Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 23 Issue 10

March 11, 2011

Volume 23, Issue 10

Pages 1171–1298

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Reviews
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    1. Thin-Film Solar Cells: Light Absorption Enhancement in Thin-Film Solar Cells Using Whispering Gallery Modes in Dielectric Nanospheres (Adv. Mater. 10/2011) (page 1171)

      Jonathan Grandidier, Dennis M. Callahan, Jeremy N. Munday and Harry A. Atwater

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190028

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      A novel approach to increasing light absorption in thin-film solar cells is demonstrated by Jonathan Grandidier and co-workers on p. 1272. This new method involves redirecting the incident sunlight into the cell via coupling to the whispering gallery modes of dielectric spheres, which lie atop the cell. Such a scheme leads to a predicted current enhancement of >12% for a-Si.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Reviews
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    1. Organic TFTs: Microfluidic Arrays for Rapid Characterization of Organic Thin-Film Transistor Performance (Adv. Mater. 10/2011) (page 1172)

      Christopher J. Bettinger, Hector A. Becerril, Do Hwan Kim, Bang-Lin Lee, Sangyoon Lee and Zhenan Bao

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190029

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      Structure-property relationships in solution-processable semiconducting polymers are integral to advancing the field of organic electronics. High-throughput screening techniques present a potential advantage in defining empirical relationships between processing conditions and device performance. on p. 1257, Zhenan Bao and co-workers report the use of microfluidic devices and a sub-strate annealing gradient system to construct large arrays of organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) fabricated from poly(didodecylquaterthiophene-alt-didodecylbithiazole). Cover illustration provided by Brent Polishak.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Reviews
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    1. Contents: (Adv. Mater. 10/2011) (pages 1173–1178)

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190030

  4. Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Reviews
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    1. Dry Autoclaving for the Nanofabrication of Sulfides, Selenides, Borides, Phosphides, Nitrides, Carbides, and Oxides (pages 1179–1190)

      Vilas G. Pol, Swati V. Pol and Aharon Gedanken

      Article first published online: 30 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201001210

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      A distinct “dry autoclaving” approach is demonstrated with numerous advantages to fabricate various carbides, nitrides, phosphides, hexaborides, sulfides and selenides with diverse shapes and sizes. Dry autogenic reactions are carried out without solvents in a closed reactor above the dissociation temperature of the chemical precursor(s) at elevated temperature.

    2. Dynamic Aspects of Films Prepared by a Sequential Deposition of Species: Perspectives for Smart and Responsive Materials (pages 1191–1221)

      Philippe Lavalle, Jean-Claude Voegel, Dominique Vautier, Bernard Senger, Pierre Schaaf and Vincent Ball

      Article first published online: 25 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201003309

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      The stimuli-responsive properties of films deposited in a layer-by-layer manner are reviewed herein in relation to their physicochemical properties. The ability of these films to grow either linearly or exponentially with the number of deposition steps as well as their charge compensation mode allows the fine-tuning of their dynamic response to external stimuli, such as pH changes, changes in temperature, or mechanical stresses.

  5. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Reviews
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    1. Alkylated Dinaphtho[2,3-b:2′,3′-f]Thieno[3,2-b]Thiophenes (Cn-DNTTs): Organic Semiconductors for High-Performance Thin-Film Transistors (pages 1222–1225)

      Myeong Jin Kang, Iori Doi, Hiroki Mori, Eigo Miyazaki, Kazuo Takimiya, Masaaki Ikeda and Hirokazu Kuwabara

      Article first published online: 20 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201001283

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      A series of alkylated dinaphtho[2,3-b:2′,3′-f]thieno[3,2-b]thiophenes (Cn-DNTTs) were developed as vapor-processable organic semiconductors for organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs). All the Cn-DNTT-based OTFTs showed typical p-channel FET characteristics and among them, C10-DNTT possessing two n-decyl groups gave excellent FET characteristics under the ambient conditions with mobility close to 8.0 cm2 V−1 s−1 and Ion/Ioff > 108.

    2. Epitaxial Oxygen Getter for a Brownmillerite Phase Transformation in Manganite Films (pages 1226–1230)

      J. D. Ferguson, Y. Kim, L. Fitting Kourkoutis, A. Vodnick, A. R. Woll, D. A. Muller and J. D. Brock

      Article first published online: 27 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201003581

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      A new method for creating oxygen vacancy ordered (brownmillerite) phases in epitaxial manganite thin films is demonstrated. The method involves depositing an oxygen deficient complex oxide film on top of a stoichiometric manganite film. Once the getter layer exceeds a critical thickness, a phase transition to an oxygen vacancy ordered superlattice occurs in the manganite film.

    3. An Almost Transparent Image Pixel with a Pentacene/ZnO Photodiode, a Pentacene Thin-Film Transistor, and a 6,13-Pentacenequinone Phosphor Layer (pages 1231–1236)

      Kwang H. Lee, Hee Sung Lee, Kimoon Lee, Taewoo Ha, Jae Hoon Kim and Seongil Im

      Article first published online: 25 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201003646

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      An almost transparent image pixel on glass is demonstrated for the first time under visible and UV illumination at 3 V. The pixel is composed of a pentacene thin-film transistor and a serially connected pentacene/ZnO photodiode, with or without a 6,13-pentacenequinone phosphor layer that was deposited on the photodiode for more efficient light detection.

    4. Packings of Carbon Nanotubes – New Materials for Hydrogen Storage (pages 1237–1241)

      Bassem Assfour, Stefano Leoni, Gotthard Seifert and Igor A. Baburin

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201003669

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      Packings of carbon nanotubes with three and four different orientations of tube axes (one of such structures is displayed in the figure) are shown to be energetically and mechanically stable systems with outstanding hydrogen storage properties (total uptake amounts up to 19.0 wt% at 77 K and 5.5 wt% at 300 K) approaching the Department of Energy targets.

    5. Increasing Magnetoresistance Using Magnetic-Field-Tunable Interfaces (pages 1242–1245)

      Andreas Schmehl, Darrell G. Schlom and Jochen Mannhart

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201003999

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      Europium monoxide displays colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) and metal-to-insulator transitions (MIT). Using rare earth doping, its Curie temperature can be increased up to ∼170 K, but at the cost of drastically reduced CMR and MIT ratios. A substantial increase of these ratios in Eu0.99La0.01O can be achieved by interfacing it with niobium. Hereby the interface transparency critically depends on the large Zeeman splitting of the Eu0.99La0.01O conduction band.

    6. Nanosphere Lithography for the Fabrication of Ultranarrow Graphene Nanoribbons and On-Chip Bandgap Tuning of Graphene (pages 1246–1251)

      Lei Liu, Yingli Zhang, Wenlong Wang, Changzhi Gu, Xuedong Bai and Enge Wang

      Article first published online: 25 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201003847

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      An innovative approach for the high-throughput, rapid, and low-cost fabrication of ultranarrow graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) using nanosphere lithography (NSL) nanopatterning in combination with low-power O2 plasma etching is presented. The intrinsic simplicity of NSL patterning enables this fabrication approach to be applicable for the straightforward on-chip fabrication of GNRs and bandgap tuning of graphene.

    7. Transfer of Functional Ceramic Thin Films Using a Thermal Release Process (pages 1252–1256)

      Guangbin Dou, Andrew S. Holmes, Eric M. Yeatman, Robert V. Wright, Paul B. Kirby and Chunyan Yin

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201004391

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      A simple, solder-based bonding and lift-off process for transfer of functional ceramic thin films is demonstrated. The process allows transfer of thin films from a growth wafer onto a target substrate in a single step, with separation from the growth substrate being driven by induced stresses during soldering. Free-standing films can also be produced.

    8. Microfluidic Arrays for Rapid Characterization of Organic Thin-Film Transistor Performance (pages 1257–1261)

      Christopher J. Bettinger, Hector A. Becerril, Do Hwan Kim, Bang-Lin Lee, Sangyoon Lee and Zhenan Bao

      Article first published online: 10 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201003815

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Structure-processing-property relationships in solution processable organic semiconducting polymers are both complex and important. High throughput screening techniques present a potential advantage in defining empirical relationships between processing conditions and device performance. Using microfluidic devices and a substrate annealing gradient system large arrays of organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) are fabricated from poly(didodecylquaterthiophene-alt-didodecylbithiazole).

  6. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Reviews
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    1. Sensors: Bioinspired Optoelectronic Nose with Nanostructured Wavelength-Scalable Hollow-Core Infrared Fibers (Adv. Mater. 10/2011) (page 1262)

      Adem Yildirim, Mert Vural, Mecit Yaman and Mehmet Bayindir

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190031

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      Machine olfaction research aspires to mimic the exquisite sense of smell in mammals, using arrays of cross-responsive sensors backed with sophisticated pattern recognition algorithms for the differentiation of thousands of complex odors. on p. 1263, M. Bayindir and co-workers report an infrared-absorption-based odor differentiation in hollow core, wavelength scalable, photonic bandgap fiber arrays. Surprisingly, the specific and cross-responsive nature of the sensor data enable direct binary coding of smell sensations.

  7. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Reviews
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    1. Bioinspired Optoelectronic Nose with Nanostructured Wavelength-Scalable Hollow-Core Infrared Fibers (pages 1263–1267)

      Adem Yildirim, Mert Vural, Mecit Yaman and Mehmet Bayindir

      Article first published online: 20 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201004052

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A digital photonic nose concept based on infrared absorption inside a hollow core infrared transmitting fiber array is presented. Wavelength-scalable photonic band gap fibers filter specific energy photons from a blackbody source, where volatile compounds selectively absorb photons depending on their chemical absorption spectrum. The pattern resulting in the detector array is processed as a binary signature.

    2. Pore Surface Tailored SOD-Type Metal-Organic Zeolites (pages 1268–1271)

      Jie-Peng Zhang, Ai-Xin Zhu, Rui-Biao Lin, Xiao-Lin Qi and Xiao-Ming Chen

      Article first published online: 27 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201004028

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      Replacing the organic linker in sodalite-type zinc 2-methylimidazolate by 3-methyl-1,2,4-triazolate produces isomorphous pure triazolate or solid solution imidazolate/triazolate frameworks functionalized by uncoordinated nitrogen donors. These show dramatically enhanced and fine-tuned sorption performance for practical adsorptive applications.

    3. Light Absorption Enhancement in Thin-Film Solar Cells Using Whispering Gallery Modes in Dielectric Nanospheres (pages 1272–1276)

      Jonathan Grandidier, Dennis M. Callahan, Jeremy N. Munday and Harry A. Atwater

      Article first published online: 25 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201004393

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Freely propagating sunlight can be diffractively coupled and transformed into several guided whispering gallery modes within an array of wavelength scale dielectric spheres. Incident optical power is then transferred to the thin-film cell by leaky mode coupling into a thin solar cell absorber layer and significantly enhances its efficiency by increasing the fraction of incident light absorbed.

    4. A Resistive Memory in Semiconducting BiFeO3 Thin-Film Capacitors (pages 1277–1281)

      An Quan Jiang, Can Wang, Kui Juan Jin, Xiao Bing Liu, James F. Scott, Cheol Seong Hwang, Ting Ao Tang, Hui Bin Lu and Guo Zhen Yang

      Article first published online: 31 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201004317

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      A ferroelectric-resistive random access memory consisting of a conductive BiFeO3 epitaxial thin film with a unipolar diode current modulated by electric polarization orientation is reported. This device has a memory that lasts for months, a sufficiently high on current and on/off ratio to permit ordinary sense amplifiers to measure “1” or “0”, and is fully compatible with complementary metal-oxide semiconductor processing.

    5. A Metal-Oxide Interconnection Layer for Polymer Tandem Solar Cells with an Inverted Architecture (pages 1282–1286)

      Cheng-Hsuan Chou, Wei Lek Kwan, Ziruo Hong, Li-Min Chen and Yang Yang

      Article first published online: 9 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201001033

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      A metal-oxide-only interconnecting layer for application in inverted polymer tandem solar cells is reported. Good electrical and optical coupling of the two sub-cells is achieved by using a carefully-designed MoO3/Al/ZnO layer, which leads to a power coversion efficiency of 5.1%. Our results demonstrate that effective connection between polymer bulk heterojunctions can be realized by this facile metal-oxide interlayer.

    6. Patterned Surfaces Combining Polymer Brushes and Conducting Polymer via Colloidal Template Electropolymerization (pages 1287–1292)

      Roderick B. Pernites, Edward L. Foster, Mary Jane L. Felipe, Michael Robinson and Rigoberto C. Advincula

      Article first published online: 18 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201004003

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      A dual patterned conducting polymer array combined with polymer brushes has been fabricated using a facile and novel approach. The method involved a Langmuir-Blodgett-like deposition of latex microsphere particles, electropolymerization, and polymer brush synthesis into the inside cavities of the highly ordered macroporous polymer network.

    7. Top-Gate Organic Field-Effect Transistors with High Environmental and Operational Stability (pages 1293–1298)

      Do Kyung Hwang, Canek Fuentes-Hernandez, Jungbae Kim, William J. Potscavage Jr., Sung-Jin Kim and Bernard Kippelen

      Article first published online: 25 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201004278

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      Top-gate organic field-effect transistors are demonstrated using a bilayer gate dielectric to propose a new compensation mechanism which leads to high operational stability. Neither changes in mobility nor threshold voltage changes are observed after 20 000 cycles of the transfer characteristics or after 24 hours under constant direct-current bias stress. We also demonstrate that these OFETs are air stable up to 210 days.

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