Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 23 Issue 15

April 19, 2011

Volume 23, Issue 15

Pages 1687–1800

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    1. Metal Oxide Particles: Multi Ball-In-Ball Hybrid Metal Oxides (Adv. Mater. 15/2011) (page 1687)

      Won Cho, Yun Hee Lee, Hee Jung Lee and Moonhyun Oh

      Article first published online: 13 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190051

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      A strategy for the synthesis of composition-tunable hybrid metal oxide particles with a unique ball-within-ball structure is reported on p. 1720 by Moonhyun Oh and co-workers. The systems were logically formulated using the following processes: 1) CPP preparation using a precipitation method, 2) cation exchange reaction for composition transformation of CPPs, and 3) a final calcination processing of prepared CPPs that engenders decomposition of the CPPs and formation of metal oxides.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    1. Carbon Nanofiber Photonic Crystals: Carbon and Carbon/Silicon Composites Templated in Rugate Filters for the Adsorption and Detection of Organic Vapors (Adv. Mater. 15/2011) (page 1688)

      Timothy L. Kelly, Ting Gao and Michael J. Sailor

      Article first published online: 13 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190052

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Carbon nanofiber photonic crystals are synthesized using a porous silicon rugate filter as a template. The carbon/silicon composites behave as highly sensitive optical sensors for volatile organic compounds, and are up to ten times more sensitive than the template alone. The inside cover shows electron microscope images of the carbon nanostructures, including both periodic and aperiodic examples, as reported on p. 1776 by Michael Sailor and co-workers.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    1. Contents: (Adv. Mater. 15/2011) (pages 1689–1694)

      Article first published online: 13 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190053

  4. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    1. Functional Materials for Rechargeable Batteries (pages 1695–1715)

      Fangyi Cheng, Jing Liang, Zhanliang Tao and Jun Chen

      Article first published online: 11 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201003587

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      Rechargeable batteries are representative devices for efficient electrochemical energy storage and conversion. They cover applications ranging from portable consumer electronics to electric vehicles and large-scale energy storage for smart (or intelligent) grids. Recent progress and continuing challenges in rechargeable Li-ion, Ni-metal hydride (Ni-MH), lead acid, vanadium redox flow, and Na-S batteries are reviewed, with a focus on the functional materials involved.

  5. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    1. One-Pot Synthesis of Silica@Coordination Polymer Core–Shell Microspheres with Controlled Shell Thickness (pages 1716–1719)

      Chiho Jo, Hee Jung Lee and Moonhyun Oh

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201004208

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      A metal-mediated coordination polymeri-zation method is demonstrated to immobilize organic molecules onto silica particles in the form of coordination polymers. Unique silica@coordination polymer core–shell microspheres are generated, in which the shell thickness is controlled from 65 to 295 nm by varying the amount of coordination polymer precursors or silica particles.

    2. Multi Ball-In-Ball Hybrid Metal Oxides (pages 1720–1723)

      Won Cho, Yun Hee Lee, Hee Jung Lee and Moonhyun Oh

      Article first published online: 23 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201004493

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A straightforward strategy for the synthesis of composition-tunable hybrid metal oxide particles with a unique multi ball-in-ball structure has been demonstrated. The systems are logically formulated and prepared using the following processes: i) coordination polymer particles (CPPs) are prepared using a precipitation method, ii) a cation exchange reaction is used to effect composition change, and iii) a final calcination process of CPPs is use to obtain the metal oxides.

    3. Epitaxial Patterning of Bi2FeCrO6 Double Perovskite Nanostructures: Multiferroic at Room Temperature (pages 1724–1729)

      Riad Nechache, Cristian Victor Cojocaru, Catalin Harnagea, Christian Nauenheim, Mischa Nicklaus, Andreas Ruediger, Federico Rosei and Alain Pignolet

      Article first published online: 1 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201004405

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      Arbitrary patterns of heteroepitaxial multiferroic Bi2FeCrO6 nanostructures are fabricated by pulsed laser deposition using a simple nanostencil approach. The crystal orientation and the shape of the epitaxial nanostructures are controlled by the orientation of the niobium-doped SrTiO3 substrates. Using advanced characterization techniques, it is established that the material retains its ferroelectric and magnetic properties at room temperature even at submicrometer dimensions.

    4. Coexistence of Memristance and Negative Differential Resistance in a Nanoscale Metal-Oxide-Metal System (pages 1730–1733)

      Matthew D. Pickett, Julien Borghetti, J. Joshua Yang, Gilberto Medeiros-Ribeiro and R. Stanley Williams

      Article first published online: 22 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201004497

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      We experimentally demonstrate and present an analytical model for a nanoscale metal/oxide/metal device that simultaneously exhibits memristance, based on oxygen vacancy drift, and current-controlled negative differential resistance, based on a metal-insulator transition instability. We show that this oxide nanodevice can be used to fabricate a continuously tunable voltage-controlled oscillator.

    5. A Scalable, CMOS-Compatible Assembly of Ambipolar Semiconducting Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Devices (pages 1734–1738)

      Marc Ganzhorn, Aravind Vijayaraghavan, Alexander A. Green, Simone Dehm, Achim Voigt, Michael Rapp, Mark C. Hersam and Ralph Krupke

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201004640

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      Semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes are integrated into high-density arrays using dielectrophoresis, which is a CMOS-compatible, bottom-up assembly technique. The devices are statistically analyzed by voltage-contrast scanning electron microscopy and electron transport measurements. Annealing and the choice of parylene substrate are shown to improve device performance.

    6. Molecular Transport Directed via Patterned Functionalized Surfaces (pages 1739–1743)

      Nihan Yonet-Tanyeri, Rachel C. Evans, Huilin Tu and Paul V. Braun

      Article first published online: 1 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201003705

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      Patterned polymer brushes are shown to direct the solid-state diffusion of dye molecules on solid surfaces. The dye molecules diffuse rapidly across the patterned regions, but not on the bare substrate. A poly(dimethyl siloxane) device containing a singular fluidic channel covers the patterns and bare regions and serves to introduce the diffusive species into the polymer brush. Transportation of dye to desired locations on the substrate is demonstrated.

    7. Tuning the Electron Gas at an Oxide Heterointerface via Free Surface Charges (pages 1744–1747)

      Yanwu Xie, Christopher Bell, Yasuyuki Hikita and Harold Y. Hwang

      Article first published online: 14 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201004673

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      Stable and polarity-switchable free charges are written on the surface of a LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructure using conducting atomic force microscopy. These charges reversibly tune the conductance at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface in a non-volatile way. The modulation in carrier density is large, ≈3 × 1013 cm−2, comparable to the maximum modulation achieved by the normal field effect.

    8. Availability of Liquid Crystallinity in Solution Processing for Polycrystalline Thin Films (pages 1748–1751)

      Hiroaki Iino and Jun-ichi Hanna

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201004474

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      Polycrystalline thin films fabricated from a liquid crystalline phase are quite uniform both on the millimeter and nanometer scale. The uniform polycrystalline thin films are established by two model liquid crystalline materials, dialkylated terthiophene and benzothienobenzothiophene derivatives, and show high FET mobility, 0.1 and 3.0 cm2 V−1 s−1, respectively. Such uniform films are not obtained by post thermal annealing.

    9. Transparent Flexible Organic Transistors Based on Monolayer Graphene Electrodes on Plastic (pages 1752–1756)

      Wi Hyoung Lee, Jaesung Park, Sung Hyun Sim, Sae Byeok Jo, Kwang S. Kim, Byung Hee Hong and Kilwon Cho

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201004099

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      Transparent, flexible carbon-based pentacene field-effect transistors (FETs) were successfully fabricated from monolayer graphene electrodes on plastic substrates. One-atom-thick monolayer graphene provides an ideal material for source/drain electrodes for efficient charge injection and transport, resulting in low contact resistance between the electrodes and the pentacene films. Thus, pentacene FETs with patterned graphene electrodes exhibit significantly higher performances than those of common metal electrodes.

    10. Synthesis of Monodisperse Microparticles from Non-Newtonian Polymer Solutions with Microfluidic Devices (pages 1757–1760)

      Adam R. Abate, Mikhail Kutsovsky, Sebastian Seiffert, Maike Windbergs, Luis F. V. Pinto, Assaf Rotem, Andrew S. Utada and David A. Weitz

      Article first published online: 11 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201004275

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      Polymer solutions are useful precursors to synthesize microparticles with microfluidic devices, but most polymer solutions are incompatible with microfluidic emulsification due to their non-Newtonian flow characteristics. A technique is presented to form monodisperse particles from such solutions by surrounding them with a chaperoning Newtonian fluid and forcing both to pinch into preparticle drops.

    11. Bulk Synthesis of Narrow Diameter and Highly Crystalline Triple-Walled Carbon Nanotubes by Coalescing Fullerene Peapods (pages 1761–1764)

      Hiroyuki Muramatsu, Daisuke Shimamoto, Takuya Hayashi, Yoong Ahm Kim, Mauricio Terrones, Morinobu Endo and Mildred S. Dresselhaus

      Article first published online: 11 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201004709

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      Narrow diameter and highly crystalline triple-walled carbon nanotubes (TWNTs) are prepared from high-temperature treatment of double-walled carbon nanotubes encapsulating fullerenes at high temperatures in the range of 1500–2400 °C. The TWNTs have high structural stability and unique physical properties that are observed in the Raman and fluorescent signals.

    12. Chemical Substitution-Induced Ferroelectric Polarization Rotation in BiFeO3 (pages 1765–1769)

      Daisuke Kan, Varatharajan Anbusathaiah and Ichiro Takeuchi

      Article first published online: 11 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201004503

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Chemical substitution-induced continuous ferroelectric polarization rotation in BiFeO3 is discovered. Rare-earth-substituted BiFeO3 is a unique system in which the ferroelectric polarization vector continuously rotates, and by controlling the composition via substitution, a particular direction of the polarization vector may be ‘dialled up’ with an arbitrary angle between the [111] and [001] directions.

  6. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    1. Switchable Wettability: Stretchable Organic Solar Cells (Adv. Mater. 15/2011) (page 1770)

      Darren J. Lipomi, Benjamin C.-K. Tee, Michael Vosgueritchian and Zhenan Bao

      Article first published online: 13 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190054

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The frontispiece shows the wavy surface of a stretchable organic solar cell. The device was rendered stretchable by depositing the transparent electrode (a conducting polymer, PEDOT:PSS) and the active material (a conjugated polymer, P3HT, and a fullerene derivative, PCBM) on a pre-strained membrane, as reported by Zhenan Bao and co-workers on p. 1771. Release of the prestrain buckled the active layer. The device could be stretched up to 27%.

  7. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    1. Stretchable Organic Solar Cells (pages 1771–1775)

      Darren J. Lipomi, Benjamin C.-K. Tee, Michael Vosgueritchian and Zhenan Bao

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201004426

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A stretchable organic solar cell was fabricated by spin-coating the transparent electrode and active layer on a pre-strained elastomeric membrane. Upon release of the pre-strain, the device buckled. The topographic waves that arose imparted elasticity to the device under tensile strain (up to 27%). The device exhibited similar photovoltaic properties when both stretched and unstretched.

    2. Carbon and Carbon/Silicon Composites Templated in Rugate Filters for the Adsorption and Detection of Organic Vapors (pages 1776–1781)

      Timothy L. Kelly, Ting Gao and Michael J. Sailor

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201004142

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Undulated carbon nanofiber arrays displaying a reflectance peak due to the periodic structure are prepared by thermolysis of a poly(furfuryl alcohol) precursor in a porous silicon photonic crystal template. The carbon/silicon composites act as optical sensors for organic vapors and are up to ten times more sensitive than the template alone.

    3. Enhanced Performance and Air Stability of Polymer Solar Cells by Formation of a Self-Assembled Buffer Layer from Fullerene-End-Capped Poly(ethylene glycol) (pages 1782–1787)

      Jae Woong Jung, Jea Woong Jo and Won Ho Jo

      Article first published online: 1 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201003996

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      The formation of a self-assembled buffer layer (fullerene-end-capped poly(ethylene glycol); PEG-C60) in a bulk heterojunction active layer enhances the performance and oxidative stability of polymer solar cells with high-work-function metal cathodes.

    4. Metal–Organic Framework Single Crystals as Photoactive Matrices for the Generation of Metallic Microstructures (pages 1788–1791)

      Rob Ameloot, Maarten B. J. Roeffaers, Gert De Cremer, Frederik Vermoortele, Johan Hofkens, Bert F. Sels and Dirk E. De Vos

      Article first published online: 22 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201100063

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      The photocatalytic properties of MOF-5, a highly porous metal–organic framework (MOF) material, can be exploited to generate metallic patterns by direct laser writing. The strict confinement of photoreduction to the focal volume of the laser beam, where irradiation intensity is highest, allows the generation of 3D metallic structures inside a single MOF-5 crystal.

    5. Switchable Magnetic Metamaterials Using Micromachining Processes (pages 1792–1796)

      Wei Ming Zhu, Ai Qun Liu, Xu Ming Zhang, Din Ping Tsai, Tarik Bourouina, Jing Hua Teng, Xin Hai Zhang, Hong Chen Guo, Hendrix Tanoto, Ting Mei, Guo Qiang Lo and Dim Lee Kwong

      Article first published online: 23 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201004341

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      A switchable magnetic metamaterial is demonstrated via reshaping micro­machined metamaterial molecules. It is experimentally verified that the effective permeability can be switched from negative to positive near the resonant frequency. The micromachining technology offers a powerful platform for switchable metamaterials and provides more degrees of freedom for metamaterial design, easy fabrication, and large tunability.

    6. Supramolecular Assembly of Poly(styrene)-b-poly(4-vinylpyridine) and Ferroceneacetic Acid: An Easy Way to Large-Scale Controllable Periodic Arrays of Iron Oxide Nanomaterials (pages 1797–1800)

      Biplab K. Kuila, Mallikarjuna S. Rama and Manfred Stamm

      Article first published online: 1 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201004367

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      Large-scale periodic arrays of iron oxide nanomaterials with controllable size and spacing are fabricated on solid substrates using block copolymer supramolecular assembly. The shape, size, and periodicity of the nanomaterials is tailored by altering the block copolymer composition, stoichiometry of the small molecules, and thickness of the film, whereas the crystal structure is controlled by the post-treatment of the block copolymer supramolecular thin film.

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