Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 23 Issue 27

July 19, 2011

Volume 23, Issue 27

Pages 2995–3104

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Communications
    1. 3D Bichiral Plasmonic Crystals: Three-Dimensional Bichiral Plasmonic Crystals Fabricated by Direct Laser Writing and Electroless Silver Plating (Adv. Mater. 27/2011) (page 2995)

      André Radke, Timo Gissibl, Thomas Klotzbücher, Paul V. Braun and Harald Giessen

      Article first published online: 15 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190103

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The front cover depicts a three-dimensional bichiral plasmonic crystal. On p. 3018 André Radke and co-workers describe the fabrication via direct laser writing and subsequent electroless silver plating. The fabricated crystals exhibit a large difference in transmittance of left-handed and right-handed circularly polarized light in the mid-infrared spectral region. This effect is largely angle-insensitive. Cover design by Sven M. Hein and André Radke, University of Stuttgart.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Communications
    1. Controlled Degradation of Polyrotaxane Multilayers: Construction and Degradation of Polyrotaxane Multilayers (Adv. Mater. 27/2011) (page 2996)

      Henk H. Dam and Frank Caruso

      Article first published online: 15 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190104

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      Polyrotaxanes consisting of α-cyclodextrin and poly(ethylene glycol) are versatile building blocks for the construction and controlled degradation of multilayers. Frank Caruso and Henk Dam report on p. 3026 on the degradation of a polyrotaxane multilayer based on “unlocking” the α-cyclodextrins by disulfide cleavage of the polyrotaxane capping groups. This disrupts the multivalent intermolecular interactions between the layers, leading to degradation.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Communications
    1. Contents: (Adv. Mater. 27/2011) (pages 2997–3003)

      Article first published online: 15 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190105

  4. Progress Report

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Communications
    1. Fundamental Theory of Piezotronics (pages 3004–3013)

      Yan Zhang, Ying Liu and Zhong Lin Wang

      Article first published online: 11 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201100906

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      The theory of charge transport in piezotronic devices produced using piezoelectric ZnO nanowires is presented. Analytical solutions are presented for cases including metal–semiconductor contact and p–n junctions. Numerical calculations are given for predicting the current–voltage characteristics of a general piezotronic transistor: metal–ZnO nanowire–metal device. The results provide an understanding of the working principles and characteristics of piezotronic devices and guidance for device design.

  5. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Communications
    1. Room-Temperature Compression-Induced Diamondization of Few-Layer Graphene (pages 3014–3017)

      Ana P. M. Barboza, Marcos H. D. Guimaraes, Daniel V. P. Massote, Leonardo C. Campos, Newton M. Barbosa Neto, Luiz G. Cancado, Rodrigo G. Lacerda, Helio Chacham, Mario S. C. Mazzoni and Bernardo R. A. Neves

      Article first published online: 19 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101061

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      Experimental and theoretical evidence for compression-induced diamondization of few-layer graphene is reported. Ab initio calculations predict that hydroxyl groups stabilize the sp3 hybridization of the two topmost carbon layers, creating a single layer of hydroxylated diamond, or diamondol, when graphene layers are compressed in the presence of water. Electric force microscopy measurements reveal a compression-induced charging inhibition of bilayer and multilayer graphene.

    2. Three-Dimensional Bichiral Plasmonic Crystals Fabricated by Direct Laser Writing and Electroless Silver Plating (pages 3018–3021)

      André Radke, Timo Gissibl, Thomas Klotzbücher, Paul V. Braun and Harald Giessen

      Article first published online: 21 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201100543

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Direct laser writing and subsequent electroless silver plating is introduced as a high-quality fabrication method for three-dimensional plasmonic nanostructures. With this method, we fabricate the first three-dimensional bichiral plasmonic crystals, which exhibit a large difference in transmittance of left-handed and right-handed circularly polarized light in the mid-infrared spectral region between 3 and 5 μm. Our structure has a high degree of isotropy, showing only a weak dependence of the transmittance on the angle of incidence.

    3. Porous Silicon Microcavities Based Photonic Barcodes (pages 3022–3025)

      F. Ramiro-Manzano, R. Fenollosa, E. Xifré-Pérez, M. Garín and F. Meseguer

      Article first published online: 2 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201100986

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      A new type of porous silicon based microcavity has been developed. The intrinsic photoluminiscence emission is strongly coupled to the whispering gallery modes of the microcavity resulting in a unique photonic fingerprint of each particle. It may be envisaged as a photonic bar code like luminescent profile associated to each single particle.

    4. Construction and Degradation of Polyrotaxane Multilayers (pages 3026–3029)

      Henk H. Dam and Frank Caruso

      Article first published online: 13 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101210

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Polyrotaxanes consisting of α-cyclodextrin and poly(ethylene glycol) are versatile building blocks for the construction and controlled degradation of multilayers. Degradation is based on “unlocking” the α-cyclodextrins by disulfide cleavage of the polyrotaxane capping groups. This disrupts the multivalent intermolecular interactions between the layers, leading to degradation.

    5. A Facile Approach to Superhydrophilic–Superhydrophobic Patterns in Porous Polymer Films (pages 3030–3034)

      David Zahner, Joselle Abagat, Frank Svec, Jean M. J. Fréchet and Pavel A. Levkin

      Article first published online: 20 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101203

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      A facile and versatile method for creating superhydrophilic patterns in superhydrophobic porous polymer films by UV-initiated photografting is presented. The extreme difference in wettability between superhydrophilic and superhydrophobic areas allows the use of the superhydrophilic patterns as virtual microfluidic channels. The method allows for precise control of the size and geometry of photografted superhydrophilic features, and the thickness, morphology, and transparency of the superhydrophobic and hydrophobic porous polymer films.

    6. Facile Engineering of Biocompatible Materials with pH-Modulated Degradability (pages 3035–3040)

      Jianxiang Zhang, Yi Jia, Xiaodong Li, Yingqian Hu and Xiaohui Li

      Article first published online: 13 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201100679

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      Facile synthesis of biocompatible materials from α- or β-cyclodextrin and their polymers can be achieved via a kinetically controlled acetalation. These materials can hydrolyze into the corresponding precursors, with a fast or slow process dependent on pH. Since cyclodextrins can function as the building units to synthesize polymers with great structural diversity, the methodology developed herein may be a facile but powerful approach to create a materials library with wide biomedical applications.

    7. Nanoporous Gyroid Nickel from Block Copolymer Templates via Electroless Plating (pages 3041–3046)

      Han-Yu Hsueh, Yen-Chun Huang, Rong-Ming Ho, Chih-Huang Lai, Taichi Makida and Hirokazu Hasegawa

      Article first published online: 20 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201100883

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      Metallic nanoporous materials (MNMs) with well-ordered gyroid nanostructures are fabricated using a nanoporous polymer with gyroid nanochannels as a template. Nanoporous gyroid Ni is successfully fabricated to give well-ordered MNMs with high porosity and surface area. This new approach for hybridization provides a precisely controlled method to fabricate nanohybrids and MNMs for applications.

    8. High-Speed Flexible Organic Field-Effect Transistors with a 3D Structure (pages 3047–3051)

      Mayumi Uno, Kengo Nakayama, Junshi Soeda, Yuri Hirose, Kazumoto Miwa, Takafumi Uemura, Akiko Nakao, Kazuo Takimiya and Jun Takeya

      Article first published online: 20 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101179

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      High-speed, flexible organic field-effect transistors with a 3D structure are fabricated on a plastic substrate in which vertical channels are formed to realize high response speed. With the benefit of short channel lengths, the fabricated transistors show fast dynamic switching within 250 ns, which corresponds to 4 MHz operation, even with the modest carrier mobility of 0.2 cm2 V−1 s−1 in organic semiconductors deposited on the vertical sidewalls.

    9. Silver Nanowires: From Scalable Synthesis to Recyclable Foldable Electronics (pages 3052–3056)

      Cheng Yang, Hongwei Gu, Wei Lin, Matthew M. Yuen, Ching Ping Wong, Mingyong Xiong and Bo Gao

      Article first published online: 17 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201100530

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      A scalable preparation method for high-quality silver nanowires (Ag NWs), which can be used as the electrical circuits for a broad spectrum of ultralow-cost, recyclable, foldable electronics, is presented. Paper-based radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags, light-emitting diode (LED) chip arrays, and 3D origami electrical devices are synthesized. The signal transmittance and biodecomposition of the RFID tags are investigated.

    10. Cascaded Energy Transfer for Efficient Broad-Band Pumping of High-Quality, Micro-Lasers (pages 3057–3060)

      C. Rotschild, M. Tomes, H. Mendoza, T. L. Andrew, T. M. Swager, T. Carmon and M. A. Baldo

      Article first published online: 24 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201100467

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      Micro-ring lasers that exhibit a quality factor (Q) larger than 5.2 × 106 with a direct-illumination, non-resonant pump are demonstrated (a,b). The micro-rings are coated with three organic dyes forming a cascaded energy-transfer (c,d), which reduces material-losses by a factor larger than 104 (e), transforming incoherent light to coherent light with high quantum-efficiency. The operating principle is general and can enable fully integrated on-chip, high-Q micro-lasers.

    11. Patterning Graphene with Zigzag Edges by Self-Aligned Anisotropic Etching (pages 3061–3065)

      Zhiwen Shi, Rong Yang, Lianchang Zhang, Yi Wang, Donghua Liu, Dongxia Shi, Enge Wang and Guangyu Zhang

      Article first published online: 19 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201100633

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A top-down approach for controlled tailoring of graphene nanostructures with zigzag edges is presented. It consists of two key steps: artificial defect patterning and hydrogen-plasma etching. With this approach, various graphene nanostructures with sub-10 nm features and identical zigzag edges are reliably achieved. This approach shows great promise for making future graphene devices or circuits.

    12. Mussel-Inspired Polydopamine-Treated Polyethylene Separators for High-Power Li-Ion Batteries (pages 3066–3070)

      Myung-Hyun Ryou, Yong Min Lee, Jung-Ki Park and Jang Wook Choi

      Article first published online: 24 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201100303

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      Polydopamine-treated polyethylene (PE) separators for high-power lithium ion batteries are developed. A simple dipping process makes the PE surfaces hydrophilic and thus enhances the power capabilities remarkably compared to those of the control cases with bare PE separators. The original mechanical and thermal properties of the PE separators are preserved.

    13. Anisotropic Proton-Conductive Materials Formed by the Self-Organization of Phosphonium-Type Zwitterions (pages 3071–3074)

      Saori Ueda, Junko Kagimoto, Takahiro Ichikawa, Takashi Kato and Hiroyuki Ohno

      Article first published online: 24 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201100942

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A zwitterion/HTf2N complex system with columnar liquid-crystalline properties has been developed for a new type of proton-conductive materials. The columnar liquid-crystalline material shows efficient and anisotropic proton conduction behavior in the macroscopically oriented state.

    14. Functionalized Carbon Nanotube Networks with Field-Tunable Bandgaps (pages 3075–3079)

      Yong Sik Ahn, Kyunghyun Kim, Hee Kun Park, H. Thomas Hahn and Yong Chen

      Article first published online: 24 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201004620

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      An electrochemical cell with a hydrogen-containing PEG electrolyte is integrated in the gate of a CNT-based transistor to modify the CNT structures and bandgaps. CNTs in the transistor channel can be functionalized by electrochemical hydrogenation driven by gate voltages, which tunes CNT bandgaps continuously and reversibly to nonvolatile analog values between 0 and 3.2 eV. The CNT transistors with the flexibly tunable bandgaps are of both scientific and technical interest in analog memory, field programmable, neuromorphic, photonic, and photovoltaic devices and circuits.

    15. Fabrication and Characterization of MIM Diodes Based on Nb/Nb2O5 Via a Rapid Screening Technique (pages 3080–3085)

      Prakash Periasamy, Joseph J. Berry, Arrelaine A. Dameron, Jeremy D. Bergeson, David S. Ginley, Ryan P. O'Hayre and Philip A. Parilla

      Article first published online: 24 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101115

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      A novel and facile fabrication technique using a bent-wire (M2) point-contact configuration is used to fabricate and analyze different metal-insulator-metal (M1/I/M2) diode systems based on Nb/Nb2O5 (M1/I), enabling a study of work function influence on diode behavior. Excellent diode performance is achieved for Nb/Nb2O5/Pt, Nb/Nb2O5/Au, Nb/Nb2O5/Ag and Nb/Nb2O5/Cu demonstrating significant promise for ultra-fast rectification applications. The asymmetry and non-linearity values of the Nb/Nb2O5/Pt are 1500 and 4 at 0.5 V, respectively.

    16. Largely Enhanced Efficiency with a PFN/Al Bilayer Cathode in High Efficiency Bulk Heterojunction Photovoltaic Cells with a Low Bandgap Polycarbazole Donor (pages 3086–3089)

      Zhicai He, Chen Zhang, Xiaofeng Xu, Lianjie Zhang, Liang Huang, Junwu Chen, Hongbin Wu and Yong Cao

      Article first published online: 19 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101319

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      Quinoxaline-containing poly(4,5-ethylene-2,7-carbazole) (PECz-DTQx) shows a high efficiency of 6.07% in solar cells with a PFN/Al bilayer cathode. This is higher than the efficiency achieved with sole Al (3.99%) or with Ca/Al (4.52%) cathodes. A bilayer cathode could be valuable in device configurations to achieve high efficiency in combination with a high-performance polymer donor.

    17. Stretchable Conductors with Ultrahigh Tensile Strain and Stable Metallic Conductance Enabled by Prestrained Polyelectrolyte Nanoplatforms (pages 3090–3094)

      Xiaolong Wang, Hong Hu, Youde Shen, Xuechang Zhou and Zijian Zheng

      Article first published online: 20 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101120

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Highly stretchable conductors are fabricated by polyelectrolyte-brush-induced metal electroless deposition on a prestrained elastomer. Upon release of the prestrain, the metal film on top buckles. The buckled metallic elastomer can maintain stable metallic conductivity under repetitive stretching.

    18. Highly Photosensitive J-Aggregated Single-Crystalline Organic Transistors (pages 3095–3099)

      Kyung Hwan Kim, Suk Young Bae, Youn Sun Kim, Jung A. Hur, Mai Ha Hoang, Tae Wan Lee, Min Ju Cho, Youngmee Kim, Minsik Kim, Jung-Il Jin, Sung-Jin Kim, Kwangyeol Lee, Suk Joong Lee and Dong Hoon Choi

      Article first published online: 19 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201100944

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      Anthracene-based conjugated molecules are synthesized and J-aggregations are clearly observed in a single-crystal structure study. Single-crystal-based field-effect transistors (FETs) exhibit high field-effect mobility. They displayed dramatic photoinduced enhancement of the drain current and showed unusually high photoresponsivity under extremely low intensity light. Due to the photoinduced enhancement of excitons, single and multiple-stage memory operations are achieved.

    19. A Novel Structural Design of a Pt/C-CeO2 Catalyst with Improved Performance for Methanol Electro-Oxidation by β-Cyclodextrin Carbonization (pages 3100–3104)

      Yuan-Yuan Chu, Zhen-Bo Wang, Zheng-Zhi Jiang, Da-Ming Gu and Ge-Ping Yin

      Article first published online: 19 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201100040

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      A novel structural Pt/C-CeO2 catalyst synthesized using MP-CeO2 coated with carbon by in situ β-cyclodextrin carbonization and then depositing Pt nanoparticles using a fast and facile microwave-assisted polyol process. The increased electron conductivity and the more oxygen-containing species of carbon available for the Pt site contribute to the improved activity and stability for methanol oxidation compared to Pt/CeO2.

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