Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 22 Issue 6

February 9, 2010

Volume 22, Issue 6

Pages 667–778

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Communications
    7. Research News
    1. Dynamic Hydrogels: Switching of 3D Microenvironments Using Two-Component Naturally Derived Extracellular Matrices (Adv. Mater. 6/2010)

      Brian M. Gillette, Jacob A. Jensen, Meixin Wang, Jason Tchao and Samuel K. Sia

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201090010

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      The front cover image depicts a two-component extracellular matrix (ECM) in which one component acts as a stable structural element (which supports cell attachment and migration) and another component gels or dissolves reversibly (a modulatory component). Samuel K. Sia and co-workers show on p. 686 that by dynamically adding or removing crosslinks in the modulatory component, properties of the composite ECM, such as the ability of cells to migrate and the rate of diffusive transport, can be altered.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Communications
    7. Research News
    1. Inkjet Printing: Inkjet Printing—Process and Its Applications (Adv. Mater. 6/2010)

      Madhusudan Singh, Hanna M. Haverinen, Parul Dhagat and Ghassan E. Jabbour

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201090011

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      Ghassan E. Jabbour and co-workers highlight recent developments in inkjet printing technology and applications on p. 673. The inside cover image shows starting materials (upper left), the inkjet printing process (center), and two examples of applications: QVGA quantum-dot LEDs (bottom left) and macromolecular OLEDs (bottom right).

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Communications
    7. Research News
    1. Contents: (Adv. Mater. 6/2010) (pages 667–672)

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201090012

  4. Progress Report

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Communications
    7. Research News
    1. Inkjet Printing—Process and Its Applications (pages 673–685)

      Madhusudan Singh, Hanna M. Haverinen, Parul Dhagat and Ghassan E. Jabbour

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200901141

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      Recent developments in inkjet printing technology and its applications are highlighted in this Progress Report. The applications addressed include organic thin-film transistors, light-emitting devices, sensors, conductive structures, and biological/pharmaceutical uses.

  5. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Communications
    7. Research News
    1. Dynamic Hydrogels: Switching of 3D Microenvironments Using Two-Component Naturally Derived Extracellular Matrices (pages 686–691)

      Brian M. Gillette, Jacob A. Jensen, Meixin Wang, Jason Tchao and Samuel K. Sia

      Article first published online: 9 OCT 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200902265

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This article describes fabrication of a two-component extracellular matrix (ECM) in which one component acts as a stable structural element and another component gels or dissolves reversibly (a modulatory component). Using a composite collagen-alginate ECM, reversible crosslinking of the alginate (the modulatory component) via application of calcium or citrate modulates cell mobility in a 3D collagen matrix (the structural component).

    2. Continuous Multilayered Carbon Nanotube Yarns (pages 692–696)

      Xiao-Hua Zhong, Ya-Li Li, Ya-Kun Liu, Xiao-Hua Qiao, Yan Feng, Ji Liang, Jun Jin, Lu Zhu, Feng Hou and Jin-You Li

      Article first published online: 24 NOV 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200902943

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      Kilometers of continuous multifunctional carbon nanotube (CNT) yarns have been spun directly from chemical vapor deposition synthesis. The CNT yarn consists of multiple layers of high-purity double-walled CNTs stacked in seamless tubules or folded films along the yarn axis (see image). This multilayerd CNT yarn is promising for applications as engineering fibers, composites, and intelligent fabrics.

    3. Microstructural Origin of High Mobility in High-Performance Poly(thieno-thiophene) Thin-Film Transistors (pages 697–701)

      Chenchen Wang, Leslie H. Jimison, Ludwig Goris, Iain McCulloch, Martin Heeney, Alexander Ziegler and Alberto Salleo

      Article first published online: 25 NOV 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200902303

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      High-mobility PBTTT thin-film transistors are modeled with a mobility edge model and compared with P3HT. Their improved performance is not due to a low trap density but rather due to high mobility in the crystallites. Characterization of delaminated films with transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy indicates terraces that are composed of nanometer-scale features (see figure).

    4. Two-Terminal Carbon Nanotube Programmable Devices for Adaptive Architectures (pages 702–706)

      Guillaume Agnus, Weisheng Zhao, Vincent Derycke, Arianna Filoramo, Yves Lhuillier, Stéphane Lenfant, Dominique Vuillaume, Christian Gamrat and Jean-Philippe Bourgoin

      Article first published online: 4 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200902170

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      Carbon nanotube field-effect transistors functionalized with photoconducting polymer act as very efficient and non-volatile two-terminal programmable devices (see figure). Their optoelectronic programmability allows compensating for the critical issue of variability among as-built devices in prototype multi-input circuits, an important milestone toward the realistic use of nano-objects in complex functional circuits such as neuromorphic adaptive nanoarchitectures.

    5. Magnetic Liquid Marbles: Manipulation of Liquid Droplets Using Highly Hydrophobic Fe3O4 Nanoparticles (pages 707–710)

      Yan Zhao, Jian Fang, Hongxia Wang, Xungai Wang and Tong Lin

      Article first published online: 24 NOV 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200902512

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      Magnetic liquid marbles exhibit a remarkable ability to be opened (see image) and closed reversibly under the action of a magnetic field. Liquid can be either extracted from or added to the opened liquid marble simply with a capillary needle. Two opened liquid marbles can also be coalesced into a larger one. The magnetic liquid marbles can be maneuvered two- and three-dimensionally.

    6. Electrogelation for Protein Adhesives (pages 711–715)

      Gary G. Leisk, Tim J. Lo, Tuna Yucel, Qiang Lu and David L. Kaplan

      Article first published online: 24 NOV 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200902643

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      Novel electrochemical behavior of silk protein to generate an adhesive electrogel is reported. The biomimetic system demonstrates reversible adhesive properties (see image) and functions on both hydrated and dry surfaces. Further, the system utilizes all-biocompatible components and functions in an all-aqueous process at ambient conditions. Potential applications in medical devices and in environmentally compatible material systems are described.

    7. Luminescent Europium(III) Nanoparticles for Sensing and Imaging of Temperature in the Physiological Range (pages 716–719)

      Hongshang Peng, Matthias I. J. Stich, Jiangbo Yu, Li-ning Sun, Lorenz H. Fischer and Otto S. Wolfbeis

      Article first published online: 24 NOV 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200901614

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      Europium(III) Nanoparticles are fabricated for sensing and imaging of physiological temperatures (see image). The material shows visible-light excitation, line-like emission, inertness to external perturbers (such as oxygen in air), and a dynamic range that covers temperatures encountered in medicine and (cellular) biology. The resolution is ±0.3 °C. The nanoparticles may also be incorporated into a (conceivably sprayable) sensor film.

    8. A Biomolecular “Ship-in-a-Bottle”: Continuous RNA Synthesis Within Hollow Polymer Hydrogel Assemblies (pages 720–723)

      Andrew D. Price, Alexander N. Zelikin, Kim L. Wark and Frank Caruso

      Article first published online: 10 DEC 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200903411

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      The use of micrometer-sized, monodisperse polymer hydrogel capsules that act as both microreactors and drug carriers for de novo synthesized RNA is demonstrated (see figure). These capsules are expected to have broad impact as biophysical tools for the study of encapsulated RNA and as new biocompatible delivery vehicles for the cellular delivery of RNA therapeutics.

    9. Spray-Processable Blue-to-Highly Transmissive Switching Polymer Electrochromes via the Donor–Acceptor Approach (pages 724–728)

      Chad M. Amb, Pierre M. Beaujuge and John R. Reynolds

      Article first published online: 15 DEC 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200902917

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      Spray processable blue electrochromic polymers with strictly alternating “donor-acceptor” copolymers are reported that exhibit saturated blue neutral states, highly transmissive oxidized states, excellent optical contrasts, fast switching times, and long-term redox switching stability. In addition, an alkylester-functionalized analogue is demonstrated, where the solubility of the material thin-film is irreversibly changed while allowing it to retain its electroactivity.

    10. Biomimetic Underwater Adhesives with Environmentally Triggered Setting Mechanisms (pages 729–733)

      Hui Shao and Russell J. Stewart

      Article first published online: 21 DEC 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200902380

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      Inspired by the sandcastle worm, fluid complex coacervates of polyelectrolytes were formulated as water-borne underwater adhesives. The partially immiscible fluid phase can be delivered underwater and sets into a weight-bearing solid triggered by a change in the pH or temperature. Irreversible hardening occurs through oxidative coupling between catechol and primary amine sidechains.

    11. Hydrothermal Route for Cutting Graphene Sheets into Blue-Luminescent Graphene Quantum Dots (pages 734–738)

      Dengyu Pan, Jingchun Zhang, Zhen Li and Minghong Wu

      Article first published online: 10 DEC 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200902825

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      Water-soluble graphene quantum dots (GQDs, ca. 10 nm in diameter) that exhibit bright blue photoluminescence (PL) are prepared by hydrothermal (chemical) cutting of oxidized graphene sheets (see figure). The mechanisms of the cutting and luminescence are discussed. This discovery of PL of GQDs may extend the range of application of graphene-based materials to optoelectronics and biological labeling.

    12. Non-invasive Transdermal Delivery Route Using Electrostatically Interactive Biocompatible Nanocapsules (pages 739–743)

      Jinseob Shin, Kyomin Shin, Hanna Lee, Jeong-Beom Nam, Jae-Eun Jung, Jee-Hyun Ryu, Joo-Hyun Han, Kyung-Do Suh, Yong-Jin Kim, Jongwon Shim, Junoh Kim, Sang-Hoon Han, Kookheon Char, Yeon Kyung Kim, Jin Ho Chung, Min Jung Lee, Byeong Cheol Kang and Jin-Woong Kim

      Article first published online: 25 NOV 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200902079

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      A robust means of fabricating skin-penetrating and compatible nanocarriers comprising poly(D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) is reported. The resultant nanocapsules have the ability to load biologically active ingredients and selectively release them through the epidermis lipid layer. Their release of genistein (left figure) is determined to be diffusion-controlled, and they are shown to successfully deliver molecules, such as nile red (right figure), into biopsied skin samples.

    13. Synthesis and Characterization of Noble-Metal Nanostructures Containing Gold Nanorods in the Center (pages 744–748)

      Eun Chul Cho, Pedro H. C. Camargo and Younan Xia

      Article first published online: 24 NOV 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200903097

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      Noble-metal nanostructures containing gold (Au) nanorods in the center were synthesized by employing Au nanorods as templates for epitaxial growth of silver (Ag). The immediate products, Au@Ag core–shell nanocrystals with an octahedral shape, were transformed into noble-metal (Au, Pd, and Pt) hollow nanostructures containing Au nanorods in the center, via galvanic replacement reactions (see figure).

    14. Hierachically Nanostructured Mesoporous Spheres of Calcium Silicate Hydrate: Surfactant-Free Sonochemical Synthesis and Drug-Delivery System with Ultrahigh Drug-Loading Capacity (pages 749–753)

      Jin Wu, Ying-Jie Zhu, Shao-Wen Cao and Feng Chen

      Article first published online: 24 NOV 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200903020

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      Ultrahigh drug-loading capacity and the linear relationship between the cumulative amount of released drug and the natural logarithm of release time were discovered for the hierachically nanostructured mesoporous spheres of calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) obtained by a surfactant-free sonochemical method (see figure). During the release of loaded ibuprofen in simulated body fluid, CSH gradually transformed to hydroxyapatite.

    15. Preparation, Bioactivity, and Drug Release of Hierarchical Nanoporous Bioactive Glass Ultrathin Fibers (pages 754–758)

      Youliang Hong, Xuesi Chen, Xiabin Jing, Hongsong Fan, Bo Guo, Zhongwei Gu and Xingdong Zhang

      Article first published online: 24 NOV 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200901656

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Hierarchical nanoporous bioactive glass ultrathin fibers with different pore diameters from 1.5-nm micropores up to 65-nm macropores are synthesized using P123–PEO co-templates and an electrospinning technique (see image). Experiments demonstrate that the prepared bioactive glass fibers are highly homogenous and bioactive and their nanopores can control drug release well.

    16. Phase-Transition Temperatures of Strained Single-Crystal SrRuO3 Thin Films (pages 759–762)

      Kyoung Jin Choi, Seung Hyub Baek, Ho Won Jang, Land J. Belenky, M. Lyubchenko and Chang-Beom Eom

      Article first published online: 11 NOV 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200902355

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      The temperature dependence of in-plane and out-of-plane lattice parameters of a compressively strained SrRuO3 thin film grown on a SrTiO3 substrate is reported. The structural transition temperature of the SrRuO3 thin film shifts by more than 200 °C toward the lower-temperature region due to compressive strain (see graph).

    17. A New Supramolecular Route for Using Rod-Coil Block Copolymers in Photovoltaic Applications (pages 763–768)

      Nicolas Sary, Fanny Richard, Cyril Brochon, Nicolas Leclerc, Patrick Lévêque, Jean-Nicolas Audinot, Solenn Berson, Thomas Heiser, Georges Hadziioannou and Raffaele Mezzenga

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200902645

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      A new polymer blend formed by poly(3-hexylthiophene)-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (P3HT- P4VP) block copolymers and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) is reported. The P4VP and PCBM are mixed together by weak supramolecular interactions, and the resulting materials exhibit microphase separated morphologies of electron-donor and electron-acceptor rich domains. The properties of the blend, used in photovoltaic devices as active layers, are also discussed.

  6. Research News

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Communications
    7. Research News
    1. Patterning and Templating for Nanoelectronics (pages 769–778)

      Kosmas Galatsis, Kang L. Wang, Mihri Ozkan, Cengiz S. Ozkan, Yu Huang, Jane P. Chang, Harold G. Monbouquette, Yong Chen, Paul Nealey and Youssry Botros

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200901689

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      Alternative methods to traditional lithography that offer advantages beyond conventional top-down patterning and templating methods are aggressively being explored because of their benefits to emerging new nanoarchitectures. Such methods include DNA origami, bio-assembly, and electric lithography (see figure). Here such methods are reviewed and benchmarking criteria with respect to complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) scaling is discussed.

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