Advanced Materials

Cover image for Advanced Materials

August 9, 2011

Volume 23, Issue 30

Pages 3347–3470

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Corrections
    6. Essay
    7. Progress Report
    8. Communications
    1. Core/Shell Nanowires: Reduction of Lattice Thermal Conductivity in Single Bi-Te Core/Shell Nanowires with Rough Interface (Adv. Mater. 30/2011) (page 3347)

      Joohoon Kang, Jong Wook Roh, Wooyoung Shim, Jinhee Ham, Jin-Seo Noh and Wooyoung Lee

      Article first published online: 4 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190115

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      Phonon scattering is maximized at a rough interface in Bi-Te core/shell structure nanowires, which is simply controlled by a conventional sputtering technique and temperature. On page 3414, Wooyoung Lee and co-workers report that rough interface Bi-Te core/shell nanowires exhibit lower thermal conductivities than those of their smooth interface counterparts, while electrical conductivities for these two types of nanowires are similar.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Corrections
    6. Essay
    7. Progress Report
    8. Communications
    1. Strain Sensors: Single MWNT-Glass Fiber as Strain Sensor and Switch (Adv. Mater. 30/2011) (page 3348)

      Jie Zhang, Jianwen Liu, Rongchuan Zhuang, Edith Mäder, Gert Heinrich and Shanglin Gao

      Article first published online: 4 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190116

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      Early detection of material damage can be achieved using a carbon nanotube concentrated interphase between a single glass fiber and polymer resin. Edith Mäder, Shanglin Gao, and co-workers report on page 3392 that by bridging across a micro-crack with the nanotube networks, an exceptional electromechanical switch is fabricated. The switch exhibits “on” and “off” states actuated by strain, temperature, and light.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Corrections
    6. Essay
    7. Progress Report
    8. Communications
    1. Contents: (Adv. Mater. 30/2011) (pages 3349–3354)

      Article first published online: 4 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190117

  4. Corrections

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Corrections
    6. Essay
    7. Progress Report
    8. Communications
    1. You have free access to this content
      Correction: Finding Auxetic Frameworks in Periodic Tessellations (page 3355)

      Holger Mitschke, Jan Schwerdtfeger, Fabian Schury, Michael Stingl, Carolin Körner, Robert F. Singer, Vanessa Robins, Klaus Mecke and Gerd E. Schröder-Turk

      Article first published online: 4 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190118

    2. You have free access to this content
      Correction: Organic-Inorganic Nanocomposites by Placing Conjugated Polymers in Intimate Contact with Quantum Rods (page 3355)

      Lei Zhao, Xinchang Pang, Ramkrishna Adhikary, Jacob W. Petrich, Malika Jeffries-EL and Zhiqun Lin

      Article first published online: 4 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190119

  5. Essay

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Corrections
    6. Essay
    7. Progress Report
    8. Communications
    1. Electronic Transport in Organic Materials: Comparison of Band Theory with Percolation/(Variable Range) Hopping Theory (pages 3356–3362)

      P. Stallinga

      Article first published online: 14 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101129

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      Band theory for inorganic materials versus hopping or percolation theory for organics? Band theory conduction is contrasted with the more widely used percolation and hopping theories for organic electronic materials (). These materials are generally of lower performance than their inorganic counterparts and this is often presented as justification for a different conduction mechanism. Here it is reasoned that switching to a different conduction mechanism for electronic organic materials is not justified.

  6. Progress Report

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Corrections
    6. Essay
    7. Progress Report
    8. Communications
    1. Structure and Properties of Functional Oxide Thin Films: Insights From Electronic-Structure Calculations (pages 3363–3381)

      James M. Rondinelli and Nicola A. Spaldin

      Article first published online: 11 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101152

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      Electronic structure calculations based on density functional theory are proving to be powerful tools for disentangling complex and often interwoven interactions in complex oxide thin films. We survey recent theoretical contributions in understanding how local atomic distortions arise in epitaxial perovskite films, and in turn influence the electronic and magnetic properties. These ab initio derived atomic structure/electronic property relationships are essential to engineering multifunctionality into synthetic materials integrated into thin film device architectures.

  7. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Corrections
    6. Essay
    7. Progress Report
    8. Communications
    1. Magnetoresistance in an All-Organic-Based Spin Valve (pages 3382–3386)

      Bin Li, Chi-Yueh Kao, Jung-Woo Yoo, Vladimir N. Prigodin and Arthur J. Epstein

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201100903

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      Spin injection/detection in an all-organic-based spin valve is experimentally demonstrated. The magnetoresistance is explained by a bias-enhanced selective tunneling model. This can potentially be used to develop light-weight, flexible, low-cost spintronic devices.

    2. Superstrong Ultralong Carbon Nanotubes for Mechanical Energy Storage (pages 3387–3391)

      Rufan Zhang, Qian Wen, Weizhong Qian, Dang Sheng Su, Qiang Zhang and Fei Wei

      Article first published online: 14 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201100344

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      Superstrong, ultralong, individual carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are deposited with TiO2 particles and visualized under an optical microscope with excellent strain-relaxation reversibility and high fatigue resistance capability. The CNTs with perfect structures have tensile strengths of up to 200 GPa, densities to 1.34 TPa, energy density as high as 1125 Wh kg−1 and the power density can be up to 144 MW kg−1 for mechanical energy storage. The superb mechanical properties confirm the potential of an individual CNT as an effective storage medium with mechanical energy for nano-electromechanical systems, flexible devices, sensors, actuators, antennas, etc.

    3. Single MWNT-Glass Fiber as Strain Sensor and Switch (pages 3392–3397)

      Jie Zhang, Jianwen Liu, Rongchuan Zhuang, Edith Mäder, Gert Heinrich and Shanglin Gao

      Article first published online: 17 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101104

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      A single multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT)-glass fiber is used to monitor the initiation and growth of microcracks in composites, which provides an early warning system to detect fracture in materials. An electromechanical microswitch is further constructed based on the connecting/breaking of the nanotube bridges across microcracks under external strain or thermal expansion.

    4. Tailored Single Crystals of Triisopropylsilylethynyl Pentacene by Selective Contact Evaporation Printing (pages 3398–3402)

      Insung Bae, Seok Ju Kang, Yu Jin Shin, Youn Jung Park, Richard Hahnkee Kim, Fabrice Mathevet and Cheolmin Park

      Article first published online: 17 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201100784

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      Single crystalline triisopropylsilylethynyl pentacene (TIPS-PEN) arrays are fabricated with both size and shape of each patterned domain precisely tailored by selective contact evaporation printing (SCEP), which exhibit sufficient ON/OFF current ratio as well as high field effect mobility.

    5. Mechanism of the Switchable Photovoltaic Effect in Ferroelectric BiFeO3 (pages 3403–3407)

      H. T. Yi, T. Choi, S. G. Choi, Y. S. Oh and S.-W. Cheong

      Article first published online: 17 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201100805

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      Directions of rectification and photocurrent in a ferroelectric BiFeO3 crystal can be switched by applying high-voltage pulses at room temperature. The switching is highly repeatable though cycling and also stable with time. This switchable photocurrent and diode effect results from the combination of polarization flipping and electromigration of oxygen vacancies.

    6. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Arithmetic and Biologically-Inspired Computing Using Phase-Change Materials (pages 3408–3413)

      C. David Wright, Yanwei Liu, Krisztian I. Kohary, Mustafa M. Aziz and Robert J. Hicken

      Article first published online: 22 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101060

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      Phase-change materials offer a promising route for the practical realisation of new forms of general-purpose and ‘brain-like’ computers. An experimental proof-of-principle of such remakable capabilities is presented that includes (i) the reliable execution by a phase-change ‘processor’ of the four basic arithmetic functions of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, (ii) the demonstration of an ‘integrate and fire’ hardware neuron using a single phase-change cell and (iii) the expostion of synaptic-like functionality via the ‘memflector’, an optical analogue of the memristor.

    7. Reduction of Lattice Thermal Conductivity in Single Bi-Te Core/Shell Nanowires with Rough Interface (pages 3414–3419)

      Joohoon Kang, Jong Wook Roh, Wooyoung Shim, Jinhee Ham, Jin-Seo Noh and Wooyoung Lee

      Article first published online: 14 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101460

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      The role of the interface roughness of Bi-Te core/shell nanowires is reported in reducing lattice thermal conductivity, which are prepared by on-film formation of nanowire (OFF-ON) that is capable of growing high-quality single-crystalline Bi nanowires, and by the subsequent sputtering of Te onto the Bi nanowires. The rough interface Bi-Te core/shell nanowires exhibit lower thermal conductivities than that of smooth interface counterparts, while electrical conductivities for these two types of nanowires are similar. We propose that the rough interface plays a pivotal role in suppressing phonon transport, which in turn, reduces thermal conductivity significantly.

    8. Enhancing the Photothermal Stability of Plasmonic Metal Nanoplates by a Core-Shell Architecture (pages 3420–3425)

      Xiaoqing Huang, Shaoheng Tang, Biju Liu, Bin Ren and Nanfeng Zheng

      Article first published online: 20 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201100905

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      Plasmonic core-shell bimetal nanoplates: A facile seeded-growth strategy is developed to prepare uniform plasmonic Pd@Ag core-shell bimetallic nanoplates. The as-prepared Pd@Ag nanoplates are not only uniform in both size and shape, but also display tunable SPR properties and significantly enhanced photothermal stability as compared with 2D pure-Ag nanostructures. They can thus be readily used as stable substrates for NIR surface-enhanced Raman scattering and as NIR absorbers for photothermal cancer therapy.

    9. Pen-on-Paper Flexible Electronics (pages 3426–3430)

      Analisa Russo, Bok Yeop Ahn, Jacob J. Adams, Eric B. Duoss, Jennifer T. Bernhard and Jennifer A. Lewis

      Article first published online: 20 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101328

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      Pen-on-paper flexible electronics are fabricated using a conductive silver ink-filled rollerball pen. This approach provides a low-cost, portable route for fabricating conductive text, electronic art, interconnects for light emitting diode (LED) arrays, and three-dimensional (3D) antennas on paper.

    10. Ambipolar Oxide Thin-Film Transistor (pages 3431–3434)

      Kenji Nomura, Toshio Kamiya and Hideo Hosono

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101410

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      The first ambipolar oxide-based thin-film transistor (TFT) using an SnO channel is presented, demonstrating operation of a complementary-like inverter configured by two ambipolar SnO TFTs. Saturation mobilities of 0.8 and 5 × 10−4 cm2 V−1s−1 are obtained for the p-channel and n-channel modes, respectively, and the inverter shows a maximum voltage gain of 2.5. This is the first demonstration of a complementary-like circuit using a single oxide semiconductor channel and provides an important step toward practical oxide electronics.

    11. Nanofibrous Lipid Membranes Capable of Functionally Immobilizing Antibodies and Capturing Specific Cells (pages 3435–3440)

      Zhengbao Zha, Celine Cohn, Zhifei Dai, Weiguo Qiu, Jinhong Zhang and Xiaoyi Wu

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101516

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      Polymerizable cholesteryl-succinyl silane was synthesized and fabricated into stable nanofibrous lipid membranes using a combined sol-gel and electrospinning process. The resulting nanofibrous lipid membranes are capable of functionally immobilizing membrane proteins such as antibodies, thereby enabling targeted cell capture via the antigen-antibody interactions.

    12. Self-Wrinkling of UV-Cured Polymer Films (pages 3441–3445)

      Dinesh Chandra and Alfred J. Crosby

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101366

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      One-step, highly controlled self-wrinkling of UV-cured polymer films is reported. During UV-curing a top layer of non-polymerized monomers, present due to oxygen inhibition, self-swells and wrinkles the bottom crosslinked film. Wrinkle wavelength and amplitude are controlled by controlling resin film thickness, oxygen partial pressure, and photoinitiator concentration. Patterned wrinkles are fabricated by spatial patterning of oxygen surrounding the curing film.

    13. Single-Fiber-Based Hybridization of Energy Converters and Storage Units Using Graphene as Electrodes (pages 3446–3449)

      Joonho Bae, Young Jun Park, Minbaek Lee, Seung Nam Cha, Young Jin Choi, Churl Seung Lee, Jong Min Kim and Zhong Lin Wang

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101345

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      The first integration of multiple energy harvesters and a storage device along single fiber using ZnO nanowires (NWs) and graphenes as the basic materials is reported. This energy generation and storage device allows simultaneous harvesting of solar and mechanical energy. The unique architecture of fiber-based electrodes and use of ZnO NWs, and graphenes as active material and electrodes could be useful for the future development of flexible and wearable electronics.

    14. Mesoporous TiO2–B Microspheres with Superior Rate Performance for Lithium Ion Batteries (pages 3450–3454)

      Hansan Liu, Zhonghe Bi, Xiao-Guang Sun, Raymond R. Unocic, M. Parans Paranthaman, Sheng Dai and Gilbert M. Brown

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201100599

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      Mesoporous TiO2–B microspheres with a favorable material architecture are designed and synthesized for highpower lithium ion batteries. This material, which combines the advantages of fast lithium transport with a pseudocapacitive mechanism, adequate electrode-electrolyte contact, and compact particle packing in the electrode layer, shows superior high-rate charge–discharge capability and long-time cyclability for lithium ion batteries.

    15. Tunable Field-Effect Mobility Utilizing Mixed Crystals of Organic Molecules (pages 3455–3459)

      Lizhen Huang, Chengfang Liu, Xiaolan Qiao, Hongkun Tian, Yanhou Geng and Donghang Yan

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101353

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      High-quality mixed crystals with mixing-ratio-dependent lattice parameters and electronic structure are obtained by co-deposition of two organic molecules. Using the mixed films as the inducing layer in weak epitaxy growth, the mobility of VOPc transistors is finely tuned. This is possible because of the cooperative effect between the tunable lattice parameters and electronic structure.

    16. Control of Graphene Field-Effect Transistors by Interfacial Hydrophobic Self-Assembled Monolayers (pages 3460–3464)

      Wi Hyoung Lee, Jaesung Park, Youngsoo Kim, Kwang S. Kim, Byung Hee Hong and Kilwon Cho

      Article first published online: 4 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101340

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      Hydrophobic self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) with alkyl chains of various lengths were inserted between CVD-grown graphene layers and their SiO2 substrates (figure). As the SAM alkyl chain length increased, substrate-induced doping was suppressed by the ordered close-packed structure of SAMs with long alkyl chains. Accordingly, graphene transistors constructed on SAMs with long alkyl chains exhibited higher electron/hole mobilities with lower Dirac point voltages.

    17. A Robust Inter-Connecting Layer for Achieving High Performance Tandem Polymer Solar Cells (pages 3465–3470)

      Jun Yang, Rui Zhu, Ziruo Hong, Youjun He, Ankit Kumar, Yongfang Li and Yang Yang

      Article first published online: 20 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201100221

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      A robust inter-connecting layer for achiev­­ing high-performance tandem polymer solar cells is fabricated and demonstrated in polymer tandem solar cells with a PCE of 7.0%. This layer is optically transparent, electrically conductive, and physically strong. It is revealed that, under light illumination, charges are collected and recombined in the interlayer; under dark conditions, charges are generated and extracted from it.

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