Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 22 Issue 12

March 26, 2010

Volume 22, Issue 12

Pages 1295–1416

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Reports
    6. Communications
    1. Porous Materials: Metalized Porous Interference Lithographic Microstructures via Biofunctionalization (Adv. Mater. 12/2010)

      Srikanth Singamaneni, Eugenia Kharlampieva, Ji-Hyun Jang, Michael E. McConney, Hao Jiang, Thimoty J. Bunning, Edwin L. Thomas and Vladimir V. Tsukruk

      Version of Record online: 23 MAR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201090035

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      The cover shows an SEM image of a periodic porous SU8 microframe decorated with gold nanoparticles. On p. 1369, Vladimir Tsukruk and co-workers demonstrate a biomediated approach for the metallization of periodic, porous polymer microstructures fabricated using interference lithography. The direct growth of metal nanoparticles does not damage or modify the original structure, making the approach demonstrated here highly suitable for designing reinforced binary microcomposites with predetermined symmetry.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Reports
    6. Communications
    1. Photonic Sensors: Towards the Photonic Nose: A Novel Platform for Molecule and Bacteria Identification (Adv. Mater. 12/2010)

      Leonardo D. Bonifacio, Daniel P. Puzzo, Simon Breslav, Barbara M. Willey, Allison McGeer and Geoffrey A. Ozin

      Version of Record online: 23 MAR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201090036

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      On p. 1351, Geoffrey Ozin and co-workers report on a novel artificial nose system dubbed the photonic nose, which is based on a simple and cost-effective pixelated array of surface-functionalized nanoporous Bragg mirrors that enable discrimination of different vapor phase analytes, exemplified by alkanes and alcohols as well as molecules comprising the headspace of different bacteria, detected and analyzed by diagnostic changes in red, green and blue color levels recorded by a digital camera.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Reports
    6. Communications
  4. Progress Reports

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Reports
    6. Communications
    1. Mesocrystals—Ordered Nanoparticle Superstructures (pages 1301–1330)

      Rui-Qi Song and Helmut Cölfen

      Version of Record online: 21 AUG 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200901365

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      This Progress Report highlights recent advances in the field of mesocrystals. Focus is on understanding of the formation mechanisms as well as the generation or change of chemical and physical properties, such as optical, magnetic, mechanical, and catalytic performance due to the mesoscopically ordered nanoparticle aggregation. Future research directions in the field are also proposed.

    2. Recent Progress in n-Channel Organic Thin-Film Transistors (pages 1331–1345)

      Yugeng Wen and Yunqi Liu

      Version of Record online: 14 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200901454

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      Recent progress in the performance and molecular design of n-channel semiconductors during the past five years is summarized. The limitations and practicable solutions for n-channel organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) are dealt with from the viewpoint of OTFT constitution and geometry, molecular design, and thin-film growth conditions. Strategies for methodology are especially highlighted with an aim to investigate basic issues in this field.

  5. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Reports
    6. Communications
    1. Role of Gallium Doping in Dramatically Lowering Amorphous-Oxide Processing Temperatures for Solution-Derived Indium Zinc Oxide Thin-Film Transistors (pages 1346–1350)

      Sunho Jeong, Young-Geun Ha, Jooho Moon, Antonio Facchetti and Tobin J. Marks

      Version of Record online: 28 DEC 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200902450

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      Ga doping in indium zinc oxide (IZO)-based amorphous-oxide semiconductors (AOSs) promotes the formation of oxide-lattice structures with oxygen vacancies at low annealing temperatures, which is essential for acceptable thin-film-transistor performance (see figure). The mobility dependence on annealing temperature and AOS composition are analyzed and the chemical role of Ga is clarified, as required for solution-processed, low-temperature-annealed AOSs.

    2. Towards the Photonic Nose: A Novel Platform for Molecule and Bacteria Identification (pages 1351–1354)

      Leonardo D. Bonifacio, Daniel P. Puzzo, Simon Breslav, Barbara M. Willey, Allison McGeer and Geoffrey A. Ozin

      Version of Record online: 9 NOV 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200902763

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      “Smelling” chemicals and bacteria by using structural color: the photonic nose is a novel platform for the identification of volatile chemicals based on color changes of porous Bragg stack arrays with potential for applications in chemical sensing and bacteria identification.

    3. High-Efficiency Organic Solar Cells Based on End-Functional-Group-Modified Poly(3-hexylthiophene) (pages 1355–1360)

      Jong Soo Kim, Youngmin Lee, Ji Hwang Lee, Jong Hwan Park, Jin Kon Kim and Kilwon Cho

      Version of Record online: 4 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200902803

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      Photovoltaic devices of end-functional-group-modified poly 3-(hexylthiophene)/[6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM; see figure) are fabricated with thermal annealing. The surface energies between donor and acceptor were matched by varying the end group, which can be used to control vertical and horizontal phase separation in the active layer, leading mixed nanomorphology with optimized phase separation, low series resistance, and high performance for solar cell devices.

    4. Three-Dimensional Photomobility of Crosslinked Azobenzene Liquid-Crystalline Polymer Fibers (pages 1361–1363)

      Taiki Yoshino, Mizuho Kondo, Jun-ichi Mamiya, Motoi Kinoshita, Yanlei Yu and Tomiki Ikeda

      Version of Record online: 15 DEC 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200902879

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      Crosslinked liquid-crystalline polymer fibers containing azobenzene moieties show three-dimensional movements under photoirradiation (see figure). The direction of the photomobility of the fibers could be controlled by manipulating the actinic light source. The generated stress upon photoinduced bending reached 210 kPa, which is similar to the stress in human muscles.

    5. Damascene Process for Controlled Positioning of Magnetic Colloidal Nanocrystals (pages 1364–1368)

      Gang Chen, Maryna I. Bodnarchuk, Maksym V. Kovalenko, Gunther Springholz, Wolfgang Heiss, Wolfgang Jantsch, Elmar Platzgummer, Hans Loeschner and Joerg Schotter

      Version of Record online: 28 DEC 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200902884

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      Nanocrystals, deposited on Si wafers, are maneuvered into sub-100-nm-sized pits or grooves by a Damascene process, that is, dropcasting and subsequent mechanical polishing. Single occupation is demonstrated for magnetic nanocrystals with diameter down to 18 nm. The figure show scanning electron microscopy and magnetic force microscopy images for a set of pits occupied by single Fe3O4 magnetic nanocrystals with 50-nm size.

    6. Metalized Porous Interference Lithographic Microstructures via Biofunctionalization (pages 1369–1373)

      Srikanth Singamaneni, Eugenia Kharlampieva, Ji-Hyun Jang, Michael E. McConney, Hao Jiang, Thimoty J. Bunning, Edwin L. Thomas and Vladimir V. Tsukruk

      Version of Record online: 7 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200902893

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Metallization and a resulting enhancement in the mechanical properties of periodic porous polymer microstructures via biofunctionalization is reported. The size and density of the gold nanoparticles are tuned by varying the polyamino-acid-deposition technique (solution-assisted or vapor-phase deposition) and the conditions of the deposition.

    7. Patterning of Polymer Electrodes by Nanoscratching (pages 1374–1378)

      Liqiang Li, Michael Hirtz, Wenchong Wang, Chuan Du, Harald Fuchs and Lifeng Chi

      Version of Record online: 21 DEC 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200902941

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      The patterning of conducting polymer PEDOT:PSS, an excellent organic electrode material, with high resolution (50 nm, middle part of figure) on both rigid and flexible substrates by AFM nanoscratching (left part of figure) is demonstrated. The high density electrode array (108 elements cm−2) and small area electrode pair (0.5–0.6 µm2) achieved by this technique demonstrates its excellent patterning ability. The scratched nano/sub-micrometer channel shows excellent performance in organic transistors (right part of figure) with high performance and low voltage.

    8. Preparation of Conjugated Polymers Inside Assembled Solid-State Devices (pages 1379–1382)

      Michael A. Invernale, Yujie Ding, Donna Marie D. Mamangun, Mustafa S. Yavuz and Gregory A. Sotzing

      Version of Record online: 16 FEB 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200902975

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      Soluble precursor polymers are processed and assembled into solid-state devices and subsequently converted in the devices to conjugated electrochromic materials. This method, termed in situ conversion, requires no rigorous cleaning step for the electrode substrate. It eliminates the use of a costly electrolyte bath during the assembly process. This methodology results in high yields for the resultant conjugated system.

    9. 1064-nm Sensitive Organic Photorefractive Composites (pages 1383–1386)

      Sebastian Köber, Jacek Prauzner, Michael Salvador, Floris B. Kooistra, Jan C. Hummelen and Klaus Meerholz

      Version of Record online: 22 DEC 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200903005

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      Organic photorefractive composites with sub-second response time and complete internal diffraction efficiency at low-intensity 1064 nm illumination are presented. Direct sensitization of the composites is provided by the C84 fullerene derivative [84]PCBM or the organic/inorganic hybrid Ni-dithiolene complex TT-2324. Holographic measurements on blends with varying contents of sensitizer are demonstrated.

    10. Imprinted Au-Nanoparticle Composites for the Ultrasensitive Surface Plasmon Resonance Detection of Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) (pages 1387–1391)

      Michael Riskin, Ran Tel-Vered and Itamar Willner

      Version of Record online: 13 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200903007

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      An ultrasensitive SPR-detection of the explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is achieved by composites of Kemp's acid molecularly imprinted Au nanoparticles crosslinked by bisaniline units on a Au surface (see figure).

    11. Engineering a Material Surface for Drug Delivery and Imaging using Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Functionalized Nanoparticles (pages 1392–1397)

      Thomas Soike, Amanda K. Streff, Chenxia Guan, Ryan Ortega, Mohammed Tantawy, Christopher Pino and V. Prasad Shastri

      Version of Record online: 9 FEB 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200903069

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      Layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly of functionalized nanoparticles (FNPs) within a polyelectrolyte network is described (see image). The LBL-NP-assembly-based modification can be used to engineer surfaces with multiple functions such as controlled (multiple-) drug release with distinct release kinetics and enhanced contrast in clinical imaging modalities. This novel surface modification strategy is expected to accelerate the development of bioresponsive coatings for implantable biomedical devices.

    12. Schottky Quantum Dot Solar Cells Stable in Air under Solar Illumination (pages 1398–1402)

      Jiang Tang, Xihua Wang, Lukasz Brzozowski, D. Aaron R. Barkhouse, Ratan Debnath, Larissa Levina and Edward H. Sargent

      Version of Record online: 7 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200903240

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      The air stability and power conversion efficiency of solution-processed PbS quantum dot solar cells is dramatically improved by the insertion of 0.8 nm LiF between the PbS nanoparticle film and the Al contact.

    13. Negative Thermal Expansion in Discotic Liquid Crystals of Nanographenes (pages 1403–1406)

      C. Grigoriadis, N. Haase, H.-J. Butt, K. Müllen and G. Floudas

      Version of Record online: 28 DEC 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200903264

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      Hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene derivatives show a record high negative volumetric thermal expansion coefficient within the crystalline phase. Responsible for the negative thermal expansion is the increase of the tilt angle and the improved packing of the discotic cores with temperature and this has implications in the design of organic electronic devices as well as in advanced nanocomposites with controlled thermal properties.

    14. Hydrophilic Co@Au Yolk/Shell Nanospheres: Synthesis, Assembly, and Application to Gene Delivery (pages 1407–1411)

      Yang Lu, Yang Zhao, Le Yu, Liang Dong, Ce Shi, Ming-Jun Hu, Yun-Jun Xu, Long-Ping Wen and Shu-Hong Yu

      Version of Record online: 18 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200903298

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      Co@Au yolk/shell nanospheres and linear assemblies of such are synthesized by controlled galvanic replacement reaction. The nanospheres are biocompatible, hydrophilic, and superparamagnetic, and gold nanocages can be prepared by etching. The potential applications of the nanospheres include use as nonviral gene transport vehicles, cellular optical imaging, and in vivo magnetic resonance imaging tracking during gene transfection.

    15. Specific Biochemical-to-Optical Signal Transduction by Responsive Thin Hydrogel Films Loaded with Noble Metal Nanoparticles (pages 1412–1416)

      Ihor Tokarev, Iryna Tokareva, Venkateshwarlu Gopishetty, Evgeny Katz and Sergiy Minko

      Version of Record online: 23 MAR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200903456

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      A highly specific biochemical-to-optical signal transduction scheme combines three distinct phenomena: a biocatalytic process, a localized surface plasmon resonance effects in noble metal nanoparticles, and the swelling–shrinking transition in a stimuli-responsive hydrogel. An ultrathin polymer-nanoparticle plasmonic sensor (see figure) is designed for two important applications: analysis of biomolecules and probing (monitoring) of local properties of biomaterials.

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