Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 22 Issue 19

May 18, 2010

Volume 22, Issue 19

Pages 2099–2215

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Essay
    6. Reviews
    7. Communications
    1. Nanogenerators: Fully Rollable Transparent Nanogenerators Based on Graphene Electrodes (Adv. Mater. 19/2010)

      Dukhyun Choi, Min-Yeol Choi, Won Mook Choi, Hyeon-Jin Shin, Hyun-Kyu Park, Ju-Seok Seo, Jongbong Park, Seon-Mi Yoon, Seung Jin Chae, Young Hee Lee, Sang-Woo Kim, Jae-Young Choi, Sang Yoon Lee and Jong Min Kim

      Version of Record online: 12 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201090066

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      The cover shows an image of fully rollable transparent nanogenerators synthesized using chemical vapor deposition grown large-scale graphene sheets as transparent electrodes and piezoelectric ZnO nanorod arrays. Sang-Woo Kim, Jae-Young Choi, and co-workers report on p. 2187 the electrical and structural stability of the nanogenerators, with excellent charge scavenging performance under external mechanical loads such as bending and rolling. This study shows that graphene-based nanogenerators are very promising for self-powered rollable transparent device applications.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Essay
    6. Reviews
    7. Communications
    1. Quantum Dot Transistors: 1-Nanometer-Sized Active-Channel Molecular Quantum-Dot Transistor (Adv. Mater. 19/2010)

      Elad D. Mentovich, Bogdan Belgorodsky, Itsik Kalifa and Shachar Richter

      Version of Record online: 12 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201090067

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      The properties of a molecular quantum dot system using a novel structure of vertical molecular transistor are reported on p. 2182 by Shachar Richter and co-workers. This C60-based device can be operated in two new modes: voltage-controlled switching and gate-controlled hysteresis. A polaron-based model is used to explain the operation of the transistor and to introduce some general rules for the construction of polaronic molecular transistors.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Essay
    6. Reviews
    7. Communications
  4. Essay

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Essay
    6. Reviews
    7. Communications
    1. Iso-Structural Phase Transitions in BiFeO3 (pages 2106–2107)

      James F. Scott

      Version of Record online: 18 MAR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200904229

      This essay discusses recent work on bismuth ferrite, which reveals theoretically and experimentally a phase transition under stress that does not change symmetry but changes the c/a lattice constant ratio. As shown by Ishibashi, such transitions must be discontinuous and are described by free energies eighth-order in polarization P. Such a predicted two-step change in P is also known in potassium nitrate films.

  5. Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Essay
    6. Reviews
    7. Communications
    1. Stretchable, Curvilinear Electronics Based on Inorganic Materials (pages 2108–2124)

      Dae-Hyeong Kim, Jianliang Xiao, Jizhou Song, Yonggang Huang and John A. Rogers

      Version of Record online: 25 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200902927

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      Certain structural forms of inorganic materials provide an effective level of mechanical stretchability when combined with elastomeric supports. These concepts make it possible to build electronic and optoelectronic devices that have the electrical/optical properties of counterparts formed on the rigid, planar surfaces of semiconductor wafers, but with the mechanical properties of a rubber band and the ability to conform to curvilinear shapes. In this article, fundamental and applied aspects of research in this emerging area of materials science, are reviewed and features of some system-level device demonstrations are summarized.

    2. Gecko-Inspired Surfaces: A Path to Strong and Reversible Dry Adhesives (pages 2125–2137)

      Luciano F. Boesel, Christian Greiner, Eduard Arzt and Aránzazu del Campo

      Version of Record online: 26 MAR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200903200

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      The structure of gecko toe pads has inspired recent studies on micro- and nanofibrillar surfaces as potential dry adhesives. This article reviews the fabrication approaches that have been used so far, and analyzes the role of the different design parameters in the final adhesion performance.

  6. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Essay
    6. Reviews
    7. Communications
    1. Multifunctional Hybrid Fabrics with Thermally Stable Superhydrophobicity (pages 2138–2141)

      Ho Sun Lim, Ji Hye Baek, Kyungmin Park, Hwa Sung Shin, Jooyong Kim and Jeong Ho Cho

      Version of Record online: 26 MAR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200903074

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      Thermally stable superhydrophobic fabrics with multifunctionality were fabricated through the combination of sol–gel chemistry and electrospinning. MTES sols were electrospun into fibers, in which fiber morphology was controlled by the gelation time. The resulting superhydrophobic fabrics are not only very stable and heat-resistant but perform with high filtration efficiency, enabling emerging applications for smart materials and devices.

    2. Particle/Fluid Interface Replication as a Means of Producing Topographically Patterned Polydimethylsiloxane Surfaces for Deposition of Lipid Bilayers (pages 2142–2147)

      Anand Bala Subramaniam, Sigolene Lecuyer, Kumaran S. Ramamurthi, Richard Losick and Howard A. Stone

      Version of Record online: 7 APR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200903625

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      A simple method to produce topographically patterned substrates from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is presented. Surfaces with positively or negatively curved features, a combination of positively and negatively curved features or geometrically complex biomimetic features are fabricated. High-quality lipid bilayers that conform to the topography of the substrates can be prepared, a characteristic useful for biophysical studies.

    3. Gating of Redox Currents at Gold Nanoelectrodes via DNA Hybridization (pages 2148–2150)

      Gang Liu, Chunfeng Sun, Di Li, Shiping Song, Bingwei Mao, Chunhai Fan and Zhongqun Tian

      Version of Record online: 6 APR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200903590

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      DNA immobilized at the surface of cone-shaped gold nanoelectrodes provides a favorable platform for artificial ion channels that can gate the redox reaction of ferricyanide. This effect arises from the nanometer-scale curvature and the enhanced mass transfer at nanoelectrodes. The label-free feature based on this ion-channel effect provides a means to develop label-free electrochemical DNA sensors.

    4. Superhydrophobic to Superhydrophilic Wetting Control in Graphene Films (pages 2151–2154)

      Javad Rafiee, Mohammad A. Rafiee, Zhong-Zhen Yu and Nikhil Koratkar

      Version of Record online: 8 MAR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200903696

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      The wetting of graphene films from superhydrophobic (contact angle of ∼160°) to superhydrophilic (∼0°) is controlled using surface chemistry/roughness effects. Graphene sheets dispersed in water/acetone solvents are deposited on various substrates, where the contact angle of the graphene films could be tuned from superhydrophobic to superhydrophilic by simply controlling the relative proportion of acetone and water in the solvent.

    5. Electricity Generation based on One-Dimensional Group-III Nitride Nanomaterials (pages 2155–2158)

      Xuebin Wang, Jinhui Song, Fan Zhang, Chengyu He, Zheng Hu and Zhonglin Wang

      Version of Record online: 5 MAR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200903442

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      Piezoelectric generation is extended to the new domain of group-III nitrides. The output increases with increasing carrier density following the sequence: AlN, AlGaN, GaN and InN. The results indicate that, for a nanomaterial whose conductivity is below an optimum value, the output of its piezoelectric nanogenerator is dominated by the consumed voltage at the nanomaterial.

    6. Changing the Behavior of Chromophores from Aggregation-Caused Quenching to Aggregation-Induced Emission: Development of Highly Efficient Light Emitters in the Solid State (pages 2159–2163)

      Wang Zhang Yuan, Ping Lu, Shuming Chen, Jacky W. Y. Lam, Zhiming Wang, Yang Liu, Hoi Sing Kwok, Yuguang Ma and Ben Zhong Tang

      Version of Record online: 8 MAR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200904056

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      Efficient solid-state emitters developed by a new approach are described. While emission from triphenylamine (TPA) and its dimer (DTPA) is weakened by aggregation, attaching tetraphenylethene (TPE) units to the amines boosts their emission efficiencies up to 100% in the aggregate state without harming their hole-transport properties. The resultant 3TPETPA and 4TPEDTPA luminogens show excellent electroluminescence performance.

    7. p-Type Semiconducting GeSe Combs by a Vaporization–Condensation–Recrystallization (VCR) Process (pages 2164–2167)

      Seok Min Yoon, Hyun Jae Song and Hee Cheul Choi

      Version of Record online: 5 MAR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200903719

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      Novel p-type semiconductors can be found in these extraordinary comb structures. The GeSe combs are selectively formed by a vaporization–condensation–recrystallization (VCR) process using bulk GeSe powder as the precursor source. They have a flat body plate part and extended wire finger parts, both of which have identical crystal structures. The GeSe comb field-effect transistor device displays both p-type semiconducting and photo-switching behavior.

    8. Freestanding Graphene by Thermal Splitting of Silicon Carbide Granules (pages 2168–2171)

      Dehui Deng, Xiulian Pan, Hui Zhang, Qiang Fu, Dali Tan and Xinhe Bao

      Version of Record online: 29 MAR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200903519

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      Mass production of high-quality graphene, necessary for the further development of graphene-based technologies such as fuel-cell electrocatalysts, is expected to be possible by the novel synthetic approach reported here. Freestanding single-layer graphene nanosheets containing few defects and with good oxidation stability are produced from commercial polycrystalline silicon carbide granules using a non-liquid-phase method.

    9. Ultrathin Direct Atomic Layer Deposition on Composite Electrodes for Highly Durable and Safe Li-Ion Batteries (pages 2172–2176)

      Yoon Seok Jung, Andrew S. Cavanagh, Leah A. Riley, Sun-Ho Kang, Anne C. Dillon, Markus D. Groner, Steven M. George and Se-Hee Lee

      Version of Record online: 6 APR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200903951

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      Direct atomic layer deposition (ALD) on composite electrodes leads to ultrathin conformal protective coatings without disrupting inter-particle electronic pathways. Al2O3-coated natural graphite (NG) electrodes obtained by direct ALD on the as-formed electrode show exceptionally durable capacity retention even at an elevated temperature of 50 °C. In sharp contrast, ALD on powder results in poorer cycle retention than bare NG.

    10. Flexible UV-Ozone-Modified Carbon Nanotube Electrodes for Neuronal Recording (pages 2177–2181)

      Hui-Lin Hsu, I-Ju Teng, Yung-Chan Chen, Wei-Lun Hsu, Yu-Tao Lee, Shiang-Jie Yen, Huan-Chieh Su, Shih-Rung Yeh, Hsin Chen and Tri-Rung Yew

      Version of Record online: 30 MAR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200903413

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      Carbon nanotubes were grown on flexible polyimide substrates at temperatures below 400 °C as electrodes for extracellularly neuronal recording. The electrical charge-transfer and electrochemical properties of such CNT electrodes were enhanced by UV-ozone exposure, which induced the formation of C[BOND]O, C[DOUBLE BOND]O, and O[BOND]C[DOUBLE BOND]O bonds and reduced the CNT/electrolyte interfacial impedance while increasing the interfacial capacitance.

    11. 1-Nanometer-Sized Active-Channel Molecular Quantum-Dot Transistor (pages 2182–2186)

      Elad D. Mentovich, Bogdan Belgorodsky, Itsik Kalifa and Shachar Richter

      Version of Record online: 29 MAR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200902431

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The properties of a molecular quantum dot system are investigated using a novel structure of vertical molecular transistor. This C60-based device can be operated in two new modes: voltage-controlled switching and gate-controlled hysteresis. A polaron-based model is used to explain the operation of the transistor and to introduce some general rules for the construction of polaronic molecular transistors.

    12. Fully Rollable Transparent Nanogenerators Based on Graphene Electrodes (pages 2187–2192)

      Dukhyun Choi, Min-Yeol Choi, Won Mook Choi, Hyeon-Jin Shin, Hyun-Kyu Park, Ju-Seok Seo, Jongbong Park, Seon-Mi Yoon, Seung Jin Chae, Young Hee Lee, Sang-Woo Kim, Jae-Young Choi, Sang Yoon Lee and Jong Min Kim

      Version of Record online: 7 APR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200903815

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Fully rollable transparent nanogenerators have been developed using chemical vapor deposition-grown large-scale graphene sheets as transparent electrodes and piezoelectric ZnO-nanorod arrays. The electrical and structural stability of the nanogenerators with excellent charge scavenging performance under external mechanical loads such as bending and rolling shows that graphene-based nanogenerators are suitable for self-powered rollable transparent device applications.

    13. Three-Dimensional Characterization of Helical Silver Nanochains Mediated by Protein Assemblies (pages 2193–2197)

      Frederic Leroux, Maarten Gysemans, Sara Bals, Kees Joost Batenburg, Johan Snauwaert, Thierry Verbiest, Chris Van Haesendonck and Gustaaf Van Tendeloo

      Version of Record online: 11 MAR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200903657

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      Characterization methods for the structural investigation of biotemplates for nanodevices remain widely unexplored, despite the fact that biotemplating methods for nanodevice fabrication are becoming more widespread. In this study several techniques are used to characterize the morphology and 3D distribution of silver nanoparticles deposited on insulin fibrils.

    14. Phosphorescent Hybrid Organic–Inorganic Light-Emitting Diodes (pages 2198–2201)

      Henk J. Bolink, Hicham Brine, Eugenio Coronado and Michele Sessolo

      Version of Record online: 8 MAR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200904018

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      Competitive efficacy and power conversion efficiency (15 cd A−1 and above 9 lm W−1, respectively) are obtained for a hybrid organic–inorganic light-emitting diode (HyLED) with air-stable metal oxides as electrodes. Thanks to the use of a phosphorescent iridium complex and a Cs-doped ZnO cathode, performances approaching those of standard solution-processed organic LEDs can be obtained.

    15. Rational Extension of the Family of Layered, Covalent, Triazine-Based Frameworks with Regular Porosity (pages 2202–2205)

      Michael J. Bojdys, Jekaterina Jeromenok, Arne Thomas and Markus Antonietti

      Version of Record online: 8 MAR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200903436

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      A layered, covalent, triazine-based framework (CTF) was synthesized via the condensation of 2,6-naphthalenedicarbonitrile under ionothermal conditions. The polytrimerization of this bi functional carbon nitrile in zinc chloride at lower temperatures yields a well-ordered, close-packed framework. At elevated temperatures an amorphous, yet porous solid is obtained, which shows remarkable thermal stability (640 °C) and a high surface area (2255 m2 g−1 and 1.51 cm3 g−1).

    16. Graphene Oxide: Intrinsic Peroxidase Catalytic Activity and Its Application to Glucose Detection (pages 2206–2210)

      Yujun Song, Konggang Qu, Chao Zhao, Jinsong Ren and Xiaogang Qu

      Version of Record online: 5 MAR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200903783

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      Carboxyl-modified graphene oxide (GO–COOH) possesses intrinsic peroxidase-like activity that can catalyze the reaction of peroxidase substrate 3,3,5,5-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) in the presence of H2O2 to produce a blue color reaction. A simple, cheap, and highly sensitive and selective colorimetric method for glucose detection has been developed and will facilitate the utilization of GO[BOND]COOH intrinsic peroxidase activity in medical diagnostics and biotechnology.

    17. Ultraviolet Luminescent, High-Effective-Work-Function LaTiO3-Doped Indium Oxide and Its Effects in Organic Optoelectronics (pages 2211–2215)

      Ning Wang, Xiaoxin Liu and Xingyuan Liu

      Version of Record online: 8 MAR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200903987

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      A novel n-type transparent conducting oxide, an LaTiO3-doped indium oxide (ILTO) film, has been developed by double electron beam evaporation associated with an End Hall ion-assisted deposition technique. ILTO shows room-temperature UV photoluminescence (∼386 nm) and a thermally stable highly effective WF (∼5.2 eV) properties. ILTO is applied to replace traditional indium tin oxide and demonstrates positive effects on organic optoelectronics.

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