Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 22 Issue 5

February 2, 2010

Volume 22, Issue 5

Pages 551–659

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    1. Self-Assembled Nanostructures: Role of Water in Directing Diphenylalanine Assembly into Nanotubes and Nanowires (Adv. Mater. 5/2010)

      Jangbae Kim, Tae Hee Han, Yong-Il Kim, Ji Sun Park, Jungkweon Choi, David G. Churchill, Sang Ouk Kim and Hyotcherl Ihee

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201090007

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The controllable assembly behavior of diphenylalanine molecules to form nanowires (NWs) and nanotubes (NTs) and their structural details are presented. Hyotcherl Ihee, Sang Ouk Kim and co-workers show on p. 583 that the nanoscale morphologies are closely related to molecular arrangements of diphenylalanine as revealed by Rietveld refinement of powder X-ray diffraction patterns and electron-density distributions in NTs and NWs via the maximum entropy method analysis.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    1. Inorganic Materials and Ionic Liquids: Large-scale Nanopatterning of Single Proteins used as Carriers of Magnetic Nanoparticles (Adv. Mater. 5/2010)

      Ramsés V. Martínez, Javier Martínez, Marco Chiesa, Ricardo Garcia, Eugenio Coronado, Elena Pinilla-Cienfuegos and Sergio Tatay

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201090008

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Ricardo Garcia, Eugenio Coronado, and co-workers demonstrate on p. 588 large-scale patterning of single ferritin molecules by sequential (atomic force microscopy local oxidation) and parallel approaches (lithographically controlled wetting). The nanopattern size matches the size of the protein (∼10 nm). Electrostatic interactions, capillary forces, surface functionalization, and nanolithography are used to achieve the desired protein organization.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Review
    7. Communications
  4. Progress Report

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    1. Carbon Nanotubes Anchored to Silicon for Device Fabrication (pages 557–571)

      Kristina T. Constantopoulos, Cameron J. Shearer, Amanda V. Ellis, Nicolas H. Voelcker and Joseph G. Shapter

      Article first published online: 3 AUG 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200900945

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      Silicon is the basis of all electronic devices. Development of new sensors and devices will rely on novel modification of silicon substrates. This report highlights recent progress in the fabrication of vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VA-CNT)—silicon-based architectures. These assemblies are showing particular promise in field emission, as filtration membranes and as scaffolds for mammalian cells. This report discusses fabrication procedures and applications of the novel architectures.

  5. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    1. Recent Advances in White Organic Light-Emitting Materials and Devices (WOLEDs) (pages 572–582)

      Kiran T. Kamtekar, Andrew P. Monkman and Martin R. Bryce

      Article first published online: 24 NOV 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200902148

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      White organic light-emitting devices (WOLEDs) offer new design opportunities in practical solid-state lighting and could play a significant role in reducing global energy consumption. Obtaining white light from organic LEDs is a considerable challenge. Alongside the development of new materials with improved color stability and balanced charge transport properties, major issues involve the fabrication of large-area devices and the development of low-cost manufacturing technology.

  6. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    1. Role of Water in Directing Diphenylalanine Assembly into Nanotubes and Nanowires (pages 583–587)

      Jangbae Kim, Tae Hee Han, Yong-Il Kim, Ji Sun Park, Jungkweon Choi, David G. Churchill, Sang Ouk Kim and Hyotcherl Ihee

      Article first published online: 11 SEP 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200901973

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The controllable assembly behavior of diphenylalanine molecules to form nanowires (NWs) and nanotubes (NTs) and their structural details are presented (see figure). The nanoscale morphologies are closely related to molecular arrangements of diphenylalanine as revealed by Rietveld refinement of powder X-ray diffraction patterns and electron-density distributions in NTs and NWs via the maximum entropy method analysis.

    2. Large-scale Nanopatterning of Single Proteins used as Carriers of Magnetic Nanoparticles (pages 588–591)

      Ramsés V. Martínez, Javier Martínez, Marco Chiesa, Ricardo Garcia, Eugenio Coronado, Elena Pinilla-Cienfuegos and Sergio Tatay

      Article first published online: 30 NOV 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200902568

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Patterning of single ferritin molecules by sequential (atomic force microscopy local oxidation) and parallel approaches (lithographically controlled wetting). The nanopattern size matches the size of the protein (∼10 nm). Electrostatic interactions, capillary forces, surface functionalization, and nanolithography are used to achieve the desired protein organization.

    3. Ultraviolet-Assisted Direct-Write Fabrication of Carbon Nanotube/Polymer Nanocomposite Microcoils (pages 592–596)

      Louis Laberge Lebel, Brahim Aissa, My Ali El Khakani and Daniel Therriault

      Article first published online: 30 OCT 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200902192

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      The UV-assisted direct-write fabrication of microcoils is shown using a UV-photocurable carbon nanotube nanocomposite ink. The method employs the robotically controlled microextrusion of a filament combined with a UV exposure that follows the extrusion point. Upon curing, the increased rigidity of the extruded filament enables the creation of complex multi-directional shapes.

    4. Robust Airlike Superhydrophobic Surfaces (pages 597–601)

      Jiann Shieh, Fu Ju Hou, Yan Chen Chen, Hung Min Chen, Shun Po Yang, Chao Chia Cheng and Hsuen Li Chen

      Article first published online: 2 NOV 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200901864

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A two-tier nanostructure comprising a 20-nm-diameter “nanograss” on 100-nm-diameter nanopillars exhibits robust and near-perfect superhydrophobicity, that is, water contact angles close to 180° and sliding angles close to 0°. Although the solid fraction was very low (∼0.02%), this surface could support a drop of water under a pressure of 234 Pa.

    5. Increased Color-Conversion Efficiency in Hybrid Light-Emitting Diodes utilizing Non-Radiative Energy Transfer (pages 602–606)

      Soontorn Chanyawadee, Pavlos G. Lagoudakis, Richard T. Harley, Martin D. B. Charlton, Dmitri V. Talapin, Hong Wen Huang and Chung-Hsiang Lin

      Article first published online: 6 NOV 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200902262

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      An efficient hybrid color-conversion light-emitting device consisting of colloidal nanocrystal quantum dots (NQDs) and a surface-patterned GaN-based LED is demonstrated (see figure). Excitation in a surface-patterned LED is efficiently transferred to NQD emitters via non-radiative energy transfer. A twofold enhancement of the NQD emission is achieved.

    6. Engineering Strong Intergraphene Shear Resistance in Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes and Dramatic Tensile Improvements (pages 607–610)

      Mehdi Estili and Akira Kawasaki

      Article first published online: 11 NOV 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200902140

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      Strong intergraphene shear resistance is engineered in multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by embedding the nanotubes into a compressive-stressing ceramic environment to exploit the exceptional strength of its inner graphene walls during tensile loading. A dramatic enhancement in the tensile failure load of MWCNT is achieved in the ceramic environment and a new “multi-wall” failure mechanism is discovered.

    7. Selectively Transparent and Conducting Photonic Crystals (pages 611–616)

      Paul G. O'Brien, Daniel P. Puzzo, Alongkarn Chutinan, Leonardo D. Bonifacio, Geoffrey A. Ozin and Nazir P. Kherani

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200902605

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      Selectively transmissive and conductive 1D photonic crystals (PCs) are fabricated by alternately depositing sputtered ITO and spin-coated ATO nanoparticle films. These Bragg reflectors exhibit broad and intense Bragg peaks (tunable via the thickness of their ITO layers) over their stop gap but are highly transmissive over remaining spectral regions of the visible and infrared spectrum.

    8. Carbon Nanotube Sponges (pages 617–621)

      Xuchun Gui, Jinquan Wei, Kunlin Wang, Anyuan Cao, Hongwei Zhu, Yi Jia, Qinke Shu and Dehai Wu

      Article first published online: 9 NOV 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200902986

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Carbon nanotube sponges are synthesized by chemical vapor deposition, in which nanotubes are self-assembled into a three-dimensionally interconnected framework. The sponges are very light, highly porous, hydrophobic in pristine form, and can be elastically and reversibly deformed into any shape. The sponges can float on water surfaces and absorb large-area spreading oil films (see images), suggesting promising environmental applications.

    9. Nanoparticle-Dispersed Liquid Crystals Fabricated by Sputter Doping (pages 622–626)

      Hiroyuki Yoshida, Kosuke Kawamoto, Hitoshi Kubo, Testuya Tsuda, Akihiko Fujii, Susumu Kuwabata and Masanori Ozaki

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200902831

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      A simple and robust method to prepare nanoparticle-dispersed liquid crystals is demonstrated. Highly dispersed gold nanoparticle–liquid crystal suspensions are fabricated by simply sputter doping the gold target on the host liquid crystal (see figure). The existence of the nanoparticles is supported by optical extinction measurements, polarization optical microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. An improvement in the electro-optic response, namely, a decrease in the threshold voltage, is also demonstrated in twist nematic devices fabricated using the nanoparticle-dispersed liquid crystal.

    10. “Charge Leakage” at LaMnO3/SrTiO3 Interfaces (pages 627–632)

      Javier Garcia-Barriocanal, Flavio Y. Bruno, Alberto Rivera-Calzada, Zouhair Sefrioui, Norbert M. Nemes, Mar Garcia-Hernández, Juan Rubio-Zuazo, German R. Castro, Maria Varela, Stephen J. Pennycook, Carlos Leon and Jacobo Santamaria

      Article first published online: 24 NOV 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200902263

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      Direct evidence for charge leakage at the interface of epitaxial SrTiO3/LaMnO3 superlattices with atomically sharp interfaces is provided. The direction of charge leakage can be reversed by changing the LMO/STO thickness ratio. This result will be important for the understanding of some of the reported limitations of oxide devices involving manganite/titanate interfaces.

    11. Luminescence Modulation of Ordered Upconversion Nanopatterns by a Photochromic Diarylethene: Rewritable Optical Storage with Nondestructive Readout (pages 633–637)

      Chao Zhang, Huan-Ping Zhou, Long-Yan Liao, Wei Feng, Wei Sun, Zhan-Xian Li, Chun-Hu Xu, Chen-Jie Fang, Ling-Dong Sun, Ya-Wen Zhang and Chun-Hua Yan

      Article first published online: 28 OCT 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200901722

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Inorganic–organic composite films for rewritable optical storage are fabricated base on the reversible luminescence modulation of ordered upconversion nanopatterns via a photochromic diarylethene. The near-IR excitation for reading the upconversion emission does not affect the recorded data bits. Moreover, the spatially well-defined 2D nanopatterns promise future applications in ultrahigh-density storage.

    12. Aqueous-Processable Noncovalent Chemically Converted Graphene–Quantum Dot Composites for Flexible and Transparent Optoelectronic Films (pages 638–642)

      Xiumei Geng, Liang Niu, Zhenyuan Xing, Rensheng Song, Guangtong Liu, Mengtao Sun, Guosheng Cheng, Haijian Zhong, Zhenghui Liu, Zhijun Zhang, Lianfeng Sun, Hongxing Xu, Li Lu and Liwei Liu

      Article first published online: 30 NOV 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200902871

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The preparation and optoelectronic response of flexible composites via noncovalent coupling of quantum dots to chemically converted graphene is presented. The photoinduced charge transfer is confirmed by photoconductivity measurements and the photosensitivity is improved with increasing loadings of quantum dots. This opens up a new effective route to form composites for future large-area flexible and transparent optoelectronic devices.

    13. Cationic Oligofluorene-Substituted Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane as Light-Harvesting Unimolecular Nanoparticle for Fluorescence Amplification in Cellular Imaging (pages 643–646)

      Kan-Yi Pu, Kai Li and Bin Liu

      Article first published online: 11 NOV 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200902409

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A new bottom-up strategy is used to construct water-soluble organic/inorganic fluorescent unimolecular nanoparticles based on polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) and conjugated oligoelectrolyte. Their high quantum yield, good cytocompatibility, and unique whole-cell permeability could serve as a light-harvesting energy donor to amplify the intracellular dye fluorescence for high-quality biological imaging through fluorescence resonance energy transfer (see image).

    14. Fullerene Sensitized Silicon for Near- to Mid-Infrared Light Detection (pages 647–650)

      Gebhard J. Matt, Thomas Fromherz, Mateusz Bednorz, Saeid Zamiri, Guillaume Goncalves, Christoph Lungenschmied, Dieter Meissner, Helmut Sitter, N. Serdar Sariciftci, Christoph J. Brabec and Günther Bauer

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200901383

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      A novel light-sensing scheme based on a silicon/fullerene-derivative heterojunction allows optoelectronic detection in the near- to mid-infrared (IR), which is fully compatible with complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. Although silicon and the fullerene derivative do not absorb in the IR, a heterojunction of these materials absorbs and generates a photocurrent (PC) in the near- to mid-IR, presumably caused by an interfacial absorption mechanism.

    15. Organic Thin-Film Transistors Fabricated on Resorbable Biomaterial Substrates (pages 651–655)

      Christopher J. Bettinger and Zhenan Bao

      Article first published online: 4 NOV 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200902322

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      Organic electronics and biodegradable materials have the potential to be integrated to create a new class of electronic devices for the use in biomedical and environmental applications. Organic thin-film field-effect transistors fabricated using a biodegradable material platform exhibit water stable performance and degrade in vitro.

    16. Conjugated Polyelectrolyte–Metal Nanoparticle Platforms for Optically Amplified DNA Detection (pages 656–659)

      Yusong Wang, Bin Liu, Alexander Mikhailovsky and Guillermo C. Bazan

      Article first published online: 30 NOV 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200902675

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A conjugated polyelectrolyte (CPE)-silver nanoparticle platform for DNA-sensing applications is fabricated (see figure), which provides over 17-fold enhancement of dye emission intensity, as compared to the intrinsic dye emission observed atop a conventional glass surface. Examination of the distance-dependence amplification process reveals that the role of the silver nanoparticles is to increase the effective field experienced by the light-harvesting CPE, and the metal enhanced fluorescence of the CPE could be translated into higher dye signal intensities for the detection platform.

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