Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 22 Issue 39

October 15, 2010

Volume 22, Issue 39

Pages 4335–4415

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Communications
    6. Research News
    1. Capillary Forming: Diverse 3D Microarchitectures Made by Capillary Forming of Carbon Nanotubes (Adv. Mater. 39/2010)

      Michael De Volder, Sameh H. Tawfick, Sei Jin Park, Davor Copic, Zhouzhou Zhao, Wei Lu and A. John Hart

      Article first published online: 19 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201090127

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The cover shows an assembly of carbon nanotube (CNT) microstructures made by capillary forming, a new technique that enables local transformation of vertically aligned filaments into complex 3D microarchitectures. On page 4384, Michael De Volder, Sameh Tawfick, A. John Hart, and coworkers describe their use of capillary forming to fashion diverse CNT microstructures having sloped, bent, and twisted geometries, and multidirectional textures. Capillary forming combines the scalability of planar lithography with the local specificity of self-assembly, paving the way for use in a new generation of 3D microsystems and multifunctional surfaces.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Communications
    6. Research News
    1. Structural Color: Encoding Localized Strain History Through Wrinkle Based Structural Colors (Adv. Mater. 39/2010)

      Tao Xie, Xingcheng Xiao, Junjun Li and Ruomiao Wang

      Article first published online: 19 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201090128

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      Spatially localized surface wrinkles are created on a metallic film supported on a shape-memory polymer substrate. The wrinkle wavelength approaches that of visible light, resulting in diffraction colors. The spatial and geometric distribution of the wrinkles can be controlled in an arbitrary fashion, allowing the capture of a three dimensional image on a macroscopically flat surface, as reported on p. 4390 by Tao Xie and co-workers.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Communications
    6. Research News
    1. Contents: (Adv. Mater. 39/2010) (pages 4335–4339)

      Article first published online: 19 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201090129

  4. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Communications
    6. Research News
    1. Catalytic Microstrider at the Air–Liquid Interface (pages 4340–4344)

      Alexander A. Solovev, Yongfeng Mei and Oliver G. Schmidt

      Article first published online: 20 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201001468

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Rolled-up microtubes work as catalytic striders at the air–liquid interface of hydrogen peroxide solution (sketched in the left image). Such micromachines, buoyed by oxygen bubbles, self-propel at the fuel surface by the bubble recoiling mechanism and dynamically self-assemble into patterns (right image) due to the meniscus-climbing effect.

    2. Ultrafine and Smooth Full Metal Nanostructures for Plasmonics (pages 4345–4349)

      Xinli Zhu, Yang Zhang, Jiasen Zhang, Jun Xu, Yue Ma, Zhiyuan Li and Dapeng Yu

      Article first published online: 23 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201001313

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      Full metal various nanostructures with extremely smooth surface, small feature size and high aspect ratio can be fabricated by a template stripping method with EBL-patterned PMMA layer as a template. It is further demonstrated that our method is crucial to obtain clear and abundant plasmonic modes in nanocavities with metal reflectors.

    3. Pentacene Thin-Film Transistors Encapsulated by a Thin Alkane Layer Operated in an Aqueous Ionic Environment (pages 4350–4354)

      Martin Göllner, Martin Huth and Bert Nickel

      Article first published online: 23 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201001345

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      The encapsulation of pentacene thin-film transistors (TFTs) by a 50 nm thick layer of a long chain alkane (C44H90) enables the operation in an aqueous solution of 1 mM NaCl. It is the first time that pentacene TFTs operate successfully in a liquid environment. This opens new perspectives for biocompatible sensor devices based on pentacene TFTs.

    4. 6.5% Efficiency of Polymer Solar Cells Based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) and Indene-C60 Bisadduct by Device Optimization (pages 4355–4358)

      Guangjin Zhao, Youjun He and Yongfang Li

      Article first published online: 29 JUN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201001339

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      A power conversion efficiency of 6.48% was achieved for polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as donor and indene-C60 bisadduct (ICBA) as acceptor with an open-circuit voltage of 0.84 V, a short-circuit current of 10.61 mA/cm2, and a fill factor of 72.7% under irradiation at AM1.5G, 100 mW/cm2 at the optimized conditions of P3HT:ICBA = 1:1 (w/w), solvent annealing and pre-thermal annealing at 150 °C for 10 minutes.

    5. Unconventional Face-On Texture and Exceptional In-Plane Order of a High Mobility n-Type Polymer (pages 4359–4363)

      Jonathan Rivnay, Michael F. Toney, Yan Zheng, Isaac V. Kauvar, Zhihua Chen, Veit Wagner, Antonio Facchetti and Alberto Salleo

      Article first published online: 9 JUL 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201001202

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      Substantial in-plane crystallinity and dominant face-on stacking are observed in thin films of a high-mobility n-type rylene-thiophene copolymer. Spun films of the polymer, previously thought to have little or no order are found to exhibit an ordered microstructure at both interfaces, and in the bulk. The implications of this type of packing and crystalline morphology are discussed as they relate to thin-film transistors.

    6. Crystal Habit-Tuned Nanoplate Material of Li[Li1/3–2x/3NixMn2/3–x/3]O2 for High-Rate Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries (pages 4364–4367)

      Guo-Zhen Wei, Xia Lu, Fu-Sheng Ke, Ling Huang, Jun-Tao Li, Zhao-Xiang Wang, Zhi-You Zhou and Shi-Gang Sun

      Article first published online: 30 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201001578

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A cathode for high-rate performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) has been developed from a crystal habit-tuned nanoplate Li(Li0.17Ni0.25Mn0.58)O2 material, in which the proportion of (010) nanoplates (see figure) has been significantly increased. The results demonstrate that the fraction of the surface that is electrochemically active for Li+ transportation is a key criterion for evaluating the different nanostructures of potential LIB materials.

    7. Poling-Assisted Fabrication of Plasmonic Nanocomposite Devices in Glass (pages 4368–4372)

      Martynas Beresna, Peter G. Kazansky, Olivier Deparis, Isabel C. S. Carvalho, Satoshi Takahashi and Anatoly V. Zayats

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201001222

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We report on the fabrication and optical properties of large-scale plasmonic nanocomposite metamaterial directly within glass matrix by thermal electric-field poling of glass. The achieved structure exhibits an enhanced backscattering (see Figure), which has strong dependence on the exposure of the surface to different organic vapors and can be used for development of new sensing platforms.

    8. Near-Infrared Sunlight Harvesting in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Via the Insertion of an Upconverter-TiO2 Nanocomposite Layer (pages 4373–4377)

      Guo-Bin Shan and George P. Demopoulos

      Article first published online: 31 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201001816

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      Er3+,Yb3+ co-doped LaF3-TiO2 nanocomposites (UC-TiO2) are inserted as a middle layer in a novel tri-layer photoanode design (see Figure) of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The Er3+,Yb3+ co-doped LaF3 part of the nanocomposite helps capture near-infrared (NIR) light by converting it into visible light absorbable by the dye hence opening the road for the development of DSSCs with higher conversion efficiency and photocurrent output.

    9. Efficiency Enhancement of Organic Solar Cells Using Transparent Plasmonic Ag Nanowire Electrodes (pages 4378–4383)

      Myung-Gyu Kang, Ting Xu, Hui Joon Park, Xiangang Luo and L. Jay Guo

      Article first published online: 23 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201001395

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Surface plasmon enhanced photo-current and power conversion efficiency of organic solar cells using periodic Ag nanowires as transparent electrodes are reported, as compared to the device with conventional ITO electrodes. External quantum efficiencies are enhanced about 2.5 fold around the peak solar spectrum wavelength of 560 nm, resulting in 35% overall increase in power conversion efficiency than the ITO control device under normal unpolarized light.

    10. Diverse 3D Microarchitectures Made by Capillary Forming of Carbon Nanotubes (pages 4384–4389)

      Michael De Volder, Sameh H. Tawfick, Sei Jin Park, Davor Copic, Zhouzhou Zhao, Wei Lu and A. John Hart

      Article first published online: 2 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201001893

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A new technology called capillary forming enables transformation of vertically aligned nanoscale filaments into complex three-dimensional microarchitectures. We demonstrate capillary forming of carbon nanotubes into diverse forms having intricate bends, twists, and multidirectional textures. In addition to their novel geometries, these structures have mechanical stiffness exceeding that of microfabrication polymers, and can be used as masters for replica molding.

    11. Encoding Localized Strain History Through Wrinkle Based Structural Colors (pages 4390–4394)

      Tao Xie, Xingcheng Xiao, Junjun Li and Ruomiao Wang

      Article first published online: 13 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201002825

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Surface wrinkles are created on a metallic film supported on a shape memory polymer substrate. The wrinkle wavelength approaches that of visible lights, resulting in diffraction colors. The spatial and geometric distribution of the surface wrinkles can be controlled in an arbitrary fashion, allowing the capture of a three dimensional arbitrary image on a macroscopically flat surface.

    12. Flash Nano-Welding: Investigation and Control of the Photothermal Response of Ultrathin Bismuth Sulfide Nanowire Films (pages 4395–4400)

      Jordan W. Thomson, Gregor Lawson, Paul O'Brien, Richard Klenkler, Michael G. Helander, Srebri Petrov, Zheng-Hong Lu, Nazir P. Kherani, Alex Adronov and Geoffery Ozin

      Article first published online: 10 JUN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201001349

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Ultrathin Bi2S3 nanowires undergo a pronounced photothermal response to irradiation from a commercial camera flash. Controlled nano-welding was shown by using single walled carbon nanotube mats as an electrically and thermally conductive substrate. The resulting welded nanowire film is denser and has significantly lower resistance than unflashed bilayer films.

    13. Direct Ethanol Fuel Cell Using Hydrotalcite Clay as a Hydroxide Ion Conductive Electrolyte (pages 4401–4404)

      Kiyoharu Tadanaga, Yoshihiro Furukawa, Akitoshi Hayashi and Masahiro Tatsumisago

      Article first published online: 30 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201001766

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      An alkaline-type direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) using a natural clay electrolyte with non-platinum catalysts is proposed. So-called hydrotalcite clay, Mg–Al layered double hydroxide intercalated with CO32−, is shown to be a hydroxide ion conductor. An alkaline-type DEFC using this natural clay as the electrolyte and aqueous solution of ethanol and potassium hydroxide as a source of fuel exhibits excellent electrochemical performance from room temperature to 80 °C.

    14. High-Temperature Ferromagnetism of a Discotic Liquid Crystal Dilutely Intercalated with Iron(III) Phthalocyanine (pages 4405–4409)

      Chang Hoon Lee, Young-Wan Kwon, Dong Hoon Choi, Yves Henri Geerts, EuiKwan Koh and Jung-Il Jin

      Article first published online: 21 JUL 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201001288

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Room-temperature ferromagnetism of an organic discotic liquid crystalline compound (DLC) is achieved by intercalation at low levels with paramagnetic iron(III) phthalocyanine (see figure). These ferromagnetic DLCs are very similar to the so-called dilute magnetic semiconductors of inorganic nature. It is expected that this novel approach will open up a new way of preparing the high-temperature organic ferromagnetic compounds needed for molecular spintronics.

  5. Research News

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Communications
    6. Research News
    1. Bifunctional Nanocomposites with Magnetic and Luminescence Properties (pages 4410–4415)

      Dieter Vollath

      Article first published online: 13 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201001743

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Many high-value-added applications require nanoparticles that exhibit significant magnetic moment and luminescence. This combination of properties is obtained by using nanocomposites, either of the core–shell type or the type that consists of agglomerates containing particles of both properties in question. The figure displays the properties of core–shell-type composites using a maghemite core and an anthracene shell as lumophore.

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