Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 22 Issue 37

October 1, 2010

Volume 22, Issue 37

Pages 4091–4208

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    1. Colloidal Networks: Polymorphic Meniscus Convergence for Construction of Quasi-Periodic Assemblies and Networks of Colloidal Nanoparticles (Adv. Mater. 37/2010)

      Sang-Wook Lee, Seung Chul Park, Yongjun Lim, Byoungho Lee and Sin-Doo Lee

      Version of Record online: 20 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201090121

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      Quasi-periodic colloidal networks can be constructed on the basis of polymorphic meniscus convergence (MC) in an air-cavity-embedded, nanocolloidal system, report Sin-Doo Lee and coworkers on p. 4172. Depending on the flow associated with the air-cavities, the colloidal particles are self-organized into nanowires through binary MC, hexagonal networks with Y-junctions through ternary MC and square networks with X-junctions through quaternary MC, reflecting the flow symmetry according to the air-cavity deformation.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    1. Cellular Imaging: Conjugated Oligoelectrolyte Harnessed Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane as Light-Up Hybrid Nanodot for Two-Photon Fluorescence Imaging of Cellular Nucleus (Adv. Mater. 37/2010)

      Kan-Yi Pu, Kai Li, Xinhai Zhang and Bin Liu

      Version of Record online: 20 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201090122

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      Bin Liu and co-workers report on p. 4186 on a water-soluble organic/inorganic hybrid nanodot based on polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) and conjugated oligoelectrolytes for twophoton fluorescence imaging of cellular nuclei. The small size of the dots (∼3.3 nm) impart nucleus permeability and substantial DNA-enhanced twophoton excited fluorescence that allows highcontrast illumination of the nucleus.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Review
    7. Communications
  4. Progress Report

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    1. Role of the Charge Transfer State in Organic Donor–Acceptor Solar Cells (pages 4097–4111)

      Carsten Deibel, Thomas Strobel and Vladimir Dyakonov

      Version of Record online: 27 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201000376

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      Charge transfer complexes are interfacial charge pairs residing at the donor-acceptor heterointerface in organic solar cell. Experimental evidence shows them to be crucial for the photovoltaic performance: both photocurrent and open circuit voltage depends on them. For charge generation and recombination, charge transfer complexes represent essential intermediate steps. Clearly, understanding the role of the charge transfer state is essential for an optimisation of organic solar cells.

  5. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    1. Engineering Homochiral Metal-Organic Frameworks for Heterogeneous Asymmetric Catalysis and Enantioselective Separation (pages 4112–4135)

      Yan Liu, Weimin Xuan and Yong Cui

      Version of Record online: 27 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201000197

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      Homochiral porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are particularly attractive candidates as heterogeneous asymmetric catalysts and enantioselective adsorbents and separators for production of optically active organic compounds. This review summarizes the recent research progress in homochiral MOF materials, including their synthetic strategy, distinctive structural features and applications in enantioselective catalysis and separation.

  6. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    1. Improved SERS Performance from Au Nanopillar Arrays by Abridging the Pillar Tip Spacing by Ag Sputtering (pages 4136–4139)

      Zhulin Huang, Guowen Meng, Qing Huang, Yajun Yang, Chuhong Zhu and Chaolong Tang

      Version of Record online: 30 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201001179

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      Ag-capped Au nanopillar arrays on a resin supporter (see left upper figure), with a typical adjacent pillar tip gap of 10 nm, show obviously higher surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensitivity (right column in red) than that of the bare Au nanopillar array while using 10 nM R6G as probe molecules. The large-area Ag-capped Au nanopillar array has potential in trace detection of special chemicals.

    2. Epitaxial Graphene Growth by Carbon Molecular Beam Epitaxy (CMBE) (pages 4140–4145)

      Jeongho Park, William C. Mitchel, Lawrence Grazulis, Howard E. Smith, Kurt G. Eyink, John J. Boeckl, David H. Tomich, Shanee D. Pacley and John. E. Hoelscher

      Version of Record online: 20 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201000756

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      A novel growth method (carbon molecular beam epitaxy (CMBE)) has been developed to produce high-quality and large-area epitaxial graphene. This method demonstrates significantly improved controllability of the graphene growth. CMBE with C60 produces AB stacked graphene, while growth with the graphite filament results in non-Bernal stacked graphene layers with a Dirac-like electronic structure, which is similar to graphene grown by thermal decomposition on SiC (000-1).

    3. Layer-By-Layer Assembly of β-Estradiol Loaded Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles on Titanium Substrates and Its Implication for Bone Homeostasis (pages 4146–4150)

      Yan Hu, Kaiyong Cai, Zhong Luo and Klaus D. Jandt

      Version of Record online: 17 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201000854

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      Drug-loadingmesoporous silica nanoparticles that serve as a nanoreservoir-type drug-delivery system are successfully attached to titanium substrates via the layer-by-layer assembly technique (see scheme). The obtained structure demonstrates great potential for regulating the biological behaviors of osteoblasts/ steoclasts in order to maintain bone homeostasis. The approach we present here may have wide applications in implant technology, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine.

    4. Electrical Transport and High-Performance Photoconductivity in Individual ZrS2 Nanobelts (pages 4151–4156)

      Liang Li, Xiaosheng Fang, Tianyou Zhai, Meiyong Liao, Ujjal K Gautam, Xingcai Wu, Yasuo Koide, Yoshio Bando and Dmitri Golberg

      Version of Record online: 20 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201001413

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      Individual ZrS2-nanobelt field-effect transistors were fabricated using a photolithography process. Temperature-dependent electrical transport revealed different electrical conductivity mechanism at different working temperature regions. ZrS2-nanobelt photodetectors demonstrated a high-performance visible-light photoconductivity.

    5. Polythiophene-Fullerene Based Photodetectors: Tuning of Spectral Response and Application in Photoluminescence Based (Bio)Chemical Sensors (pages 4157–4161)

      Kanwar S. Nalwa, Yuankun Cai, Aaron L. Thoeming, Joseph Shinar, Ruth Shinar and Sumit Chaudhary

      Version of Record online: 30 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201000417

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      A photoluminescence (PL)-based oxygen and glucose sensor utilizing inorganic or organic light emitting diode as the light source, and polythiophene:fullerene type bulk-heterojunction devices as photodetectors, for both intensity and decay-time based monitoring of the sensing element’s PL. The sensing element is based on the oxygen-sensitive dye Pt-octaethylporphyrin embedded in a polystyrene matrix.

    6. Fiber Field-Effect Device Via In Situ Channel Crystallization (pages 4162–4166)

      Sylvain Danto, Fabien Sorin, Nicholas D. Orf, Zheng Wang, Scott A. Speakman, John D. Joannopoulos and Yoel Fink

      Version of Record online: 20 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201000268

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      The in situ crystallization of the incorporated amorphous semiconductor within the multimaterial fiber device yields a large decrease in defect density and a concomitant five-order-of-magnitude decrease in resistivity of the novel metal-insulator-crystalline semiconductor structure. Using a post-drawing crystallization process, the first tens-of-meters-long single-fiber field-effect device is demonstrated. This work opens significant opportunities for incorporating higher functionality in functional fibers and fabrics.

    7. Solution-Processed Solid Solution of a Novel Carbazole Derivative for High-Performance Blue Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (pages 4167–4171)

      Shanghui Ye, Yunqi Liu, Jianming Chen, Kun Lu, Weiping Wu, Chunyan Du, Ying Liu, Ti Wu, Zhigang Shuai and Gui Yu

      Version of Record online: 10 JUN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201001392

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      Blue light: Incorporation of two fluorenyl rings into a phenyl group at the C9 position of fluorene builds a bulky and rigidly tetrahedral framework, which is functionalized by two carbazole groups. This molecule possesses excellent thermal and morphological stability, miscibility to the phosphorescent dopant, and high triplet energy, leading to narrow blue phosphorescent emission.

    8. Polymorphic Meniscus Convergence for Construction of Quasi-Periodic Assemblies and Networks of Colloidal Nanoparticles (pages 4172–4175)

      Sang-Wook Lee, Seung Chul Park, Yongjun Lim, Byoungho Lee and Sin-Doo Lee

      Version of Record online: 20 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201001336

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Quasi-periodic colloidal networks are constructed on the basis of polymorphic meniscus convergence (MC) in an air-cavity-embedded, nano-colloidal system. Depending on the flow associated with the air-cavities, the colloidal particles are self-organized into nanowires through binary MC, Y-junctions through ternary MC, and X-junctions through quaternary MC. The colloidal networks in either square or hexagonal form reflect the flow symmetry according to the air-cavity deformation.

    9. Dynamic and Reversible Organization of Zeolite L Crystals Induced by Holographic Optical Tweezers (pages 4176–4179)

      Mike Woerdemann, Stefan Gläsener, Florian Hörner, André Devaux, Luisa De Cola and Cornelia Denz

      Version of Record online: 27 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201001453

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      Organization and patterning of zeolite L crystals with their unique properties such as their one-dimensional nano channel system is of highest topical interest with various applications in many areas of science. We demonstrate full three-dimensional optical control of single zeolite L crystals and for the first time fully reversible, dynamic organization of a multitude of individually controlled zeolite L crystals.

    10. Silicon-Based Near-Visible Logpile Photonic Crystal (pages 4180–4185)

      Ganapathi Subramania, Yun-Ju Lee and Arthur J. Fischer

      Version of Record online: 30 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201001965

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      A nanocavity structure is embedded inside a silicon logpile photonic crystal that demonstrates tunable absorption behavior at near visible wavelengths well beyond the absorption edge of silicon. This is due to silicon’s indirect bandgap resulting in a relatively slow increase in the absorption of silicon with decreasing wavelength. Our results open up the possibility of utilizing the wide, complete three dimensional photonic gap enabled by the large refractive index of silicon to create three dimensional photonic crystal based devices well into the visible regime.

    11. Conjugated Oligoelectrolyte Harnessed Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane as Light-Up Hybrid Nanodot for Two-Photon Fluorescence Imaging of Cellular Nucleus (pages 4186–4189)

      Kan-Yi Pu, Kai Li, Xinhai Zhang and Bin Liu

      Version of Record online: 29 JUN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201001544

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A water-soluble organic/inorganic hybrid nanodot based on polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) and conjugated oligoelectrolyte is designed and synthesized for two-photon fluorescence imaging of cellular nucleus, which takes advantage of its small size (∼3.3 nm) that imparts nucleus permeability and substantial DNA-enhanced two-photon excited fluorescence that allows illuminating the nucleus with a high contrast.

    12. Coordination Modulation Induced Synthesis of Nanoscale Eu1-xTbx-Metal-Organic Frameworks for Luminescent Thin Films (pages 4190–4192)

      Hailing Guo, Yongzhong Zhu, Shilun Qiu, Johannes A. Lercher and Hongjie Zhang

      Version of Record online: 27 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201000844

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      Strategies for synthesizing of nanoscale single or bimetallic lanthanide metal-organic framework (MOF) materials and their transformation into Eu1-xTbx-MOF thin films are reported. The thin films prepared via spin coating deposition method are smooth, dense and mechanically stable. They also exhibit marked luminescent properties and efficient Tb3+-to-Eu3+ energy transferability.

    13. Direct Comparison of Highly Efficient Solution- and Vacuum-Processed Organic Solar Cells Based on Merocyanine Dyes (pages 4193–4197)

      Nils M. Kronenberg, Vera Steinmann, Hannah Bürckstümmer, Jaehyung Hwang, Dirk Hertel, Frank Würthner and Klaus Meerholz

      Version of Record online: 28 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201000800

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      Identically configured bulk heterojunction organic solar cells based on merocyanine dye donor and fullerene acceptor compounds (see figure) are manufactured either from solution or by vacuum deposition, to enable a direct comparison. Whereas the former approach is more suitable for screening purposes, the latter approach affords higher short-circuit current density and power conversion efficiency.

    14. High-Performance Single Crystal Organic Field-Effect Transistors Based on Two Dithiophene-Tetrathiafulvalene (DT-TTF) Polymorphs (pages 4198–4203)

      Raphael Pfattner, Marta Mas-Torrent, Ivano Bilotti, Aldo Brillante, Silvia Milita, Fabiola Liscio, Fabio Biscarini, Tomasz Marszalek, Jacek Ulanski, Andrzej Nosal, Maciej Gazicki-Lipman, Michael Leufgen, Georg Schmidt, Laurens W. Molenkamp, Vladimir Laukhin, Jaume Veciana and Concepció Rovira

      Version of Record online: 18 JUN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201001446

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      Solution prepared single crystal organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) combine low-cost with high performance due to structural ordering of molecules. However, in organic crystals polymorphism is a known phenomenon, which can have a crucial influence on charge transport. Here, the performance of solution-prepared single crystal OFETs based on two different polymorphs of dithiophene-tetrathiafulvalene, which were investigated by confocal Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, are reported. OFET devices prepared using different configurations show that both polymorphs exhibited excellent device performance, although the α-phase revealed charge carrier mobility between two and ten times higher in accordance to the closer stacking of the molecules.

    15. Driving High-Performance n- and p-type Organic Transistors with Carbon Nanotube/Conjugated Polymer Composite Electrodes Patterned Directly from Solution (pages 4204–4208)

      Sondra L. Hellstrom, Run Zhi Jin, Randall M. Stoltenberg and Zhenan Bao

      Version of Record online: 12 JUL 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201001435

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      We report patterned deposition of carbon nanotube/conjugated polymer composites from solution with high nanotube densities and excellent feature resolution. Such composites are suited for use as electrodes in high-performance transistors of pentacene and C60, with bottom-contact mobilities of > 0.5 and > 1 cm2 V−1 s−1, respectively. This represents a clear step towards development of inexpensive, high-performance all-organic circuits.

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