Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 23 Issue 29

August 2, 2011

Volume 23, Issue 29

Pages 3223–3344

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Research News
    1. Thin Films: Resolving Bulk and Grain Boundary Transport Properties of TiO2 Thin Films Enabled by Laser-Induced Anisotropic Morphology (Adv. Mater. 29/2011) (page 3223)

      Guy Ankonina, Ui-Jin Chung, Adrian M. Chitu, Yigal Komem and Avner Rothschild

      Version of Record online: 27 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190108

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      Controlling the microstructure of thin films is essential for tailoring their functional properties. On page 3266. Avner Rothschild and co-workers use a novel laser processing method to tailor the microstructure of TiO2 thin films, producing textured elongated grains. This enables precise deconvolution of grain and grain boundary transport properties and determination of anisotropic transport properties. Cover design by Dina Mid.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Research News
    1. Inorganic Optoelectronics: Visible-Color-Tunable Light-Emitting Diodes (Adv. Mater. 29/2011) (page 3224)

      Young Joon Hong, Chul-Ho Lee, Aram Yoon, Miyoung Kim, Han-Kyu Seong, Hun Jae Chung, Cheolsoo Sone, Yong Jo Park and Gyu-Chul Yi

      Version of Record online: 27 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190109

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      Inorganic light-emitting diodes (LEDs) that can be tuned continuously from red to blue are fabricated using multifacetted GaN nanorods with InGaN/GaN quantum well layers. The layer thickness naturally varies as they are deposited on the multi-faceted nanorods. On page 3284, Gyu-Chul Yi and co-workers show that when the current traveling through layers of different thickness is altered, the color of light emitted from the nanorod LED changes.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Research News
  4. Progress Report

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Research News
    1. Dual-Gate Thin-Film Transistors, Integrated Circuits and Sensors (pages 3231–3242)

      Mark-Jan Spijkman, Kris Myny, Edsger C. P. Smits, Paul Heremans, Paul W. M. Blom and Dago M. de Leeuw

      Version of Record online: 14 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101493

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      Dual-gate thin-film transistors (DGTFTs) have gained popularity in recent years. The additional second gate allows controlled shifting of the threshold voltage. The shift depends on the ratio of the capacitances of the two gate dielectrics. We summarize the reported operation mechanism and review the application of DGTFTs in both integrated circuits and sensors.

  5. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Research News
    1. Photofluidic Nanotexturing: Deterministic Nanotexturing by Directional Photofluidization Lithography (Adv. Mater. 29/2011) (page 3243)

      Seungwoo Lee, Jonghwa Shin, Hong Suk Kang, Yong-Hee Lee and Jung-Ki Park

      Version of Record online: 29 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190113

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      This colorized, perspective AFM images demonstrate stepwise directional photofluidic evolution of nanotextures with deterministically controlled structural complexity, as reported by Seungwoo Lee, Jung-Ki Park, and co-workers. This promising design approach shows a hidden potential of nanofabrication, greatly extending our ability to manipulate photonic and interface properties of nanotextured surfaces.

  6. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Research News
    1. Deterministic Nanotexturing by Directional Photofluidization Lithography (pages 3244–3250)

      Seungwoo Lee, Jonghwa Shin, Hong Suk Kang, Yong-Hee Lee and Jung-Ki Park

      Version of Record online: 3 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201100662

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      Directional photofluidization lithography enables deterministic large-area nanotexturing of periodic surface reliefs with precisely controlled structural complexity. The proposed nanotexturing technique demonstrates a hidden potential of micro- and nanofabrication methods, which allows for manipulation of the photonic and interface properties of nanotextured surfaces.

    2. Highly Flexible, Printed Alkaline Batteries Based on Mesh-Embedded Electrodes (pages 3251–3255)

      Abhinav M. Gaikwad, Gregory L. Whiting, Daniel A. Steingart and Ana Claudia Arias

      Version of Record online: 10 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201100894

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      Highly flexible, printed alkaline batteries based on a mesh-embedded architecture are demonstrated. The mesh acts as a support for the electroactive material during flexing. Two cells connected in series and bent to a radius of 0.3 cm are used to power a green light-emitting diode (LED).

    3. Nano Gives the Answer: Breaking the Bottleneck of Internal Concentration Polarization with a Nanofiber Composite Forward Osmosis Membrane for a High Water Production Rate (pages 3256–3260)

      Xiaoxiao Song, Zhaoyang Liu and Darren Delai Sun

      Version of Record online: 3 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201100510

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      Scaffold-like nanofiber support layers are fabricated with an interconnected pore structure, which is superior to conventional phase-inversion support layers with tortuous sponge-like structures. This successfully breaks the intrinsic bottleneck of internal concentration polarization in forward osmosis (FO) membranes and results in a high water production rate and energy savings.

    4. Reversible Switching of the Emission of Diphenyldibenzofulvenes by Thermal and Mechanical Stimuli (pages 3261–3265)

      Xiaoliang Luo, Jienian Li, Cuihong Li, Liping Heng, Yong Qiang Dong, Zhengping Liu, Zhishan Bo and Ben Zhong Tang

      Version of Record online: 16 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101059

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      The thermochromic and mechanochromic fluorescence of diphenyldibenzofulvenes is investigated. Emission is boosted and blue-shifted upon crystallization. Yellow emissive crystals of the material transform to green fluorescent crystals upon heating before melting. Reversible switching of the emission color and efficiency are achieved by repeated amorphization and crystallization of dye molecules by a pure thermal process or grinding–heating cycles.

    5. Resolving Bulk and Grain Boundary Transport Properties of TiO2 Thin Films Enabled by Laser-Induced Anisotropic Morphology (pages 3266–3271)

      Guy Ankonina, Ui-Jin Chung, Adrian M. Chitu, Yigal Komem and Avner Rothschild

      Version of Record online: 14 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201100917

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Precise deconvolution of grain and grain boundary contributions to the overall impedance of TiO2 thin films is achieved by impedance spectroscopy measurements of textured films with elongated grains obtained by laser-induced melting and sequential lateral solidification. The ability to engineer the grain morphology of electroceramic films provides opportunities for new designs of ferroelectric memories, piezoelectric microsensors and microactuators, optical waveguides, and other devices.

    6. In Situ Observation of Voltage-Induced Multilevel Resistive Switching in Solid Electrolyte Memory (pages 3272–3277)

      Sang-Jun Choi, Gyeong-Su Park, Ki-Hong Kim, Soohaeng Cho, Woo-Young Yang, Xiang-Shu Li, Jung-Hwan Moon, Kyung-Jin Lee and Kinam Kim

      Version of Record online: 14 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201100507

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      Solid electrolyte memories utilizing voltage-induced resistance change display the capability of multilevel switching, but understanding of the microscopic switching mechanism has been left incomplete. Here, in situ TEM observation of voltage-induced changes in the microstructure of a solid electrolyte memory is reported, revealing that the multilevel switching originates from the growth of multiple conducting filaments with nanometer-sized diameter and spacing.

    7. Dynamic Topographical Control of Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Culture on Responsive Poly(ϵ-caprolactone) Surfaces (pages 3278–3283)

      Duy M. Le, Karina Kulangara, Andrew F. Adler, Kam W. Leong and Valerie Sheares Ashby

      Version of Record online: 30 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201100821

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      Poly(ϵ-caprolactone) (PCL) shape-memory polymer (SMP) microarrays are a novel means to investigate the effect of dynamic topography on human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) morphology. The synthesis and characterization of oligo-precursors and PCL networks is described. The PCL surfaces demonstrate excellent surface shape-memory properties, minimal cytotoxicity, and excellent control over hMSC morphology.

    8. Visible-Color-Tunable Light-Emitting Diodes (pages 3284–3288)

      Young Joon Hong, Chul-Ho Lee, Aram Yoon, Miyoung Kim, Han-Kyu Seong, Hun Jae Chung, Cheolsoo Sone, Yong Jo Park and Gyu-Chul Yi

      Version of Record online: 3 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201100806

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Visible-color-tunable light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with electroluminescent color that changes continuously from red to blue by adjusting the external electric bias are fabricated using multifacetted GaN nanorods with anisotropically formed 3D InGaN multiple-quantum wells. Monolithically integrated red, green, and blue LEDs on a single substrate, operating at a fixed drive current, are also demonstrated for inorganic full-color LED display applications.

    9. Hybrid Nanoalloy: Nanofibers Fabricated by Self-Assembling Dendrimers Mediate In Situ CdSe Quantum Dots and Their Metallization with Discrete Gold Nanoparticles (pages 3289–3293)

      Amir Fahmi, Dietmar Appelhans, Nicolas Cheval, Torsten Pietsch, Cornelia Bellmann, Nabil Gindy and Brigitte Voit

      Version of Record online: 10 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101310

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      A simple one-step procedure for 1D structures: Directed self-assembly of hybrid materials based on a poly(propyleneimine) dendrimer template and CdSe nanoparticles in situ is an effective nanofabrication tool to form well-defined semiconducting hybrid nanofibers coated with discrete Au nanoparticles (nanoalloy). Such functional nanofibers will offer great potential in various applications, such as biological markers and nanoprobes among others.

    10. Cellulose Hydrolysis by a New Porous Coordination Polymer Decorated with Sulfonic Acid Functional Groups (pages 3294–3297)

      George Akiyama, Ryotaro Matsuda, Hiroshi Sato, Masaki Takata and Susumu Kitagawa

      Version of Record online: 10 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101356

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      A MIL-101-based porous coordination polymer (PCP) containing sulfonic acid groups is synthesized. The sulfonic groups are exposed on the pore surface and act as strong Brønsted acid sites. This solid acid PCP catalytically hydrolyzes cellulose into mono- and disaccharides and shows high durability in the catalytic reaction.

    11. Cytophilic Fluorescent Bioprobes for Long-Term Cell Tracking (pages 3298–3302)

      Yong Yu, Chao Feng, Yuning Hong, Jianzhao Liu, Sijie Chen, Ka Ming Ng, Kathy Qian Luo and Ben Zhong Tang

      Version of Record online: 14 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101714

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      Molecules of silolesare almost non-fluorescent but their nanoaggregates are highly emissive, exhibiting aggregation-induced emission (AIE). The AIE-active aggregates are cytocompatible with living cells, stain cytoplasms of HeLa cells indelibly without contaminating another type of cell line in a co-culture system, and remain visible for a long period of time.

  7. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Research News
    1. Clay Hydrogels: Clay Gels For the Delivery of Regenerative Microenvironments (Adv. Mater. 29/2011) (page 3303)

      Jonathan I. Dawson, Janos M. Kanczler, Xuebin B. Yang, George S. Attard and Richard O.C. Oreffo

      Version of Record online: 29 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190114

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Clay hydrogels are able to localize biological molecules for the generation of regenerative microenvironments. Richard O.C. Oreffo and co-workers report on clay–gel microcapsules that are sprayed into media containing DNA (DAPI-labeled) or albumin (FITC-labeled) and, following a 30 minute incubation, are sub-encapsulated within a host clay gel capsule, illustrating the potential of this approach.

  8. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Research News
    1. Clay Gels For the Delivery of Regenerative Microenvironments (pages 3304–3308)

      Jonathan I. Dawson, Janos M. Kanczler, Xuebin B. Yang, George S. Attard and Richard O.C. Oreffo

      Version of Record online: 10 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201100968

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      The sorptive properties of clay are harnessed to provide niches for tissue regeneration. Synthetic smectite clays self-organize into gels under physiological conditions to allow encapsulation of cells and demonstrate remarkable capacity for the localization of biological molecules without the need for complex chemical modifications.

    2. Solution-Crystallized Organic Field-Effect Transistors with Charge-Acceptor Layers: High-Mobility and Low-Threshold-Voltage Operation in Air (pages 3309–3314)

      Junshi Soeda, Yuri Hirose, Masakazu Yamagishi, Akiko Nakao, Takafumi Uemura, Kengo Nakayama, Mayumi Uno, Yasuhiro Nakazawa, Kazuo Takimiya and Jun Takeya

      Version of Record online: 10 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101027

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      High-mobility solution-processed organic transistors are developed based on a hybrid of solution-crystallized air-stable organic semiconductor 2,7-dioctyl[1]ben­zo­thieno[3,2-b][1] benzothiophene (C8-­ BTBT) and 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetra­cy­anoquinodimethane (F4-TCNQ) top layers. Charge mobility as high as 6 cm2/Vs is achieved, owing to the almost perfectly periodic crystal packing and efficient charge supply from the acceptor.

    3. Improving Device Efficiency of Polymer/Fullerene Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells Through Enhanced Crystallinity and Reduced Grain Boundaries Induced by Solvent Additives (pages 3315–3319)

      Ming-Shin Su, Chih-Yin Kuo, Mao-Chuan Yuan, U-Ser Jeng, Chun-Jen Su and Kung-Hwa Wei

      Version of Record online: 14 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101274

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      The power conversion efficiency of a device incorporating a crystalline polymer/fullerene thin film improves from 5% to 7.3% – a relative increase of 45% – when an additive, diiodohexane (DIH), is present during processing. The DIH-processed active layer exhibits substantially enhanced polymer crystallinity and smaller fractal-like fullerene clusters.

    4. Co-evaporant Induced Crystalline Donor: Acceptor Blends in Organic Solar Cells (pages 3320–3325)

      Toshihiko Kaji, Minlu Zhang, Satoru Nakao, Kai Iketaki, Kazuya Yokoyama, Ching W. Tang and Masahiro Hiramoto

      Version of Record online: 10 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101305

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      A novel method for crystallizing donor:acceptor blend films of small molecules in organic solar cells is developed. This method utilizes a liquid as a non-sticking co-evaporant during vacuum deposition. Striking enhancement in photocurrent generation is achieved in organic solar cells without exception, based on a variety of blend films produced by this method.

    5. Photoinduced Memory with Hybrid Integration of an Organic Fullerene Derivative and an Inorganic Nanogap-Embedded Field-Effect Transistor for Low-Voltage Operation (pages 3326–3331)

      Chung-Jin Kim, Sung-Jin Choi, Sungho Kim, Jin-Woo Han, Hoyeon Kim, Seunghyup Yoo and Yang-Kyu Choi

      Version of Record online: 10 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101034

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      A photoinduced hybrid memory operating with a low voltage is demonstrated by embedding the fullerene derivative, [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), into a conventional silicon-channel FET with a nanogap, upon application of both electrical and optical pulses. The nanogap geometry allows high mobility, which is the same as that of conventional silicon and organic–inorganic hybrid integration without thermal instability.

    6. Melanin Layer on Silicon: an Attractive Structure for a Possible Exploitation in Bio-Polymer Based Metal–Insulator–Silicon Devices (pages 3332–3336)

      Marianna Ambrico, Paolo F. Ambrico, Antonio Cardone, Teresa Ligonzo, Stefania R. Cicco, Rosa Di Mundo, Vincenzo Augelli and Gianluca M. Farinola

      Version of Record online: 14 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101358

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      Synthetic melanin based metal–insulator–semiconductor devices are fabricated for the first time thanks to silicon surface wettability modification by using dielectric barrier discharge plasma. Ambipolar charge trapping in air and ion drift mechanisms under vacuum are identified by capacitance–voltage hysteresis loops. These results aim to foresee the possible integration of synthetic melanin layers as a novel capacitor in organic polymer based devices.

  9. Research News

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Research News
    1. Liquid-Crystalline Ordering Helps Block Copolymer Self-Assembly (pages 3337–3344)

      Haifeng Yu, Takaomi Kobayashi and Huai Yang

      Version of Record online: 30 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101106

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      With the help of the modulation of their liquid-crystalline alignment, block copolymers assemble into regularly ordered nanostructures for nanotemplates and nanofabrication processes. Nanoscale microphase separation improves their optical performance by eliminating scattering, leading to applications in optical devices and actuators. Recent progress in liquid-crystalline block copolymers is reviewed, including phase diagrams, structure-property relationships, nanostructure control with alignment surface and external fields, and nanotemplate applications.

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