Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 22 Issue 47

December 14, 2010

Volume 22, Issue 47

Pages 5323–5430

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Communications
    7. Research News
    1. MESFET Electronics: Recent Progress on ZnO-Based Metal-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors and Their Application in Transparent Integrated Circuits (Adv. Mater. 47/2010) (page 5323)

      Heiko Frenzel, Alexander Lajn, Holger von Wenckstern, Michael Lorenz, Friedrich Schein, Zhipeng Zhang and Marius Grundmann

      Version of Record online: 13 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201090157

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      The cover image (designed by www.artkolchose.de) represents the transition from opaque(black) to transparent oxide electronics (white) using metal-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MESFET) and inverters based on ZnO. The cover foreground depicts a schematic circuit of simple MESFET inverters. On p. 5332. Heiko Frenzel, Alexander Lajn, and co-workers report on the excellent electronic properties of such devices, regarding mobility, on/off-ratio, gain and uncertainty level at low operating voltages, making numerous applications, such as head-up displays in windshields, transparent flatpanel TVs, and augmented-reality devices feasible.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Communications
    7. Research News
    1. Drug Delivery: Bypassing Multidrug Resistance in Cancer Cells with Biodegradable Polymer Capsules (Adv. Mater. 47/2010) (page 5324)

      Yan Yan, Christopher J. Ochs, Georgina K. Such, Joan K. Heath, Edouard C. Nice and Frank Caruso

      Version of Record online: 13 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201090158

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      The inside cover illustrates a pathway to bypass Pgp-mediated multidrug resistance in cancer cells through endocytosis of microcapsules (right), compared with drug effluxing (left), as reported in work by Frank Caruso and co-workers on p. 5398. Biodegradable polymer capsules conjugated with drug were prepared through click chemistry via layer-by-layer assembly. The incorporated drug is subsequently released after the internalization of microcapsules by intracellular enzymatic environment. This approach opens a generic way to challenge Pgp-mediated multidrug resistance.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Communications
    7. Research News
  4. Progress Report

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Communications
    7. Research News
    1. Recent Progress on ZnO-Based Metal-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors and Their Application in Transparent Integrated Circuits (pages 5332–5349)

      Heiko Frenzel, Alexander Lajn, Holger von Wenckstern, Michael Lorenz, Friedrich Schein, Zhipeng Zhang and Marius Grundmann

      Version of Record online: 27 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201001375

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      ZnO-based metal-semiconductor field-effect transistors and inverters have been developed in recent years as promising approach to transparent oxide electronics. Their excellent electronic properties, regarding mobility, on/off-ratio, gain and uncertainty level at low operating voltages, make numerous future applications, such as head-up displays in windshields, transparent flat-panel TVs, functional furniture with invisible electronics and augmented-reality devices feasible.

  5. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Communications
    7. Research News
    1. Superstrong Low-Resistant Carbon Nanotube–Carbide–Metal Nanocontacts (pages 5350–5355)

      Ming-Sheng Wang, Dmitri Golberg and Yoshio Bando

      Version of Record online: 7 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201003010

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      An in-situ TEM nanowelding process via Joule heating was used to achieve superstrong CNT-carbide-metal contacts, in which all shells of a multiwalled CNT contact the tungsten wire through the intermediate tungsten carbide layer. A remarkably high tensile strength (5–15GPa) and ultralow resistance(<1 kΩ) were documented for the heterojunctions, which were also sufficiently robust in CNT field-emission applications.

    2. Cooperative Infrared to Visible Up Conversion in Tb3+, Eu3+, and Yb3+ Containing Polymers (pages 5356–5360)

      Ignacio Hernández, Niranjeni Pathumakanthar, Peter B. Wyatt and William P. Gillin

      Version of Record online: 30 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201002674

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      Intense visible photoluminescence is observed in Yb0.7Tb0.3(PFBS)3 (PBFS = perfluorobutane-sulfonate) coordination polymers upon IR excitation as a result of cooperative up-conversion (UC) processes. These occur when two individually excited Yb3+ ions simultaneously combine their energy into a high-energy excited state of Tb3+.

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Tuning the Threshold Voltage in Organic Thin-Film Transistors by Local Channel Doping Using Photoreactive Interfacial Layers (pages 5361–5365)

      Marco Marchl, Matthias Edler, Anja Haase, Alexander Fian, Gregor Trimmel, Thomas Griesser, Barbara Stadlober and Egbert Zojer

      Version of Record online: 7 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201002912

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      The insertion of a thin photoacid generator layer between the dielectric and the active layer in organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) allows control of the threshold voltage through UV illumination by means of interfacial channel doping. All p-type organic inverters can be realized by combining an OTFT working in depletion mode and one operating in enhancement mode.

    4. Solution-Based In Situ Synthesis and Fabrication of Ultrasensitive CdSe Photoconductors (pages 5366–5369)

      Nelson E. Coates, Huiqiong Zhou, Stephan Krämer, Liang Li and Daniel Moses

      Version of Record online: 7 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201001150

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      A simplified novel solution-based in situ inorganic semiconductor synthesis and film fabrication method demonstrated for CdSe results in a bulk film composed of large particles. The film exhibits high photoconductive responsivity, detectivity, and signal bandwidth.

    5. De Novo Design of Silicon-Bridged Molecule Towards a Bipolar Host: All-Phosphor White Organic Light-Emitting Devices Exhibiting High Efficiency and Low Efficiency Roll-Off (pages 5370–5373)

      Shaolong Gong, Yonghua Chen, Chuluo Yang, Cheng Zhong, Jingui Qin and Dongge Ma

      Version of Record online: 22 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201002732

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      A molecular design strategy for a bipolar host material is demonstrated by incorporating both electron donor and electron acceptor into a silicon-bridged structure. A two-color, all phosphor and single-emitting-layer white OLED hosted by the new bipolar compound p-BISiTPA is fabricated. The device displays a high efficiency, with ηc, max of 51.8 cd A−1, ηp, max of 42.7 lm W−1 and ηext, max of 19.1%. Furthermore, the ηext is still as high as 17.4% at the luminance of 1000 cd m−2, with a rather low roll-off value of 8.9%.

    6. Extrinsic Corrugation-Assisted Mechanical Exfoliation of Monolayer Graphene (pages 5374–5377)

      Shuping Pang, Jan M. Englert, Hoi Nok Tsao, Yenny Hernandez, Andreas Hirsch, Xinliang Feng and Klaus Müllen

      Version of Record online: 25 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201002872

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      An extrinsic corrugation-assisted mechanical exfoliation process is introduced to fabricate ultra-large, patterned monolayer graphene on silicon substrates. This exfoliation method, without any contamination, offers not only an ideal alternative for the scalable deposition of monolayer graphene on silicon substrates, but also provides a promising basis for the construction of graphene-based integrated circuits.

    7. Nickel Nanocone-Array Supported Silicon Anode for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries (pages 5378–5382)

      Shichao Zhang, Zhijia Du, Ruoxu Lin, Tao Jiang, Guanrao Liu, Xiaomeng Wu and Dangsheng Weng

      Version of Record online: 14 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201003017

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      A unique design of a nickel nanocone-arrays supported silicon anode is introduced for high-power and long-life lithium-ion batteries. The nanostructured Si anodes show a high reversible capacity of around 2400 mAh g−1 (at 0.2C) and excellent cycling capability. They also exhibit an impressive high-rate capability and stable capacities of up to 1700 mAh g−1 at 1C and 1300 mAh g−1 at 2C.

    8. A Side-Chain Defunctionalization Approach Yields a Polymer Electrochrome Spray-Processable from Water (pages 5383–5387)

      Pierre M. Beaujuge, Chad M. Amb and John R. Reynolds

      Version of Record online: 27 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201003116

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      A π-conjugated electrochromic polymer (ECP) with alkyl ester side-chains is synthesized and subsequently defunctionalized to yield a polyionic salt readily soluble in water and further spray-processable from water. Upon neutralization, the defunctionalized polymer backbone recovers its electrochromic properties. The ability to print- or spray-process π-conjugated ECPs from aqueous media offers a sustainable alternative to traditional organic solvent-processing methods and could impact the development of non-emissive flexible display technologies.

    9. Generating Electricity from Biofluid with a Nanowire-Based Biofuel Cell for Self-Powered Nanodevices (pages 5388–5392)

      Caofeng Pan, Ying Fang, Hui Wu, Mashkoor Ahmad, Zhixiang Luo, Qiang Li, Jianbo Xie, Xinxu Yan, Lihua Wu, Zhong Lin Wang and Jing Zhu

      Version of Record online: 22 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201002519

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      We report a nanowire-based biofuel cell based on a single proton conductive polymer nanowire for converting chemical energy from biofluids, such as glucose/blood, into electricity, with glucose oxidase and laccase as catalyst. The glucose is supplied from the biofluid, the nanowire serves as the proton conductor, and the whole cell can be realized at the nano/micrometer scale. The biofuel cell composed of a single nanowire generates an output power as high as 0.5–3 μW, and it has been integrated with a set of nanowire-based sensors for performing self-powered sensing. This study shows the feasibility of building self-powered nanodevices for the biological sciences, environmental monitoring, defense technology, and even personal electronics.

    10. Suspended Single-Crystal Diamond Nanowires for High-Performance Nanoelectromechanical Switches (pages 5393–5397)

      Meiyong Liao, Shunichi Hishita, Eiichiro Watanabe, Satoshi Koizumi and Yasuo Koide

      Version of Record online: 5 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201003074

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      Single-crystal diamond nanowires with well-controlled dimensions are fabricated in batches for nanoelectromechanical system (NEMS). All-single-crystal diamond NEM switches are demonstrated using these nanowires with high reproducibility, high controllability, repeated switching, and no sitction. Diamond switches not only overcome the stiction and abrasion problems in existing electromechanical switches, but also circumvent the shallow doping problem.

    11. Bypassing Multidrug Resistance in Cancer Cells with Biodegradable Polymer Capsules (pages 5398–5403)

      Yan Yan, Christopher J. Ochs, Georgina K. Such, Joan K. Heath, Edouard C. Nice and Frank Caruso

      Version of Record online: 25 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201003162

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Biodegradable polymer capsules with drug-loaded multilayers were prepared through click chemistry via layer-by-layer assembly. The capsules can efficiently release incorporated drug by intracellular enzymatic degradation in both sensitive and resistant colorectal cancer cells in vitro. Endocytosis of drug-loaded capsules leads to bypass of Pgp-mediated multidrug resistance in cancer cells.

    12. C60:LiF Blocking Layer for Environmentally Stable Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells (pages 5404–5408)

      Dong Gao, Michael G. Helander, Zhi-Bin Wang, Danny P. Puzzo, Mark T. Greiner and Zheng-Hong Lu

      Version of Record online: 26 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201002738

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      A nanocomposite of highly conductive C60 and insulating LiF (C60:LiF) is shown to function as both a highly effective passivation layer and hole blocking layer in polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells. C60:LiF composites with up to ≈80% LiF concentration dramatically increase the device stability and power conversion efficiency, enabling a new generation of high-performance and long lifetime organic photovoltaics on flexible substrates.

    13. A Low-Bandgap Diketopyrrolopyrrole-Benzothiadiazole-Based Copolymer for High-Mobility Ambipolar Organic Thin-Film Transistors (pages 5409–5413)

      Prashant Sonar, Samarendra P. Singh, Yuning Li, Mui Siang Soh and Ananth Dodabalapur

      Version of Record online: 13 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201002973

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      A new , solution-processable, low-bandgap, diketopyrrolopyrrole-benzothiadiazole-based, donor-acceptor polymer semiconductor (PDPP-TBT) is reported. This polymer exhibits ambipolar charge transport when used as a single component active semiconductor in OTFTs with balanced hole and electron mobilities of 0.35 cm2 V−1s−1 and 0.40 cm2 V−1s−1, respectively. This polymer has the potential for ambipolar transistor-based complementary circuits in printed electronics.

    14. Enabling Strategies in Organic Electronics Using Ordered Block Copolymer Nanostructures (pages 5414–5419)

      Claudio De Rosa, Finizia Auriemma, Rocco Di Girolamo, Giovanni Piero Pepe, Teresa Napolitano and Rossana Scaldaferri

      Version of Record online: 13 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201002649

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      Memory devices with high bit density and memory cells just 50–60 nm apart and a density of 1010cm−2 – which is not achievable with the current silicon-based lithographic techniques – are fabricated using a self-assembled block-copolymer ordered nanostructure and selectively sequestered gold nanoparticles . This result brings the idea of molecular memories a step closer to reality.

    15. Biocompatible Charged and Uncharged Surfaces Using Nanoparticle Films (pages 5420–5423)

      Chandramouleeswaran Subramani, Avinash Bajaj, Oscar R. Miranda and Vincent M. Rotello

      Version of Record online: 5 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201002851

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      Biocompatible surfaces: Cationic, anionic, and neutral nanoparticles (NPs) were immobilized via dithiocarbamate formation onto polyethylenimine (PEI) films to create biofouling resistant surfaces. These surfaces are designed to bind proteins without denaturation, hence preventing biofouling. Extended incubation of these surfaces with BSA and serum demonstrate minimal fouling, providing a new methodology for generating surfaces resistant towards protein fouling.

  6. Research News

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Communications
    7. Research News
    1. Self-Healing Materials (pages 5424–5430)

      Martin D. Hager, Peter Greil, Christoph Leyens, Sybrand van der Zwaag and Ulrich S. Schubert

      Version of Record online: 13 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201003036

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      Self-healing materials are able to partially or completely heal damage inflicted on them, e.g., crack formation; it is anticipated that the original functionality of self-healed materials can be restored. This behavior can be applied across a wide range of different material classes including metals, ceramics, concrete, and polymers.

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