrated for the first time. The hyperbranched polymer is synthesized using the atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) technique, and resists prepared from this hyperbranched polymer present good pattern profiles and line-edge roughness (3σ) values comparable to those of the reference (commercial) resist.

    4. Supramolecular Organization of ssDNA-Templated π-Conjugated Oligomers via Hydrogen Bonding (pages 1126–1130)

      Mathieu Surin, Pim G. A. Janssen, Roberto Lazzaroni, Philippe Leclère, E. W. Meijer and Albertus P. H. J. Schenning

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200801701

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      The templated self-assembly of water-soluble π-conjugated molecules bearing a diaminotriazine moiety H-bonding to a single-strand oligothymine template leads to defined structures. We study these assemblies with molecular modeling, circular dichroism spectroscopy, and scanning probe microscopy, to get a better understanding of the factors governing the supramolecular organization and structural order.

    5. Molecular Tectonics at the Solid/Liquid Interface: Controlling the Nanoscale Geometry, Directionality, and Packing of 1D Coordination Networks on Graphite Surfaces (pages 1131–1136)

      Artur Ciesielski, Luc Piot, Paolo Samorì, Abdelaziz Jouaiti and Mir Wais Hosseini

      Article first published online: 4 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200801776

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      Supramolecular arrays composed of 1-D coordination networks on surfaces, with nanoscale control over both the geometry and the directionality, are achieved through the design and combination of organic tectons with metal complexes (CoCl2) or metal centers (Pd(BF4)2). Scanning tunneling microscope at the solid/liquid interface allows the visualization of long and shape-persistent arrays, with either linear or zig-zag geometries.

    6. Construction of Redispersible Polypyrrole Core–Shell Nanoparticles for Application in Polymer Electronics (pages 1137–1141)

      Jianjun Wang, Ling Sun, Konstantino Mpoukouvalas, Karen Lienkamp, Ingo Lieberwirth, Birgit Fassbender, Elmar Bonaccurso, Gunther Brunklaus, Andreas Muehlebach, Tilman Beierlein, Robert Tilch, Hans-Jurgen Butt and Gerhard Wegner

      Article first published online: 19 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200802787

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      Redispersible conductive core–shell nanoparticles with a polystyrene core and a polystyrene sulfonate shell loaded with polypyrrole (PPy) are constructed. The smooth conducting thin films assembled from the PPy core–shell nanoparticles show high transmittance in the visible range and adequate adhesion to the substrates. Performance of light-emitting devices with the conducting thin film as the hole injection layer is tested and compared with the one based on PEDOT/PSS.

    7. Microcontact Transfer Printing of Zeolite Monolayers (pages 1142–1145)

      Fabio Cucinotta, Zoran Popović, Emily A. Weiss, George M. Whitesides and Luisa De Cola

      Article first published online: 4 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200801751

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      A simple nonchemical functionalization method for transferring and patterning zeolite monolayers is described. Polarization experiments show that zeolite monolayers filled with two different dyes lead to different emission colors.

    8. Energy Transfer in Fluorescent Nanofibers Embedding Dye-Loaded Zeolite L Crystals (pages 1146–1150)

      Varun Vohra, André Devaux, Le-Quyenh Dieu, Guido Scavia, Marinella Catellani, Gion Calzaferri and Chiara Botta

      Article first published online: 15 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200801693

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      Electroluminescent polymeric nanofibers embedding dye-loaded zeolite L crystals are prepared. By exciting the polymer nanofiber, the energy is transferred to the fluorescent dyes inside the zeolite L channels through a two-step Förster resonant energy transfer process. This study opens new perspectives in the field of low-cost fabrication technology of flexible nanoscale OLEDs.

    9. Two-Photon Absorption-Related Properties of Functionalized BODIPY Dyes in the Infrared Range up to Telecommunication Wavelengths (pages 1151–1154)

      Pierre-Antoine Bouit, Kenji Kamada, Patrick Feneyrou, Gérard Berginc, Loïc Toupet, Olivier Maury and Chantal Andraud

      Article first published online: 19 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200801778

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      Aza boron-dipyrromethene dyes functionalized by extended donor-π-conjugated moieties present high potentialities for nonlinear applications in the telecommunication spectral range (1300–1500 nm). Their significant two-photon absorption cross-sections (σ2 > 600 GM) over this entire spectral range, combined with their high stability and solubility, allow nonlinear transmission experiments.

    10. Singlet Excitation Energy Harvesting and Triplet Emission in the Self-Assembled System Poly{1,4-phenylene-[9,9-bis (4-phenoxy-butylsulfonate)]fluorene-2,7-diyl} copolymer/tris(bipyridyl)ruthenium(II)in Aqueous Solution (pages 1155–1159)

      Hugh D. Burrows, Sofia M. Fonseca, Fernando B. Dias, J. Seixas de Melo, Andrew P. Monkman, Ullrich Scherf and Swapna Pradhan

      Article first published online: 18 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200801713

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      Tris(bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) self-assembles with the oppositely charged conjugated-polyelectrolyte poly{1,4-phenylene-[9,9-bis(4-phenoxy-butylsulfonate)]fluorene-2, 7-diyl} in aqueous solution in the presence of the nonionic surfactant C12E5. Rapid energy transfer is observed from the singlet state of the polyelectrolyte to the metal complex, leading to emission from the triplet state of the ruthenium complex.

    11. Luminescent Conjugated Polymer Nanowire Y-Junctions with On-Branch Molecular Anisotropy (pages 1160–1165)

      Deirdre O'Carroll, Daniela Iacopino and Gareth Redmond

      Article first published online: 4 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200801723

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      Polyfluorene nanowire Y-junctions synthesized by solution-assisted template wetting are shown to exhibit strongly polarized light emission from the branches and stems. It is demonstrated that the Y-junctions can be positioned, and branching angles may be adjusted, by micromanipulation. Nanowire junctions of this type could ultimately facilitate the incorporation of conjugated polymer materials into highly integrated electronic and photonic circuits and systems.

    12. High-Performance Polymer-Small Molecule Blend Organic Transistors (pages 1166–1171)

      Richard Hamilton, Jeremy Smith, Simon Ogier, Martin Heeney, John E. Anthony, Iain McCulloch, Janos Veres, Donal D. C. Bradley and Thomas D. Anthopoulos

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200801725

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      A double-gate device is used to demonstrate that a blended formulation of semiconducting small molecules and a polymer matrix can provide high electrical performance within thin-film field-effect transistors (OTFTs) with charge carrier mobilities of greater than 2 cm2 V−1 s−1, good device-to-device uniformity, and the potential to fabricate devices from routine printing techniques.

    13. Investigation of Charge-Carrier Injection in Ambipolar Organic Light-Emitting Field-Effect Transistors (pages 1172–1176)

      Martin Schidleja, Christian Melzer and Heinz von Seggern

      Article first published online: 19 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200801695

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      Organic light-emitting field-effect transistors provide a deeper insight into the physics of ambipolar devices. Here, the source and drain contacts are altered to investigate the influence of injection barriers on the performance of ambipolar field-effect transistors. The experimental results are compared to a straightforward numerical model.

    14. Dramatic Influence of the Electronic Structure on the Conductivity through Open- and Closed-Shell Molecules (pages 1177–1181)

      Núria Crivillers, Carmen Munuera, Marta Mas-Torrent, Claudia Simão, Stefan T. Bromley, Carmen Ocal, Concepció Rovira and Jaume Veciana

      Article first published online: 19 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200801707

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      The conductivity through two self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold based on the closed-and open-shell form of a polychlorotriphenylmethyl (PTM) derivative were investigated using 3D-mode conductive scanning force microscopy, and striking differences were observed, caused by their highly distinct electronic structure.

    15. Manipulation of Individual Carbon Nanotubes by Reconstructing the Intracellular Transport of a Living Cell (pages 1182–1186)

      Cerasela Zoica Dinu, Shyam Sundhar Bale, Douglas B. Chrisey and Jonathan S. Dordick

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200801721

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      We used kinesin motor protein and its microtubule track to transport multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) on engineered surfaces. Using a flow chamber, surface-adsorbed kinesins are shown to transport red-labeled microtubules loaded with green cargos of MWNTs. Our results establish a platform for assembling individually addressable MWNT nanostructures using microtubule templates.

  10. Research News

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Essay
    7. Review
    8. Progress Report
    9. Progress Reports
    10. Communications
    11. Research News
    12. Index
    1. Nanoindentation Studies Reveal Material Properties of Viruses (pages 1187–1192)

      Wouter H. Roos and Gijs J. L. Wuite

      Article first published online: 23 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200801709

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      Indenting viral capsids using AFM allows the determination of their material properties, which has widespread applicability in nanotechnology and medicine. Parameters such as the particle's Young's modulus and the threshold force for breaking are obtained from analyzing the force response upon indentation. The figure shows a bacteriophage capsid before and after breaking it in the course of a measurement.

    2. Solid-State Supramolecular Organization of Polythiophene Chains Containing Thienothiophene Units (pages 1193–1198)

      Patrick Brocorens, Antoine Van Vooren, Michael L. Chabinyc, Michael F. Toney, Maxim Shkunov, Martin Heeney, Iain McCulloch, Jérôme Cornil and Roberto Lazzaroni

      Article first published online: 11 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200801668

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      The excellent charge transport properties of a thiophene-derived polymer, poly(2,5-bis(3-alkylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene) (PBTTT), in thin films are explained by the size and orientation of the crystalline domains, and the relative orientation of the polymer chains within these domains. The results are obtained by combining simulation techniques with X-ray diffraction and NEXAFS experiments.

  11. Index

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Essay
    7. Review
    8. Progress Report
    9. Progress Reports
    10. Communications
    11. Research News
    12. Index

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