Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 22 Issue 40

October 25, 2010

Volume 22, Issue 40

Pages 4421–4533

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    1. Flexible Electronics: Rollable Transparent Glass-Fabric Reinforced Composite Substrate for Flexible Devices (Adv. Mater. 40/2010)

      JungHo Jin, Ji-Hoon Ko, SeungCheol Yang and Byeong-Soo Bae

      Article first published online: 21 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201090130

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      A rollable transparent glass-fabric reinforced composite film (GFRHybrimer) with potential for use as a substrate in flexible devices is reported on p. 4510 by Byeong-Soo Bae and co-workers. The GFRHybrimer film is fabricated by impregnating woven glass-fabric with a photocurable sol-gel hybrid material (Hybrimer). This process imparts a low coefficient of thermal expansion to the composite film. High optical transparency can be achieved by precise matching of the refractive index.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    1. Organic FETs: Functional Organic Field-Effect Transistors (Adv. Mater. 40/2010)

      Yunlong Guo, Gui Yu and Yunqi Liu

      Article first published online: 21 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201090131

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      On p. 4427 Yunqi Liu and co-workers present a review of different types of functional organic fieldeffect transistors (OFETs), including phototransistors, nonvolatile memory, light-emitting FETs, and sensors. The cover image depicts the development of organic electronics as a movie. Each different functional OFETs makes up just one part of the movie, but their rapid development serves to make the whole movie more exciting.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    1. Contents: (Adv. Mater. 40/2010) (pages 4421–4426)

      Article first published online: 21 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201090132

  4. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    1. Functional Organic Field-Effect Transistors (pages 4427–4447)

      Yunlong Guo, Gui Yu and Yunqi Liu

      Article first published online: 17 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201000740

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      Functional organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) have attracted increasing attention due to their abilities in photoswitching, light detection, light emission, signal storage, sensing, and other areas and have many potential commercial applications. This review focuses on functional OFETs including organic phototransistors, organic non-volatile memory FETs, organic light emitting FETs, sensors based on OFETs and other functional OFETs.

  5. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    1. Electrically Tunable Optical Switching of a Mott Insulator–Band Insulator Interface (pages 4448–4451)

      A. Rastogi, A. K. Kushwaha, T. Shiyani, A. Gangawar and R. C. Budhani

      Article first published online: 16 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201001980

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      The electrical conductivity of the two-dimensional (2D) electron gas at the interface of epitaxially grown ultrathin films of LaTiO3 on SrTiO3 shows a large gain upon near-UV excitation. The gain in conductivity can be turned on or off by the application of a gate voltage of correct polarity. This feature of the 2D gas should allow realization of optoelectronic devices whose functionality can be enhanced by sequential application of an electric field and light.

    2. In Situ, Label-Free DNA Detection Using Organic Transistor Sensors (pages 4452–4456)

      Hadayat Ullah Khan, Mark E. Roberts, Olasupo Johnson, Renate Förch, Wolfgang Knoll and Zhenan Bao

      Article first published online: 21 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201000790

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      Organic thin-film transistors modified with 15-base PNA strands are used for the selective detection of target DNA sequences. These simple devices provide a low-cost, label-free and in situ detection platform with excellent discrimination between single and double base mismatches in the target DNA sequence. The electronic detection signal is corroborated with conventional optical methods, displaying similar hybridization parameters.

    3. Molecularly Intercalated Nanoflakes: A Supramolecular Composite for Strong Energy Absorption (pages 4457–4461)

      Chichao Yu, Ziguang Chen, Hui Li, Joseph Turner, Xiao Cheng Zeng, Zhihe Jin, Jinyue Jiang, Boulos Youssef and Li Tan

      Article first published online: 9 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201000546

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      Nanoflakes, one type of supramolecules that consist of alternating inorganic layers separated by organic moieties, are demonstrated as a good candidate for energy absorption as a thin film. When a bulky molecule is inserted between those layered structures, both modulus and specific energy absorption were increased 12- and 9-fold, to 12.5 GPa and 275 J/g. Extensive interlayer glide during mechanical loadings could have rendered such a strong plastic deformation, suggesting promise in protecting engineered structures or human bodies against external impact with minimal added weight or volume.

    4. Three-Dimensional Printing of Interconnects by Laser Direct-Write of Silver Nanopastes (pages 4462–4466)

      Jiwen Wang, Raymond C. Y. Auyeung, Heungsoo Kim, Nicholas A. Charipar and Alberto Piqué

      Article first published online: 3 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201001729

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      A novel non-contact 3-dimensional laser direct-write process is demonstrated. Freestanding silver interconnects with various widths (8–75 μm), loop heights (1–10 μm), and bond lengths (8–100 μm) are printed on various substrates. We demonstrate the capability of this technology for ultrafine (<1 μm) pitch bonding and for connecting LEDs embedded in flexible polyimide substrates

    5. Determination of the Local Chemical Structure of Graphene Oxide and Reduced Graphene Oxide (pages 4467–4472)

      Kris Erickson, Rolf Erni, Zonghoon Lee, Nasim Alem, Will Gannett and Alex Zettl

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201000732

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      The local atomic structure of graphene oxide (GO) and reduced annealed graphene oxide (raGO) is determined via ultra-high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. We find that the proposed and desired return to graphene from GO is not possible through the synthetic route employed. The detailed structure of GO, previously unknown, is revealed as mottled, with few square nanometer graphitic regions separated by highly oxidized regions.

    6. Development of Laser Dyes to Realize Low Threshold in Dye-Doped Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Lasers (pages 4473–4478)

      Makoto Uchimura, Yo Watanabe, Fumito Araoka, Junji Watanabe, Hideo Takezoe and Gen-ichi Konishi

      Article first published online: 27 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201001046

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      Highly efficient luminescence dyes based on pyrene and anthracene derivatives (see figure) are synthesized for liquid crystal dye lasers. The threshold value of one of the pyrene derivatives is as low as 1/20 that of the commonly used DCM in cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) distributed feedback lasers. Good optical properties such as luminous efficiency and solubility in CLCs are important factors for realizing a low threshold.

    7. Fabrication and Efficiency Improvement of Soluble Blue Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Using a Multilayer Structure Based on an Alcohol-Soluble Blue Phosphorescent Emitting Layer (pages 4479–4483)

      Kyoung Soo Yook, Sang Eok Jang, Soon Ok Jeon and Jun Yeob Lee

      Article first published online: 31 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201002034

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      Highly efficient soluble blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes have been developed using a multilayer device structure based on alcohol soluble blue phosphorescent emitting layer. A device structure with double emitting layer and an exciton blocking layer could be fabricated due to orthogonal film formation and a high quantum efficiency of 14.1% and a current efficiency of 30.4 cd/A were achieved in the soluble blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes.

    8. A New Transparent Conductor: Silver Nanowire Film Buried at the Surface of a Transparent Polymer (pages 4484–4488)

      Xiao-Yan Zeng, Qi-Kai Zhang, Rong-Min Yu and Can-Zhong Lu

      Article first published online: 3 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201001811

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      Using a wet chemical process, a continuous network of silver nanowires was buried at the surface of a transparent polymer (PVA) to form a flexible transparent conductor, which shows high optical transparency, low sheet resistance, a smooth surface, and superior mechanical, thermal and chemical stabilities. The composite is a competitive choice for transparent electrodes in OLED and thin film solar cells.

    9. Mixed Self-Assembled Monolayer Gate Dielectrics for Continuous Threshold Voltage Control in Organic Transistors and Circuits (pages 4489–4493)

      Ute Zschieschang, Frederik Ante, Matthias Schlörholz, Maike Schmidt, Klaus Kern and Hagen Klauk

      Article first published online: 30 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201001502

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      Mixed alkyl/fluoroalkyl phosphonic acid self-assembled monolayers have been prepared as ultra-thin dielectrics in low-voltage organic thin-film transistors and complementary circuits. Mixed monolayers enable continuous threshold-voltage tuning simply by adjusting the molecular mixing ratio Continuous threshold-voltage control makes it possible to place the switching voltage of the circuits at precisely half the supply voltage, producing the maximum noise margin.

    10. Dynamic Modulation of Photonic Bandgaps in Crystalline Colloidal Arrays Under Electric Field (pages 4494–4498)

      Tae Soup Shim, Shin-Hyun Kim, Jae Young Sim, Jong-Min Lim and Seung-Man Yang

      Article first published online: 30 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201001227

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      Dynamic modulation of photonic bandgaps in crystalline colloidal arrays is achieved by application of electric field. Highly charged polystyrene particles spontaneously create the crystal lattice, which is compressed or relaxed under external electric field by electrokinetic force. As a result, structural color of colloidal crystals as a photonic bandgap can be tuned or fixed with unprecedentedly fast and precise manner.

    11. A Luminescent Molecular Thermometer for Long-Term Absolute Temperature Measurements at the Nanoscale (pages 4499–4504)

      Carlos D. S. Brites, Patricia P. Lima, Nuno J. O. Silva, Angel Millán, Vitor S. Amaral, Fernando Palacio and Luís D. Carlos

      Article first published online: 30 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201001780

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      A unique Eu3+/Tb3+ luminescent self-referencing nanothermometer allowing absolute measurements in the 10–350 K temperature range and sub-micrometer spatial resolution is reported (see Figure). It has up to 4.9%·K−1 temperature sensitivity and high photostability for long-term use. The combination of molecular thermometry, superparamagnetism and luminescence in a nanometric host matrix provides multifunctionality opening the way for new exciting applications.

    12. Water-Based Electrolytes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (pages 4505–4509)

      ChunHung Law, Shehan C. Pathirana, Xaioe Li, Assaf Y. Anderson, Piers R. F. Barnes, Andrea Listorti, Tarek H. Ghaddar and Brian C. O′Regan

      Article first published online: 27 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201001703

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      Stable and efficient dye-sensitized solar cells based on water-containing electrolytes are shown. For water contents up to 40%, no decrease in efficiency is seen. The cells are demonstrated to be stable for long periods of continuous illumination.This work lays a foundation for the further development of water-based cells for commercial production.

    13. Rollable Transparent Glass-Fabric Reinforced Composite Substrate for Flexible Devices (pages 4510–4515)

      JungHo Jin, Ji-Hoon Ko, SeungCheol Yang and Byeong-Soo Bae

      Article first published online: 9 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201002198

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A novel high-performance transparent glass-fabric reinforced composite film that can be used as a substrate for flexible devices is introduced (see Figure). The composite film exhibited a low CTE (13 ppm K−1), high optical transparency (89%), high thermal stability (378 °C) and excellent flexibility (rollable). The performance of the composite film was successfully tested by fabrication of IGZO TFT and amorphous Si-based solar cells

    14. Reprogramming Directional Cell Motility by Tuning Micropattern Features and Cellular Signals (pages 4516–4519)

      Keiichiro Kushiro, Stephanie Chang and Anand R. Asthagiri

      Article first published online: 3 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201001619

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      Simple geometrical constraints of micropatterned substrates can be used to manipulate the direction and directional persistence of motile cells (scale bar: 20 μm). Modulation of the directional bias is demonstrated by altering pattern parameters and signal pathways.

    15. Microstructured Tungsten Oxide: A Generic Desorption/Ionization Substrate for Mass Spectrometry (pages 4520–4523)

      Xiujuan Yang, X. K. Hu, A. V. Loboda and R. H. Lipson

      Article first published online: 13 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201001627

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      Microstructured tungsten oxide (WO3) fabricated by laser-irradiating tungsten foil in methanol has been developed as a substrate to soft-ionize small-molecular-weight compounds by surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. The material can be used to detect a wide variety of low molecular weight polar analytes in their protonated and deprotonated forms and non-polar species as radical cations.

    16. Holographic Design and Fabrication of Diamond Symmetry Photonic Crystals Via Dual-Beam Quadruple Exposure (pages 4524–4529)

      Guanquan Liang, Xuelian Zhu, Yongan Xu, Jie Li and Shu Yang

      Article first published online: 30 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201001785

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      Diamond symmetry structures (space group No. 227) with tunable lattice size are fabricated from epoxy-functionalized cyclohexyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) by holographic lithography using dual-beam quadruple exposure configuration with careful consideration of the relative phase shift, wobble effect, and pre-compensation of the photoresist shrinkage. Calculation suggests that Si photonic crystals templated from the POSS structures, both directly converted and its inverse structure, offer the same and maximum complete PBGs in comparison to other holographically patterned diamond lattices. Holographic Design and Fabrication of Diamond Symmetry Photonic Crystals Via Dual-Beam Quadruple Exposure

    17. Single-Crystalline Sb2Se3 Nanowires for High-Performance Field Emitters and Photodetectors (pages 4530–4533)

      Tianyou Zhai, Mingfu Ye, Liang Li, Xiaosheng Fang, Meiyong Liao, Yongfang Li, Yasuo Koide, Yoshio Bando and Dmitri Golberg

      Article first published online: 10 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201002097

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      Single-crystalline Sb2Se3 nanowires demonstrate excellent field-emission and photodetector properties for the first time. They show low turn-on (2.6 V μm−1) and threshold voltages (4.9 V μm−1) and a high enhancement factor (3466). The individual Sb2Se3 nanowire photodetectors exhibited a marked response to visible light (Rλ and EQE are as high as ∼8.0 A/W and ∼1650%, with a response time of less than 0.3 s).

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