Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 23 Issue 16

April 26, 2011

Volume 23, Issue 16

Pages 1803–1911

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    1. Data Storage: Ultra-Transparent, Flexible Single-walled Carbon Nanotube Non-volatile Memory Device with Oxygen-decorated Graphene Electrode (Adv. Mater. 16/2011) (page 1803)

      Woo Jong Yu, Sang Hoon Chae, Si Young Lee, Dinh Loc Duong and Young Hee Lee

      Article first published online: 20 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190055

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Ultra-transparent and flexible non-volatile memory devices fabricated using oxygen-trapped graphene electrodes and carbon nanotube network channels are reported on p. 1889 by Young Hee Lee and co-workers. The fabricated memory device shows a high transmittance of 97.5% and excellent mechanical stability in a 1000 times bending test. The memory function was realized by introducing oxygen trap sites onto the gate graphene surface.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    1. Cyclodextrins: Highly Polarized Emission from Oriented Films Incorporating Water-Soluble Conjugated Polymers in a Polyvinyl Alcohol Matrix (Adv. Mater. 16/2011) (page 1804)

      Francesco Di Stasio, Platon Korniychuk, Sergio Brovelli, Pawel Uznanski, Shane O. McDonnell, Gustaf Winroth, Harry L. Anderson, Adam Tracz and Franco Cacialli

      Article first published online: 20 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190056

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      Water-soluble conjugated polymers reach high degrees of alignment in stretched polyvinyl alcohol matrices, either when encapsulated by threading into cyclodextrins to form a polyrotaxane (polarization ratio, PR∼50), or unencapsulated (PR∼110), report Franco Cacialli and co-workers on p. 1855. This is remarkable because cyclodextrin encapsulation might have been expected to prevent alignment, and is significant because rotaxination affords enhanced properties, such as increased PL efficiency, larger gain bands, suppressed polaron formation, and reduced exciton migration.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
  4. Progress Report

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    1. Nanostructured Organic and Hybrid Solar Cells (pages 1810–1828)

      Jonas Weickert, Ricky B. Dunbar, Holger C. Hesse, Wolfgang Wiedemann and Lukas Schmidt-Mende

      Article first published online: 15 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201003991

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      Recent progress in nanostructured organic and hybrid solar cells is discussed in this report. Ordered nanostructures allow systematic analysis of physical working principles such as charge carrier separation, transport and recombination in excitonic solar cells. Besides, light trapping is possible. In this progress report we describe new concepts, fabrication techniques and device physics of this new generation solar cells.

  5. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    1. Hybrid Organic–Inorganic Light-Emitting Diodes (pages 1829–1845)

      Michele Sessolo and Henk J. Bolink

      Article first published online: 22 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201004324

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      Hybrid organic–inorganic light-emitting diodes (HyLEDs) employ solution-processable and air-stable metal oxides as charge injecting contacts. In this article, the recent achievements in understanding and performance are reviewed, demonstrating the potential of HyLEDs for future lighting and displays applications.

  6. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    1. Two-Dimensional TiO2 Inverse Opal with a Closed Top Surface Structure for Enhanced Light Extraction from Polymer Light-Emitting Diodes (pages 1846–1850)

      Woo Jin Hyun, Hang Ken Lee, Sang Soon Oh, Ortwin Hess, Choon-Gi Choi, Sang Hyuk Im and O Ok Park

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201004660

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      Two-dimensional TiO2 inverse opal structures with a thin, flat-top surface are fabricated and inserted between the glass substrate and the anode electrode of solution-processed polymer light-emitting diodes. It is demonstrated that the proposed inverse opal structure acts as a 2D photonic crystal, achieving a significant enhancement in the light extraction from the electroluminescent devices.

    2. Selective Metal Transfer and its Application to Patterned Multicolor Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (pages 1851–1854)

      Dong-Hyun Lee, Hyun-Chul Shin, Heeyeop Chae and Sung M. Cho

      Article first published online: 22 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201004556

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      A selective metal transfer (SMT) process is applied to organic light-emitting diode (OLED) metal electrodes. Multicolored OLED device fabrication is demonstrated using a vacuum-free, selective metal transfer process where an Al thin film (<100 nm) is transferred onto only the top of a light emitting layer containing polyvinyl carbazole. With this one-step process, it is possible to make separate, differently colored electrodes and to drive each independently. Scale-up of this process is relatively easy and SMT has a high potential in the industrial fabrication of metal electrodes for various organic electronics.

    3. Highly Polarized Emission from Oriented Films Incorporating Water-Soluble Conjugated Polymers in a Polyvinyl Alcohol Matrix (pages 1855–1859)

      Francesco Di Stasio, Platon Korniychuk, Sergio Brovelli, Pawel Uznanski, Shane O. McDonnell, Gustaf Winroth, Harry L. Anderson, Adam Tracz and Franco Cacialli

      Article first published online: 1 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201004356

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Highly oriented luminescent films are produced by stretching a 30-μm-thick polyvinyl alcohol matrix doped with water-soluble polyrotaxanes and their unthreaded analogues. Photoluminescence experiments reveal that over 95% of the emitted light is polarized along the orientation direction. A hybrid organic–inorganic light-emitting diode is built to investigate the possibility of using these films as polarizing filters for solid-state lighting and display technology.

    4. Direct Writing of Polymer Lasers Using Interference Ablation (pages 1860–1864)

      Tianrui Zhai, Xinping Zhang, Zhaoguang Pang and Fei Dou

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201100250

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      Green-emitting polymer lasers based one- and two-dimensional distributed feedback (DFB) mechanisms are achieved through direct writing by interference ablation. The polymer semiconductor material is removed at the bright fringes as the spin-coated polymer film is exposed to the interference pattern of a single UV laser pulse, producing the 1D DFB structures of the light-emitting polymer. Multiple exposing processes enable the fabrication of 2D structures, proving this to be a simple and flexible technique for the realization of a variety of organic laser schemes.

    5. Size-Tailored ZnO Submicrometer Spheres: Bottom-Up Construction, Size-Related Optical Extinction, and Selective Aniline Trapping (pages 1865–1870)

      Hongqiang Wang, Naoto Koshizaki, Liang Li, Lichao Jia, Kenji Kawaguchi, Xiangyou Li, Alexander Pyatenko, Zaneta Swiatkowska-Warkocka, Yoshio Bando and Dmitri Golberg

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201100078

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      Size-tailored ZnO submicrometer spheres are synthesized based on bottom-up laser processing. A heating–melting–evaporating mechanism is responsible for the formation of submicrometer-scale spherical particles. The size-related optical extinction and selective aniline trapping on ZnO submicrometer spheres indicate that they are potential candidates for optical and gas-sensing applications.

    6. Phase-Change Memory in Bi2Te3 Nanowires (pages 1871–1875)

      Nalae Han, Sung In Kim, Jeong-Do Yang, Kyumin Lee, Hyunchul Sohn, Hye-Mi So, Chi Won Ahn and Kyung-Hwa Yoo

      Article first published online: 23 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201004746

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Bi2Te3 nanowires exhibit the phase-change memory switching behavior. The as-grown nanowire has a linear current–voltage curve and a crystalline structure. After switching to the high-resistance state with a voltage pulse, the crystalline phases are partially changed to amorphous phases. This indicates that a crystalline–amorphous phase change in Bi2Te3 nanowires can be induced by a voltage pulse.

    7. Microcup Arrays Featuring Multiple Chemical Regions Patterned with Nanoscale Precision (pages 1876–1881)

      Ryosuke Ogaki, Martin A. Cole, Duncan S. Sutherland and Peter Kingshott

      Article first published online: 15 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201100231

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      A micrometer-scale cup array containing four spatially resolved material regions is fabricated in a parallel manner using multiple deposition methods. Individual regions are chemically functionalized with nanoscale precision and characterized by high-resolution time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) imaging. The robustness of the chemical patterning strategy is realized by site-specifically positioning ferritin molecules by immobilizing protein repellant/adherent self-assembled monolayers.

  7. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    1. Artificial Photosynthesis: Rational Design and Engineering of Quantum-Dot-Sensitized TiO2 Nanotube Arrays for Artificial Photosynthesis (Adv. Mater. 16/2011) (page 1882)

      Jungki Ryu, Sahng Ha Lee, Dong Heon Nam and Chan Beum Park

      Article first published online: 20 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190058

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A novel application of quantum-dot QD sensitized TiO2 nanotubes for artificial photosynthesis is presented by Chan Beum Park and co-workers on p. 1883. The system is conceptually very close to natural photosynthesis; photo-excited electrons are rapidly injected to nearby reaction centers upon light irradiation and generate reducing power, driving redox reactions for synthesis of organic compounds. This study demonstrates that more efficient artificial photosynthetic systems can be developed through rational design and engineering of photosystems.

  8. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    1. Rational Design and Engineering of Quantum-Dot-Sensitized TiO2 Nanotube Arrays for Artificial Photosynthesis (pages 1883–1888)

      Jungki Ryu, Sahng Ha Lee, Dong Heon Nam and Chan Beum Park

      Article first published online: 11 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201004576

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Chiral compounds are successfully photosynthesized by coupling redox biocatalysis with the photoregeneration of nicotinamide cofactors on quantum-dot-sensitized TiO2 nanotubes under visible light irradiation. Nanotubular morphology and hybridization of TiO2 with CdS enables highly efficient photoregeneration of cofactors by ensuring better diffusion of reaction species and rapid charge separation.

    2. Ultra-Transparent, Flexible Single-walled Carbon Nanotube Non-volatile Memory Device with an Oxygen-decorated Graphene Electrode (pages 1889–1893)

      Woo Jong Yu, Sang Hoon Chae, Si Young Lee, Dinh Loc Duong and Young Hee Lee

      Article first published online: 11 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201004444

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Ultra-transparent and flexible non-volatile memory devices fabricated using oxygen-decorated graphene electrodes and carbon nanotube network channels are reported. The fabricated memory device revealed a high transmittance of 83.8% with respect to air (PET transmittance: 87.4%) and excellent mechanical stability in a 1000 times bending test. The ultra transparency was realized by introducing oxygen trap sites onto the graphene surface instead of using an opaque inorganic floating gate layer.

    3. High-Mobility Low-Voltage ZnO and Li-Doped ZnO Transistors Based on ZrO2 High-k Dielectric Grown by Spray Pyrolysis in Ambient Air (pages 1894–1898)

      George Adamopoulos, Stuart Thomas, Paul H. Wöbkenberg, Donal D. C. Bradley, Martyn A. McLachlan and Thomas D. Anthopoulos

      Article first published online: 22 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201003935

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Sequential layers of the high-k dielectric ZrO2 and the electron transporting semiconductors ZnO and Li-doped ZnO are deposited onto conductive indium tin oxide electrodes using spray pyrolysis. With these structures, thin-film transistors are fabricated with operating voltages below 6 V and maximum electron mobilities on the order of 85 cm2 V−1 s−1.

    4. Spin-Cast and Patterned Organophosphonate Self-Assembled Monolayer Dielectrics on Metal-Oxide-Activated Si (pages 1899–1902)

      Orb Acton, Daniel Hutchins, Líney Árnadóttir, Tobias Weidner, Nathan Cernetic, Guy G. Ting, Tae-Wook Kim, David G. Castner, Hong Ma and Alex K.-Y. Jen

      Article first published online: 11 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201004762

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      An efficient process is developed for modifying Si with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) through in situ metal oxide surface activation and microcontact printing or spin-coating of phosphonic-acid-based molecules. The utility of this process is demonstrated by fabricating self-organized and solution-processed low-voltage organic thin-film transistors enabled by patterned and spin-cast phosphonate SAM/metal oxide hybrid dielectrics.

    5. Surface Doping of Conjugated Polymers by Graphene Oxide and Its Application for Organic Electronic Devices (pages 1903–1908)

      Yan Gao, Hin-Lap Yip, Kung-Shih Chen, Kevin M. O’Malley, Orb Acton, Ying Sun, Guy Ting, Hongzheng Chen and Alex K.-Y. Jen

      Article first published online: 15 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201100065

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Surface doping of conjugated polymers is realized by depositing a thin layer of graphene oxide (GO) on top of the polymers. The high proton density and the unique 2D structure of GO facilitate the protonic surface doping of conjugated polymers to achieve high conductivities. This finding represents a new strategy for improving charge transport across the metal/conjugated polymer interface to achieve much improved performance in organic solar cells.

    6. Superheated Rubber for Cold Storage (pages 1909–1911)

      Frank Katzenberg, Benjamin Heuwers and Joerg Christian Tiller

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201100408

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Highly stretched rubber cools down upon relaxation. A natural rubber material that stores high elongations up to 1000% strain upon strain-induced crystallization at room temperature is reported. The strain recovered and, with this, the stored “cold” is released only by a thermal or athermal trigger.

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