Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 22 Issue 45

December 1, 2010

Volume 22, Issue 45

Pages 5071–5216

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Corrections
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Research News
    1. Wearable Electronics: Woven Electronic Fibers with Sensing and Display Functions for Smart Textiles (Adv. Mater. 45/2010) (page 5071)

      Kunigunde Cherenack, Christoph Zysset, Thomas Kinkeldei, Niko Münzenrieder and Gerhard Tröster

      Version of Record online: 30 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201090145

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      The cover shows a close up of a woven smart textile (rolled up to demonstrate bendability) that combines thin-film electronic devices and commercial integrated circuits with plastic fibers, as reported on p. 5178 by Kunigunde Cherenack and co-workers. The LEDs are actuated to show the inherent electronic functionality of the textile. One can also see the sensor stripes next to the LED stripes in the textile.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Corrections
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Research News
    1. Cancer Therapeutics: Selenium-Carbon Bifunctional Nanoparticles for the Treatment of Malignant Mesothelioma (Adv. Mater. 45/2010) (page 5072)

      Love Sarin, Vanesa C. Sanchez, Aihui Yan, Agnes B. Kane and Robert H. Hurt

      Version of Record online: 30 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201090146

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      Malignant mesothelioma is an aggressive form of cancer typically associated with asbestos exposure and of possible concern following exposure to carbon nanotubes. The cover depicts elemental selenium nanoclusters nucleated on carbon nanoparticle carriers, which are shown to be highly effective in inducing death in malignant mesothelial cells in vitro by Robert Hurt, Agnes Kane, and co-workers on p. 5207.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Corrections
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Research News
  4. Corrections

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Corrections
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Research News
    1. You have free access to this content
    2. You have free access to this content
      Correction: Locally Resolved Core-Hole Screening, Molecular Orientation, and Morphology in Thin Films of Diindenoperylene Deposited on Au(111)Single Crystals (page 5081)

      Maria Benedetta Casu, Britt-Elfriede Schuster, Indro Biswas, Christoph Raisch, Helder Marchetto, Thomas Schmidt and Thomas Chassé

      Version of Record online: 30 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201090149

    3. You have free access to this content
      Correction: Electronic-Field Control of Two-Dimensional Electrons in Polymer-Gated-Oxide Semiconductor Heterostructures (page 5081)

      Masaki Nakano, Atsushi Tsukazaki, Akira Ohtomo, Kazunori Ueno, Shunsuke Akasaka, Hiroyuki Yuji, Ken Nakahara, Tomoteru Fukumura and Masashi Kawasaki

      Version of Record online: 30 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201090150

      This article corrects:
    4. You have free access to this content
      Correction: Flexible Fullerene Field-Effect Transistors Fabricated Through Solution Processing (page 5081)

      Chao-Feng Sung, Dhananjay Kekuda, Li Fen Chu, Yuh-Zheng Lee, Fang-Chung Chen, Meng-Chyi Wu and Chih-Wei Chu

      Version of Record online: 30 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201090151

      This article corrects:

      Flexible Fullerene Field-Effect Transistors Fabricated Through Solution Processing

      Vol. 21, Issue 47, 4845–4849, Version of Record online: 10 AUG 2009

    5. You have free access to this content
      Correction: The Langmuir-Blodgett Approach to Making Colloidal Photonic Crystals from Silica Spheres (page 5081)

      Maria Bardosova, Martyn E. Pemble, Ian M. Povey and Richard H. Tredgold

      Version of Record online: 30 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201090152

      This article corrects:

      The Langmuir-Blodgett Approach to Making Colloidal Photonic Crystals from Silica Spheres

      Vol. 22, Issue 29, 3104–3124, Version of Record online: 29 JUN 2010

  5. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Corrections
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Research News
    1. Nanosheets of Oxides and Hydroxides: Ultimate 2D Charge-Bearing Functional Crystallites (pages 5082–5104)

      Renzhi Ma and Takayoshi Sasaki

      Version of Record online: 5 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201001722

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      A huge number of cation-exchangeble layered metal oxides, as well as anion-exchangeable layered double hydroxides and layered rare-earth hydroxides, have been successfully exfoliated into nanosheets, the ultimate 2D charge-bearing functional crystallites. The current status of research on oxide and hydroxide nanosheets is reviewed, with emphasis on synthesis, characterization, novel physiochemical properties, and prospects for application.

  6. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Corrections
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Research News
    1. Revealing Buried Interfaces to Understand the Origins of Threshold Voltage Shifts in Organic Field-Effect Transistors (pages 5105–5109)

      Simon G. J. Mathijssen, Mark-Jan Spijkman, Anne-Marije Andringa, Paul A. van Hal, Iain McCulloch, Martijn Kemerink, René A. J. Janssen and Dago M. de Leeuw

      Version of Record online: 21 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201001865

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      The semiconductor of an organic field-effect transistor is stripped with adhesive tape, yielding an exposed gate dielectric, accessible for various characterization techniques. By using scanning Kelvin probe microscopy we reveal that trapped charges after gate bias stress are located at the gate dielectric and not in the semiconductor. Charging of the gate dielectric is confirmed by the fact that the threshold voltage shift remains, when a pristine organic semiconductor is deposited on the exposed gate dielectric of a stressed and delaminated field-effect transistor.

    2. Unidirectional Alignment of Lamellar Bilayer in Hydrogel: One-Dimensional Swelling, Anisotropic Modulus, and Stress/Strain Tunable Structural Color (pages 5110–5114)

      Md. Anamul Haque, Gen Kamita, Takayuki Kurokawa, Kaoru Tsujii and Jian Ping Gong

      Version of Record online: 13 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201002509

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      A novel anisotropic hydrogel, consisting of lamellar bilayers and a polymer network, with unidirectional alignment of the bilayer structure has been synthesized. The unidirectional orientation of bilayer in the gels leads to one-dimensional swelling, strong anisotropy in elastic modulus, and exhibits excellent visible color. The gel shows reversibly tunable structural color under mechanical stimulation and could be the basis for a deformation-based color display.

    3. Fabrication of n- and p-Type Organic Thin Film Transistors with Minimized Gate Overlaps by Self-Aligned Nanoimprinting (pages 5115–5119)

      Ursula Palfinger, Christoph Auner, Herbert Gold, Anja Haase, Johanna Kraxner, Thomas Haber, Meltem Sezen, Werner Grogger, Gerhard Domann, Georg Jakopic, Joachim R. Krenn and Barbara Stadlober

      Version of Record online: 24 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201001947

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      A nanoimprinting process that enables fabrication of self-aligned p- and n-type organic thin film transistors with small channel lengths is presented. Nanoimprint lithography with back-side exposure permit precise definition of the channel length down to the submicrometer regime and a diminutive gate to source/drain overlap. The self-aligned manufacturing process enables transistor setups with minimized electrode overlaps resulting in distinct decrease of parasitic capacitances and considerable increase in transition frequency. Fully functional small channel OTFTs with p- and n-type semiconductors are fabricated on glass as well as on flexible substrates with transition frequencies up to 400 kHz.

    4. Elements for Plasmonic Nanocircuits with Three-Dimensional Slot Waveguides (pages 5120–5124)

      Wenshan Cai, Wonseok Shin, Shanhui Fan and Mark L. Brongersma

      Version of Record online: 21 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201001440

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      A systematic analysis of passive elements for 3D plasmonic slot waveguides is numerically performed. The characteristics and optimization of these components are explored in detail. The elements discussed represent key building blocks that enable efficient routing of light in future photonic nanocircuits and on-chip optical links.

    5. Diving–Surfacing Cycle Within a Stimulus-responsive Smart Device Towards Developing Functionally Cooperating Systems (pages 5125–5128)

      Yongfeng Gao, Mengjiao Cheng, Baoling Wang, Zeguo Feng and Feng Shi

      Version of Record online: 8 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201001577

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      A functionally cooperating device has been fabricated by combining a pH-responsive surface with hydrogen peroxide-responsive platinum, which displays a diving–surfacing cycle towards mimicking a submarine. This smart device may open a new avenue to the research of nanoscience and bridge the gap between active nanomaterials and three-dimensional nanosystems or systems of systems.

    6. Nanoscopic Patterned Materials with Tunable Dimensions via Atomic Layer Deposition on Block Copolymers (pages 5129–5133)

      Qing Peng, Yu-Chih Tseng, Seth B. Darling and Jeffrey W. Elam

      Version of Record online: 8 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201002465

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      Selective self-limited interaction of metal precursors with self-assembled block copolymer substrates, combined with the unique molecular-level management of reactions enabled by the atomic layer deposition process, is presented as a promising controllable way to synthesize patterned nanomaterials (e.g., Al2O3 see Figure, TiO2, etc.) with uniform and tunable dimensions.

    7. External-Strain Induced Insulating Phase Transition in VO2 Nanobeam and Its Application as Flexible Strain Sensor (pages 5134–5139)

      Bin Hu, Yong Ding, Wen Chen, Dhaval Kulkarni, Yue Shen, Vladimir V. Tsukruk and Zhong Lin Wang

      Version of Record online: 14 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201002868

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      The insulating phase transition in a VO2 nanobeam when subjected to external-strain is utilized to fabricate a quick response time, highly reproducible, and high gauge factor strain sensor. Raman spectroscopy combined with electromechanical measurement reveals the working principle.

    8. Nucleophilic Substitution Reaction Based Layer-by-Layer Growth of Superparamagnetic Nanocomposite Films with High Nonvolatile Memory Performance (pages 5140–5144)

      Younghoon Kim, Chanwoo Lee, Inbo Shim, Dayang Wang and Jinhan Cho

      Version of Record online: 13 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201002142

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      Magnetic nanocomposite multilayers including magnetic nanoparticles are prepared using a nucleophilic substitution reaction between 2-bromo-2-methylpropionic acid (-BMPA) and amino (-NH2) groups. The assembly of magnetic nanoparticles in a nonpolar solvent induces densely packed adsorption, which significantly enhances the magnetic and nonvolatile memory properties of nanocomposite films.

    9. Ultrahigh-Performance Solar-Blind Photodetectors Based on Individual Single-crystalline In2Ge2O7 Nanobelts (pages 5145–5149)

      Liang Li, Pooi See Lee, Chaoyi Yan, Tianyou Zhai, Xiaosheng Fang, Meiyong Liao, Yasuo Koide, Yoshio Bando and Dmitri Golberg

      Version of Record online: 21 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201002608

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      Solar-blind photodetectors are designed from individual In2Ge2O7 nanobelts using a standard photolithography technique. The detectors demonstrated high sensitivity and selectivity towards the solar-blind spectrum, fast response and decay times ∼ 3 ms, high responsivity ∼ 3.9 × 105 A W−1, and high quantum efficiency ∼2.0 × 108%.

    10. Photoresist Templates for Wafer-Scale Defect-Free Evaporative Lithography (pages 5150–5153)

      Xiaosong Tang, Sean J. O’Shea and Ivan U. Vakarelski

      Version of Record online: 14 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201002644

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      A highly efficient evaporative lithography method for wafer-scale patterning of microwire networks is introduced. The method is based on the use of a photolithography defined photoresist as the template for the evaporative self-assembly of nanoparticles contained in liquid suspensions. An example application is given showing the patterning of conducting-transparent microwire coating composed of gold nanoparticles that outperform standard ITO coatings.

    11. Novel Core-Shell Sn-Cu Anodes for Lithium Rechargeable Batteries Prepared by a Redox-Transmetalation Reaction (pages 5154–5158)

      Min Gyu Kim, Soojin Sim and Jaephil Cho

      Version of Record online: 13 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201002480

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      Core-shell type nanoalloys in which the Cu atoms uniformly reside as a shell around a core of Sn nanoparticles are achieved by reacting Cu(acac)2 with tin nanoparticles. The core-shell Sn@Cu nanoparticles further demonstrate significantly improved rate capability at higher C rates than Sn@C nanoparticles.

    12. Self-Healing of Internal Damage in Synthetic Vascular Materials (pages 5159–5163)

      Andrew R. Hamilton, Nancy R. Sottos and Scott R. White

      Version of Record online: 24 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201002561

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      Vascular networks of microchannels (ca. 200 μm) are employed to deliver healing agents to regions of damage within an epoxy matrix material. Mechanical recovery from multiple cycles of damage is observed owing to the continuous supply of healing agents, and despite the intersection of crack damage with individual microchannels and subsequent disruption of the vascular network.

    13. Biointerface by Cell Growth on Layered Graphene–Artificial Peroxidase–Protein Nanostructure for In Situ Quantitative Molecular Detection (pages 5164–5167)

      Chun Xian Guo, Xin Ting Zheng, Zhi Song Lu, Xiong Wen Lou and Chang Ming Li

      Version of Record online: 27 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201001699

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      A smart multifunctional biointerface with dimensional compatibility and good electrical conductivity is constructed by growing human breast adenocarcinoma cells on layered graphene–artificial peroxidase–extracellular matrix protein and further used to in situ selectively and quantatively detect reactive oxygen species, for the first time discovering that the number of extracellular released hydrogen peroxide molecules is around 1011 per cell.

    14. Carboxymethylated Polyvinyl Alcohol Stabilizes Doped Ferrofluids for Biological Applications (pages 5168–5172)

      Monty Liong, Huilin Shao, Jered B. Haun, Hakho Lee and Ralph Weissleder

      Version of Record online: 21 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201002219

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      Highly magnetic MnFe2O4 nanocrystals (NCs) are coated with non-cross-linked carboxymethyl polyvinyl alcohol to produce conjugates that are highly stable under varying temperatures, pH, and ionic strengths. The polymer-coated NCs exhibit low nonspecific cell binding. They are also amenable to chemical linking with biomolecules, allowing for the efficient labeling of surface receptors on targeted cancer cells in vitro.

    15. Electrochemical Modulation of Photonic Metamaterials (pages 5173–5177)

      Li-Hua Shao, Matthias Ruther, Stefan Linden, Sabine Essig, Kurt Busch, Jörg Weissmüller and Martin Wegener

      Version of Record online: 11 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201002734

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      Thin gold split-ring resonators are exposed to an aqueous electrolyte. When varying the electrode potential by about 1 V, up to 55-THz shifts of the resonances centered at around 300 THz are observed. By systematically varying the electrode-potential window, reversible surface-charge effects can be separated from irreversible redistributions of gold atoms.

    16. Woven Electronic Fibers with Sensing and Display Functions for Smart Textiles (pages 5178–5182)

      Kunigunde Cherenack, Christoph Zysset, Thomas Kinkeldei, Niko Münzenrieder and Gerhard Tröster

      Version of Record online: 5 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201002159

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      Woven electronic circuits combining thin-film electronic devices and commercial integrated circuits with plastic fibers (e-fibers) have been developed. This technology serves as a platform to integrate a large variety of microelectronic circuits, sensors, and systems intimately within textile architectures using commercial manufacturing methods.

    17. Delayed Luminescence Spectroscopy of Organic Photovoltaic Binary Blend Films: Probing the Emissive Non-geminate Charge Recombination (pages 5183–5187)

      Panagiotis E. Keivanidis, Valentin Kamm, Clare Dyer-Smith, Weimin Zhang, Frédéric Laquai, Iain McCulloch, Donal D. C. Bradley and Jenny Nelson

      Version of Record online: 27 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201002389

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      Organic photovoltaics: Following the direct photoexcitation of the low-energy optical gap PDI component in the F8BT:PDI photovoltaic blend film (step 1), charge generation takes place (steps 2, 3). Non-geminate charge recombination (step 4) results in the generation of delayed luminescence (DL) in the μs time scale (step 5). The DL spectrum originates from an equilibrated charge-transfer (CT) state formed between the components of the composite. The F8BT–PDI CT complex has a ground state character (step 6).

    18. Aqueous-Phase Synthesis of Pt/CeO2 Hybrid Nanostructures and Their Catalytic Properties (pages 5188–5192)

      Taekyung Yu, Jie Zeng, Byungkwon Lim and Younan Xia

      Version of Record online: 7 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201002763

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      Pt/CeO2 hybrid nanostructures consisting of sub-3 nm Pt nanocrystals supported on octahedral CeO2 nanocrystals can be synthesized by in situ reduction of a Pt precursor in the presence of CeO2 octahedra. Pt/CeO2 hybrid nanostructures exhibit higher resistance to poisoning by the reaction product during the catalytic reduction of p-nitrophenol into p-aminophenol by NaBH4 as compared to the unsupported Pt nanocrystals.

    19. Electric-Field-Induced Resistive Switching in a Family of Mott Insulators: Towards a New Class of RRAM Memories (pages 5193–5197)

      Laurent Cario, Cristian Vaju, Benoit Corraze, Vincent Guiot and Etienne Janod

      Version of Record online: 18 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201002521

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      Flash memories (USB portable drives) are close to their miniaturization limits. The ultimate evolution of such devices is believed to exploit different concepts such as electronic phase transitions. Here we show that an electric field can trigger fast resistive switching in the fragile Mott insulators AM4X8 (A= Ga, Ge ; M = V, Nb, Ta; X = S, Se). This new type of resistive switching could lead to a new class of resistive random access memory (RRAM) with fast writing/erasing times (down to 50 ns) and resistance ratios ΔR/R of the order of 25% at room temperature.

    20. Moving to a Solid-State Configuration: A Valid Approach to Making Lithium-Sulfur Batteries Viable for Practical Applications (pages 5198–5201)

      Jusef Hassoun and Bruno Scrosati

      Version of Record online: 14 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201002584

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      Car charger: This work describes two types of solid-state lithium/sulfur batteries, one prepared in the fully charged state and the other in the fully discharged state. The batteries are tested in terms of capacity delivery and cycling life. The results show that both types have performances that make them potentially suitable as power sources for electric vehicles.

    21. Nitrogen-Containing Hydrothermal Carbons with Superior Performance in Supercapacitors (pages 5202–5206)

      Li Zhao, Li-Zhen Fan, Meng-Qi Zhou, Hui Guan, Suyan Qiao, Markus Antonietti and Maria-Magdalena Titirici

      Version of Record online: 22 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201002647

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      Microporous nitrogen-doped carbons produced by hydrothermal carbonization of biomass derivative followed by chemical activation showed excellent supercapacitive capacitance performance both in acid and base electrolytes.

    22. Selenium-Carbon Bifunctional Nanoparticles for the Treatment of Malignant Mesothelioma (pages 5207–5211)

      Love Sarin, Vanesa C. Sanchez, Aihui Yan, Agnes B. Kane and Robert H. Hurt

      Version of Record online: 21 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201002607

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      A novel selenium-carbon composite nanostructure is synthesized by heterogeneous nucleation of Se nanoclusters on the high-activity surfaces of liquid-crystal-derived carbon nanoparticles. This article evaluates the new Se/C bifunctional nanocomposite for chemotherapeutic applications relative to conventional selenium, exploring its potential as a mesothelioma chemotherapeutic agent.

  7. Research News

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Corrections
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Research News
    1. Ultrahigh Surface Area in Porous Solids (pages 5212–5216)

      James R. Holst and Andrew I. Cooper

      Version of Record online: 27 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201002440

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      The scope for obtaining extremely high surface areas in porous solids has broadened dramatically in the last ten years. Materials such as metal-organic frameworks, covalent organic frameworks, and organic polymers can now be prepared with measured surface areas the range 4500 to 6000 square meters per gram. This highlight charts the rapid growth in this area and points to potential applications as well as research challenges to be addressed. We also argue that surface area should be considered as just one property among many when considering practical applications, and that factors such as stability, cost, life-cycle analysis and synthetic ‘added-value’ may often dominate the prospects for supplanting more established sorbents such as activated carbons.

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