Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 23 Issue 22‐23

Special Issue: Special issue: Hierarchical Structures Towards Functionality

June 17, 2011

Volume 23, Issue 22-23

Pages 2499–2695

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Review
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Progress Reports
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Communications
    12. Frontispiece
    13. Research News
    1. Mathematics Meets Particle Synthesis: (Adv. Mater. 22–23/2011) (page 2499)

      Article first published online: 16 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190079

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      The cover shows a silver patchy particle produced via a template-free one-pot colloidal route (Communication by Bao et al., p. 2644) developed within the Cluster of Excellence “Engineering of Advanced Materials” (University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Germany). Such asymmetric particles are synthesized into blueprints generated by topology optimization techniques with the aim to design advanced “heat management” pigments, which scatter near-infrared radiation whilst being transparent to visible light. Contributions from theory to the design of colorant particles are discussed in the Progress Report by Klupp Taylor et al. (p. 2554). Image: Chenting Tian/Robin Klupp Taylor/Gerd Beck

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Review
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Progress Reports
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Communications
    12. Frontispiece
    13. Research News
    1. Nanomaterials in Focus: (Adv. Mater. 22–23/2011) (page 2500)

      Article first published online: 16 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190080

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      The FEI Titan3 80–300, a world-class transmission electron microscope (TEM) purchased by the Cluster of Excellence “Engineering of Advanced Materials” (EAM) at the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, offers significant advantages for the analysis of materials at the atomic scale. The inside cover shows a high-resolution TEM image of a tin-doped indium oxide nanoparticle, a fundamental building block of transparent electrodes in printable electronic devices being developed at EAM. Due to its aberration-corrected electron optics and suite of analytical tools the Titan3 microscope can reveal, in unprecedented clarity, the internal atomic structure of such nanoparticles, as well as structural and compositional details of particle surfaces, coatings and contact points, key issues in several EAM projects. Image: Erdmann Spiecker/Gerd Beck.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Review
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Progress Reports
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Communications
    12. Frontispiece
    13. Research News
    1. Contents: (Adv. Mater. 22–23/2011) (pages 2501–2507)

      Article first published online: 16 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190081

  4. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Review
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Progress Reports
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Communications
    12. Frontispiece
    13. Research News
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  5. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Review
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Progress Reports
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Communications
    12. Frontispiece
    13. Research News
    1. PLASMONIC-PHOTONIC CRYSTALS: Hybrid Colloidal Plasmonic-Photonic Crystals (Adv. Mater. 22–23/2011) (page 2514)

      Sergei G. Romanov, Alexander V. Korovin, Alois. Regensburger and Ulf. Peschel

      Article first published online: 16 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190082

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      In hybrid plasmonic-photonic crystals the metal and dielectric components are spatially separated in order to preserve their individual properties, but positioned in close vicinity to each other to warrant their efficient interaction. This design approach broadens the functionality of hybrid materials by relying on different resonance mechanisms for light transfer and ensures wide tuneability of the optical properties. These topics are explored in the Review by Romanov et al. (p. 2515).

  6. Review

    1. Top of page
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    7. Review
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    9. Progress Reports
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    11. Communications
    12. Frontispiece
    13. Research News
    1. Hybrid Colloidal Plasmonic-Photonic Crystals (pages 2515–2533)

      Sergei G. Romanov, Alexander V. Korovin, Alois. Regensburger and Ulf. Peschel

      Article first published online: 19 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201100460

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      Inhybrid plasmonic-photonic crystals the metal and the dielectric components are spatially separated in order to preserve their individual properties, but they are positioned in close vicinity to each other to warrant their efficient interaction. This design approach extends the functionality of hybrid crystals by relaying on different resonance mechanisms in light transfer and ensures wide tuneability of the hybrid's optical properties.

  7. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Review
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    9. Progress Reports
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Communications
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    13. Research News
    1. Carbon Functionalization: The Potential of Perylene Bisimide Derivatives for the Solubilization of Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene (Adv. Mater. 22–23/2011) (page 2534)

      Claudia Backes, Frank Hauke and Andreas Hirsch

      Article first published online: 16 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190083

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      Carbon nanotubes and graphene are outstanding materials of the 21st century with a broad spectrum of potential applications. However, major challenges are faced such as the intrinsically low solubility of these carbon allotropes. A promising approach to overcome this hurdle is non-covalent functionalization, which is summarized in the Progress Report by Backes et al. on p. 2588, with a special focus on the interaction of the carbon nanomaterials with perylene bisimide based surfactants.

  8. Progress Reports

    1. Top of page
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    7. Review
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    9. Progress Reports
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    11. Communications
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    13. Research News
    1. Minkowski Tensor Shape Analysis of Cellular, Granular and Porous Structures (pages 2535–2553)

      G. E. Schröder-Turk, W. Mickel, S. C. Kapfer, M. A. Klatt, F. M. Schaller, M. J. F. Hoffmann, N. Kleppmann, P. Armstrong, A. Inayat, D. Hug, M. Reichelsdorfer, W. Peukert, W. Schwieger and K. Mecke

      Article first published online: 16 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201100562

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      Minkowski tensors are a novel method to quantify morphology and anisotropy of complex materials. These robust shape indices are relevant for structure-property relationships of tensor-valued or orientation-dependent physical properties. An introduction to Minkowski tensors is given and illustrated by applications to SFM images of copolymeric films, tomography of open-cells foams, and of granular matter, defect detection in simulations of copper and orientation-correlations in cellular partitions.

    2. Painting by Numbers: Nanoparticle-Based Colorants in the Post-Empirical Age (pages 2554–2570)

      Robin Klupp Taylor, Frantisek Seifrt, Oleksandr Zhuromskyy, Ulf Peschel, Günter Leugering and Wolfgang Peukert

      Article first published online: 29 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201100541

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      Particle-based colorants are ubiquitous materials of the modern world. Many are the result of exhaustive empirical experimentation. At the same time, fundamental theoretical understanding of the influence of nanostructure on optical properties has been developed. This Progress Report gives an overview of the structure–property relationship of particle-based colorants and indicates how it is being inverted in order to design enhanced and multifunctional materials.

    3. Surface Science and Model Catalysis with Ionic Liquid-Modified Materials (pages 2571–2587)

      H.-P. Steinrück, J. Libuda, P. Wasserscheid, T. Cremer, C. Kolbeck, M. Laurin, F. Maier, M. Sobota, P. S. Schulz and M. Stark

      Article first published online: 26 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201100211

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      Materials that make use of thin ionic liquid (IL) films as functional layers open up new possibilities in heterogeneous catalysis. We review recent progress towards an understanding of such systems at the microscopic level using a surface science type of approach, with a special focus on model systems for supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) and solid catalysts with ionic liquid layer (SCILL) materials.

    4. The Potential of Perylene Bisimide Derivatives for the Solubilization of Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene (pages 2588–2601)

      Claudia Backes, Frank Hauke and Andreas Hirsch

      Article first published online: 12 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201100300

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      Noncovalent functionalization of sp2 carbon allotropes by designed π-surfactants constitutes a highly feasible and versatile route for solubilization and tailoring of surface properties by supramolecular self-assembly. In this regard the potential of perylene bismides as novel substance class to provide an exceptional anchor unit is outlined.

    5. Zeolitic Materials with Hierarchical Porous Structures (pages 2602–2615)

      Sofia Lopez-Orozco, Amer Inayat, Andreas Schwab, Thangaraj Selvam and Wilhelm Schwieger

      Article first published online: 15 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201100462

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      Hierarchical zeolitic materials have attractive properties, such as superior mass/heat transfer characteristics, lower restriction of the diffusion of the reactants in the mesopores, and low pressure drop. Our Progress Report provides general information about the recent advances in the preparation and characterization of hierarchical zeolitic structures combining two (e.g., micro–meso, micro–macro) or even three (micro–meso–macro) levels of porosity.

  9. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Review
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Progress Reports
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Communications
    12. Frontispiece
    13. Research News
    1. PERIODIC MESOPOROUS ORGANOSILICAS: Mesoporous Organosilicas With Large Cage-Like Pores for High Efficiency Immobilization of Enzymes (Adv. Mater. 22–23/2011) (page 2616)

      Zhou Zhou, Robin N. Klupp Taylor, Simon Kullmann, Huixin Bao and Martin Hartmann

      Article first published online: 16 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190084

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      The preparation of hierarchical large-pore cage-type periodic mesoporous organosilicas is reported in a Communication by Zhou et al. (on p. 2627). The hydrophobicity and structure of these novel materials are benefi cial for lipase entrapment and provide signifi cantly enhanced activity and stability compared to the native enzyme.

  10. Communications

    1. Top of page
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    7. Review
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    9. Progress Reports
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    11. Communications
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    13. Research News
    1. Ligand Effects in SCILL Model Systems: Site-Specific Interactions with Pt and Pd Nanoparticles (pages 2617–2621)

      Marek Sobota, Markus Happel, Max Amende, Natalia Paape, Peter Wasserscheid, Mathias Laurin and Jörg Libuda

      Article first published online: 5 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201004064

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      Ionic liquids (ILs), such as [BMIM][Tf2N], on well-defined SCILL model catalysts are able to replace weakly adsorbed CO. On Pt, on-top CO remains adsorbed under the ionic liquid layer, but its IR signal red-shifts by over 30 cm−1. IL–adsorbate interactions are mediated by the noble metal and similar to ligands.

    2. Switching from Ultraweak to Strong Adhesion (pages 2622–2626)

      Susanne F. Fenz, Timo Bihr, Rudolf Merkel, Udo Seifert, Kheya Sengupta and Ana-Sunčana Smith

      Article first published online: 15 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201004097

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      Intrinsically strong avidin-neutravidin bonds can exhibit ultraweak adhesion mediated by transiently bound domains and can undergo a transition to a stable strong adhesion by locally increasing bond density.

    3. Mesoporous Organosilicas With Large Cage-Like Pores for High Efficiency Immobilization of Enzymes (pages 2627–2632)

      Zhou Zhou, Robin N. Klupp Taylor, Simon Kullmann, Huixin Bao and Martin Hartmann

      Article first published online: 8 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201004054

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      A group of hierarchically ordered PMOs with large cage-like pores are prepared with organosilica units including ethylene, ethenylene, and phenylene-bridged silanes. The structure and hydrophobicity of these materials are shown to offer significant advantages for the physical adsorption of lipase from aqueous media and also markedly enhance its activity.

    4. Morphology and Linear-Elastic Moduli of Random Network Solids (pages 2633–2637)

      Susan Nachtrab, Sebastian C. Kapfer, Christoph H. Arns, Mahyar Madadi, Klaus Mecke and Gerd E. Schröder-Turk

      Article first published online: 16 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201004094

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      The dependence of linear-elastic prop­erties on effective density is studied for porous network solids, by voxel-based finite element methods. The same dependence is found for solid structures derived from Poisson-Voronoi processes and from confocal microscopy images of collagen scaffolds. We recover the power-law for the bulk modulus for low densities and suggest a functional form for the cross-over to a high-density porous solid.

    5. Bandgap Engineering of Graphene by Physisorbed Adsorbates (pages 2638–2643)

      Sergey M. Kozlov, Francesc Viñes and Andreas Görling

      Article first published online: 12 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201100171

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      Adsorption of PTCDI induces a bandgap opening on graphene, due to the specific electronic structure of PTCDI, characterized by a LUMO energetically located in the vicinity of the Dirac point. The approach is highly versatile for bandgap engineering, tuning the bandgap by modifying the adsorption geometry, the active adsorbate coverage, or by chemical modifications of the adsorbate.

    6. One-Pot Colloidal Synthesis of Plasmonic Patchy Particles (pages 2644–2649)

      Huixin Bao, Wolfgang Peukert and Robin Klupp Taylor

      Article first published online: 26 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201100698

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      The one-pot synthesis of patchy particles with morphologically tunable optical properties by the heterogeneous nucleation and growth of silver onto colloidal silica particles is described. Heat treatment of the silica and coating reaction conditions can be optimized in order to produce full yields of patchy particles. Dissolution of the cores leads to stable silver cages.

    7. Design of Auxetic Structures via Mathematical Optimization (pages 2650–2654)

      J. Schwerdtfeger, F. Wein, G. Leugering, R. F. Singer, C. Körner, M. Stingl and F. Schury

      Article first published online: 12 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201004090

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      The optimization and manufacturing of an auxetic structure is presented. An inverse homogenization method is used to obtain the optimized geometry shown in the figure. The resulting structure is then produced using selective electron beam melting. The numerically predicted properties are experimentally verified.

    8. Multi-Energy X-ray Imaging as a Quantitative Method for Materials Characterization (pages 2655–2656)

      M. Firsching, F. Nachtrab, N. Uhlmann and R. Hanke

      Article first published online: 12 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201004111

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      X-ray imaging is an established tool for materials characterization even though it usually has the drawback of not being a quantitative method. This drawback can be overcome by energy-sensitive X-ray imaging methods such as the basis material decomposition method presented in this paper, which can provide quantitative results for materials characterization.

    9. The Direct Writing of Plasmonic Gold Nanostructures by Electron-Beam-Induced Deposition (pages 2657–2661)

      Katja Höflich, Ren Bin Yang, Andreas Berger, Gerd Leuchs and Silke Christiansen

      Article first published online: 29 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201004114

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      Various nanostructures are directly written by electron-beam-induced deposition using dimethyl-gold(III)-acetylacetonate as the precursor gas. After purification, their potential applications include plasmonic devices and metamaterials. Carbon contamination of the as-written structures can be completely removed by low-temperature ozone treatment, leaving polycrystalline pure gold structures (see figure). This treatment reduces the size of the nanostructures but does not substantially alter their functional shape.

  11. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
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    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
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    7. Review
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    9. Progress Reports
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    11. Communications
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    13. Research News
    1. AUXETIC TILINGS: Finding Auxetic Frameworks in Periodic Tessellations (Adv. Mater. 22–23/2011) (page 2662)

      Holger Mitschke, Jan Schwerdtfeger, Fabian Schury, Michael Stingl, Carolin Körner, Robert F. Singer, Vanessa Robins, Klaus Mecke and Gerd E. Schröder-Turk

      Article first published online: 16 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190085

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      Micro-structured materials with a negative Poisson ratio are termed auxetic. In a Research News (p. 2669), Mitschke et al. demonstrate how the geometric analysis of periodic tessellations or tilings can help identify novel auxetic material designs. At least some of the tessellations that are auxetic in a “skeletal structure” model are also auxetic when realized as a linear-elastic cellular structure, produced for example by selective electron beam melting. ADMA23-22-23-Frontispice.indd 3 6/9/11 1:56:44 AM

  12. Research News

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    1. Tailoring Nanostructured, Graded, and Particle-Reinforced Al Laminates by Accumulative Roll Bonding (pages 2663–2668)

      Mathias Göken and Heinz Werner Höppel

      Article first published online: 26 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201100407

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      Accumulative roll bonding (ARB) is a very attractive process for processing nanostructured materials and composites with tailored properties in large quantities. Strengthening with nanoparticles is a very promising way to improve the properties and accelerate grain refining during the severe plastic deformation process. Graded Al laminates have been produced by combining different Al alloys to obtain composites with optimized properties, i.e., high strength and good surface quality.

    2. Finding Auxetic Frameworks in Periodic Tessellations (pages 2669–2674)

      Holger Mitschke, Jan Schwerdtfeger, Fabian Schury, Michael Stingl, Carolin Körner, Robert F. Singer, Vanessa Robins, Klaus Mecke and Gerd E. Schröder-Turk

      Article first published online: 21 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201100268

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      Tessellations or tilings can be exploited as designs for regular cellular solids. By a search of several classes of planar tessellations, a novel auxetic structure is found, with Poisson's ratio νss = −1 when realized as a skeletal structure of stiff struts, and νLE ≈ −0.75 when realized as a linear-elastic cellular structure, by selective electron beam melting.

    3. Rare-Earth Ion Doped Up-Conversion Materials for Photovoltaic Applications (pages 2675–2680)

      Hai-Qiao Wang, Miroslaw Batentschuk, Andres Osvet, Luigi Pinna and Christoph J. Brabec

      Article first published online: 21 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201100511

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      The development of up-conversion (UC)materials, that is, phosphors doped with rare-earth (RE) ions, is reviewed, in particular recent progress for solar cell applications New trends in RE-ion-doped phosphors from the authors’ lab at the University of Erlangen–Nürnberg, among them trivalent RE-ion-doped UC materials for organic solar cell applications, are also discussed.

    4. Complex Faraday Rotation in Microstructured Magneto-optical Fiber Waveguides (pages 2681–2688)

      Markus A. Schmidt, Lothar Wondraczek, Ho W. Lee, Nicolai Granzow, Ning Da and Philip St. J. Russell

      Article first published online: 12 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201100364

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      Pressure-assisted melt-infiltration of magneto-optical (MO) glasses into microcapillaries or photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) enables straightforward generation of very complex waveguide architectures from unusual combinations of glasses. This promises not only the implementation of as-to-yet-unsuited but strongly magnetoactive glass candidates into MO fiber waveguides, but also the fabrication of MO PCFs.

    5. The Potential of Molecular Self-Assembled Monolayers in Organic Electronic Devices (pages 2689–2695)

      Marcus Halik and Andreas Hirsch

      Article first published online: 21 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201100337

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      Recent developments of self-assembled monolayer (SAM) applications in organic electronic devices, are described, following the increasing complexity of molecules and applications. The applications range from simple supporting layers, functional device mono- and multilayers (top in figure), and multifunctional device layers (bottom left) to the new trend of mixed monolayers (bottom right).

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