Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 22 Issue 26‐27

Special Issue: Yale's Center for Research on Interface Structure and Phenomena

July 20, 2010

Volume 22, Issue 26-27

Pages 2831–2973

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Progress Reports
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Progress Reports
    9. Review
    10. Communications
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Research News
    1. Materials Science at Yale: Crisp: The Center for Research on Interface Structures and Phenomena, Yale University (Adv. Mater. 26–27/2010)

      John Tully

      Article first published online: 21 JUL 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201090088

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      Yale University's Center for Research on Interface Structures and Phenomena (CRISP) is a Materials Research, Science and Engineering Center funded by the National Science Foundation. The Center is a multidisciplinary collaboration among 23 faculty members across 8 departments. CRISP specializes in the synthesis and characterization of thin film materials with atomic precision and impacts high performance electronics, surface chemistry, lasers, biological materials, and science education.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Progress Reports
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Progress Reports
    9. Review
    10. Communications
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Research News
    1. 3D Atomic Force Microscopy: Three-Dimensional Atomic Force Microscopy – Taking Surface Imaging to the Next Level (Adv. Mater. 26–27/2010)

      Mehmet Z. Baykara, Todd C. Schwendemann, Eric I. Altman and Udo D. Schwarz

      Article first published online: 21 JUL 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201090089

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      Recent progress in scanning probe technology, which has led to the establishment of threedimensional atomic force microscopy, is reported on p. 2838 by Mehmet Baykara and co-workers. From the quantitative data on surface force and energy fields the method delivers, lateral force maps with picometer resolution can be generated. All cover and frontispiece artwork by Wendolyn Hill.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Progress Reports
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Progress Reports
    9. Review
    10. Communications
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Research News
  4. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Progress Reports
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Progress Reports
    9. Review
    10. Communications
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Research News
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  5. Progress Reports

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Progress Reports
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Progress Reports
    9. Review
    10. Communications
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Research News
    1. Three-Dimensional Atomic Force Microscopy – Taking Surface Imaging to the Next Level (pages 2838–2853)

      Mehmet Z. Baykara, Todd C. Schwendemann, Eric I. Altman and Udo D. Schwarz

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200903909

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      The ideal scanning probe microscope should be able to measure surface forces, energies, tunneling currents, and local energy losses with atomic resolution in three dimensions. This progress report describes the latest developments in this direction based on the emerging method of three-dimensional atomic force microscopy (3D-AFM). In addition to current results, future challenges and potential application areas are discussed.

    2. Mechanisms, Kinetics, and Dynamics of Oxidation and Reactions on Oxide Surfaces Investigated by Scanning Probe Microscopy (pages 2854–2869)

      Eric I. Altman and Udo D. Schwarz

      Article first published online: 8 APR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200903927

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      The schematic illustrates how tip-sample interactions, such as tunneling due to electronic overlap, forces due to chemical interactions, and non-linear optical interactions due to the sharp asperity of the gold tip, can be used to characterize individual adsorption, diffusion, and reaction events on a reconstructed WO3 surface.

  6. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Progress Reports
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Progress Reports
    9. Review
    10. Communications
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Research News
    1. Structural Color: How Noniridescent Colors Are Generated by Quasi-ordered Structures of Bird Feathers (Adv. Mater. 26–27/2010)

      Heeso Noh, Seng Fatt Liew, Vinodkumar Saranathan, Simon G. J. Mochrie, Richard O. Prum, Eric R. Dufresne and Hui Cao

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201090094

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      Many species of birds produce brilliant non-iridescent colors by light scattering from nanostructures with only short-range order, as explored by Noh and co-workers on page 2871. Forster and co-workers have designed materials composed of polymer nanoparticles to produce color via the same mechanism. TEM and SEM images help visualize the character of these materials.

  7. Progress Reports

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Progress Reports
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Progress Reports
    9. Review
    10. Communications
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Research News
    1. How Noniridescent Colors Are Generated by Quasi-ordered Structures of Bird Feathers (pages 2871–2880)

      Heeso Noh, Seng Fatt Liew, Vinodkumar Saranathan, Simon G. J. Mochrie, Richard O. Prum, Eric R. Dufresne and Hui Cao

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200903699

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      Color generation by short-range ordered nanostructures in bird feather barbs is investigated with angle-resolved optical spectrometry. The color is produced mostly by the interference of singly scattered light, and is noniridescent under omnidirectional lighting due to structure isotropy.

    2. Electronic and Magnetic Properties of SrTiO3/LaAlO3 Interfaces from First Principles (pages 2881–2899)

      Hanghui Chen, Alexie M. Kolpak and Sohrab Ismail-Beigi

      Article first published online: 20 APR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200903800

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      The hetero-epitaxial interface between the insulating oxides LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 exhibits a number of intriguing properties which are not present in either bulk constituent. These novel properties include a quasi two-dimensional conducting electron gas, low temperature superconductivity, and magnetism. The state-of-the-art ab initio theoretical work and its relation to the experimental data are reviewed and some key unresolved issues are discussed.

    3. Magnetoelectric Coupling Effects in Multiferroic Complex Oxide Composite Structures (pages 2900–2918)

      Carlos A. F. Vaz, Jason Hoffman, Charles H. Ahn and Ramamoorthy Ramesh

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200904326

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      Recent developments in the design of novel complex oxide multiferroic heterostructures—materials systems where magnetic and ferroelectric orders coexist, as the adjacent figure illustrates—are reviewed. By exploring proximity effects at the interface between different complex oxides, new couplings between the order parameters develop. This results in strong magnetoelectric couplings with added functionality, as required for next generation electronic devices.

  8. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Progress Reports
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Progress Reports
    9. Review
    10. Communications
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Research News
    1. Crystalline Oxides on Silicon (pages 2919–2938)

      James W. Reiner, Alexie M. Kolpak, Yaron Segal, Kevin F. Garrity, Sohrab Ismail-Beigi, Charles H. Ahn and Fred J. Walker

      Article first published online: 28 APR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200904306

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      An interdisciplinary collaboration involving molecular beam epitaxy thin film deposition, advanced real‒space structural characterization, and first‒principles theory has led to an intimate understanding of the process by which the interface between crystalline oxides and silicon forms, the resulting structure of the interface, and the link between its structure and functionality.

  9. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Progress Reports
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Progress Reports
    9. Review
    10. Communications
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Research News
    1. Biomimetic Isotropic Nanostructures for Structural Coloration (pages 2939–2944)

      Jason D. Forster, Heeso Noh, Seng Fatt Liew, Vinodkumar Saranathan, Carl F. Schreck, Lin Yang, Jin-Gyu Park, Richard O. Prum, Simon G. J. Mochrie, Corey S. O'Hern, Hui Cao and Eric R. Dufresne

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200903693

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      The self-assembly of films that mimic color-producing nanostructures in bird feathers is described. These structures are isotropic and have a characteristic length-scale comparable to the wavelength of visible light. Structural colors are produced when wavelength-independent scattering is suppressed by limiting the optical path length through geometry or absorption.

    2. Achieving A-Site Termination on La0.18Sr0.82Al0.59Ta0.41O3 Substrates (pages 2945–2948)

      Joseph H. Ngai, Todd C. Schwendemann, Anna E. Walker, Yaron Segal, Fred J. Walker, Eric I. Altman and Charles H. Ahn

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200904328

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      Interfaces between transition metal oxide compounds provide a setting where correlated behavior can emerge. Essential to interface studies are substrates that have a single atomic plane termination. By tuning the vapor pressure of La above the surface of La0.18Sr0.82Al0.59Ta0.41O3 (LSAT) during annealing, single-unit-cell steps and predominant A-site (SrO) termination can be achieved.

  10. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Progress Reports
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Progress Reports
    9. Review
    10. Communications
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Research News
    1. Complex Oxide Interfaces: Determination of Electronic Structure of Oxide–Oxide Interfaces by Photoemission Spectroscopy (Adv. Mater. 26–27/2010)

      Hui-Qiong Wang, Eric Altman, Christine Broadbridge, Yimei Zhu and Victor Henrich

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201090095

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      Precise understanding of structure – property relationships at interfaces is critical for electronic devices, particularly at the nanometer scale, and can be achieved by a synergy of high-quality growth, advanced characterization, and first principles theory (on page 2950).

  11. Research News

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Progress Reports
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Progress Reports
    9. Review
    10. Communications
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Research News
    1. Determination of Electronic Structure of Oxide–Oxide Interfaces by Photoemission Spectroscopy (pages 2950–2956)

      Hui-Qiong Wang, Eric Altman, Christine Broadbridge, Yimei Zhu and Victor Henrich

      Article first published online: 13 APR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200903759

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      Oxide-oxide interfaces can have electronic states that are distinctly different than those of either bulk oxide. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy of substrate/overlayer systems, measured as the overlayer is grown one monolayer at a time, can be used to uniquely identify interfacial electronic states.

    2. Ferroelectric Field Effect Transistors for Memory Applications (pages 2957–2961)

      Jason Hoffman, Xiao Pan, James W. Reiner, Fred J. Walker, J. P. Han, Charles H. Ahn and T. P. Ma

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200904327

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      Ferroelectric memories, where the ferroelectric polarization state encodes the digital information, are being explored as next generation memory architectures. The operation and prospects of single-transistor memory cells, without a storage capacitor, are reviewed in this work.

    3. Inelastic Electron Tunneling Spectroscopy Study of Thin Gate Dielectrics (pages 2962–2968)

      James W. Reiner, Sharon Cui, Zuoguang Liu, Miaomiao Wang, Charles H. Ahn and T. P. Ma

      Article first published online: 30 MAR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200904311

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      Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS) is a powerful tool to characterize both the structural and electrical properties of next generation high-k transistor structures. IETS can address materials issues related to reactions and intermixing at interfaces as well as properties related to carrier mobility, such as the low energy phonon modes of HfO2 shown in the figure, for device structures that are difficult to accurately characterize by other techniques.

    4. Chemistry of Ferroelectric Surfaces (pages 2969–2973)

      K. Garrity, A. M. Kolpak, S. Ismail-Beigi and E. I. Altman

      Article first published online: 23 APR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200903723

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      The effect of ferroelectric polarization on CO2 (yellow and red balls) adsorption on PbTiO3 (Pb – gray, Ti – blue, O – red) is illustrated through charge transfer plots. Blue (red) highlights areas where electrons accumulate (deplete). CO2 dissociation is favored on the positively poled surface on the left but not on the negatively poled surface on the right.

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