Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 23 Issue 31

August 16, 2011

Volume 23, Issue 31

Pages 3475–3602

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Communications
    8. Research News
    1. Flexible Displays: Low-Power Flexible Organic Light-Emitting Diode Display Device (Adv. Mater. 31/2011) (page 3475)

      Sunkook Kim, Hyuk-Jun Kwon, Sunghun Lee, Hongshik Shim, Youngtea Chun, Woong Choi, Jinho Kwack, Dongwon Han, MyoungSeop Song, Sungchul Kim, Saeed Mohammadi, InSeo Kee and Sang Yoon Lee

      Article first published online: 9 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190120

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      On page 3511, Sunkook Kim, InSeo Kee, Sang Yoon Lee, and co-workers report the integration of low-temperature color filters, thin-film encapsulation, and red, green, blue organic light-emitting diode (OLED) microcavities into a display device. The device is demonstrated to be mechanically flexible, and to have low power consumption and high outdoor readability. The study offers a promising possibility for the implementation of flexible displays, with potentially important technical implications.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Communications
    8. Research News
    1. Ultrahydrophobic Surfaces: Ultrahigh-Aspect Ratio Microfiber-Furs as Plant-Surface Mimics Derived from Teeth (Adv. Mater. 31/2011) (page 3476)

      Christoph P. Fik, Monika Meuris, Ulrich Salz, Thorsten Bock and Joerg C. Tiller

      Article first published online: 9 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190121

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      Leaves, such as those of Corokia cotoneaster, manage their ultra-hydrophibic interactions with water drops by microstructuring their surfaces with long hairs. On page 3565, Joerg C. Tiller and co-workers report achievement of the same effect by preparing an artificial leaf that fully mimics the texture of the hairy leaf surface. The structure was prepared performing a multistep moulding technique that uses a natural tooth as template. Images courtesy of Christoph P. Fik, Christian Krumm, Ulrich Hellinger, and Joerg C. Tiller.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Communications
    8. Research News
    1. Contents: (Adv. Mater. 31/2011) (pages 3477–3483)

      Article first published online: 9 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190122

  4. Progress Report

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Communications
    8. Research News
    1. Terpyridine-Functionalized Surfaces: Redox-Active, Switchable, and Electroactive Nanoarchitecturesgland (pages 3484–3498)

      Andreas Winter, Stephanie Hoeppener, George R. Newkome and Ulrich S. Schubert

      Article first published online: 13 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101251

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      Terpyridinesare interesting photo- and redox-active building blocks that can be used to functionalize surfaces. This molecular engineering approach promises unique possibilities to self-assemble functional devices, molecular electronic structures, switches, and responsive surfaces. Trends and recent progress in this area of research are highlighted and provide a state-of-the-art overview of the developments in the past decade.

  5. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Communications
    8. Research News
    1. Paper Electronics: Direct Monolithic Integration of Organic Photovoltaic Circuits on Unmodified Paper (Adv. Mater. 31/2011) (page 3499)

      Miles C. Barr, Jill A. Rowehl, Richard R. Lunt, Jingjing Xu, Annie Wang, Christopher M. Boyce, Sung Gap Im, Vladimir Bulović and Karen K. Gleason

      Article first published online: 9 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190123

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      Vladimir Bulović, Karen K. Gleason, and co-workers demonstrate monolithic fabrication of organic photovoltaic circuits directly on a variety of common paper substrates using oxidative chemical vapor deposition to vapor print conformal conductive polymer electrodes. The paper photovoltaic arrays produce >50 V, power common electronic displays in ambient indoor lighting, and can be tortuously flexed and folded without loss of function.

  6. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Communications
    8. Research News
    1. Direct Monolithic Integration of Organic Photovoltaic Circuits on Unmodified Paper (pages 3500–3505)

      Miles C. Barr, Jill A. Rowehl, Richard R. Lunt, Jingjing Xu, Annie Wang, Christopher M. Boyce, Sung Gap Im, Vladimir Bulović and Karen K. Gleason

      Article first published online: 8 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101263

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      Organic photovoltaic circuits are monolithically fabricated directly on a variety of common paper substrates using oxidative chemical vapor deposition to vapor print conformal conductive polymer electrodes. The paper photovoltaic arrays produce >50 V, power common electronic displays in ambient indoor lighting, and can be tortuously flexed and folded without loss of function.

    2. Rapid Construction of Three-Dimensional Multilayered Tissues with Endothelial Tube Networks by the Cell-Accumulation Technique (pages 3506–3510)

      Akihiro Nishiguchi, Hiroaki Yoshida, Michiya Matsusaki and Mitsuru Akashi

      Article first published online: 4 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101787

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      A novel cell-accumulation technique has been developed using highly biocompatible nanofilms by layer-by-layer assembly for the rapid construction of thick layered tissues with a well-controlled layer number and thickness. Furthermore, 3D tissues with highly developed blood capillary networks (over 1 cm2 of layered tissues) were also constructed by sandwiching endothelial cells between the layered tissues. Such a simple and rapid methodology would be useful for tissue engineering and drug assessment.

    3. Low-Power Flexible Organic Light-Emitting Diode Display Device (pages 3511–3516)

      Sunkook Kim, Hyuk-Jun Kwon, Sunghun Lee, Hongshik Shim, Youngtea Chun, Woong Choi, Jinho Kwack, Dongwon Han, MyoungSeop Song, Sungchul Kim, Saeed Mohammadi, InSeo Kee and Sang Yoon Lee

      Article first published online: 7 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101066

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      A low-power flexible organic light-emitting diode (OLED) display device based on low temperature color filters with a thin film encapsulated RGB OLED microcavity is achieved with high contrast ratios (up to 150 000:1 in dark ambient) and low power consumption (34% power saving compared to polarization film). Furthermore, a mechanical 10 000 times folding experiment with a folding radius of 1 mm demonstrates the mechanical reliability of the flexible OLED device.

    4. Boundary Lubricants with Exceptionally Low Friction Coefficients Based on 2D Close-Packed Phosphatidylcholine Liposomes (pages 3517–3521)

      Ronit Goldberg, Avi Schroeder, Gilad Silbert, Keren Turjeman, Yechezkel Barenholz and Jacob Klein

      Article first published online: 4 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101053

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      Liposomes of hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipids spontaneously self-assemble in close-packed layers on solid surfaces to form boundary lubricants that reduce the coefficient μ of sliding friction between them down to μ ≈ 10−4 – 2 × 10−5, at pressures up to ca. 12 MPa. This strikingly low value is attributed to hydration-lubrication by the PC headgroups exposed at the surfaces of the gel-phase vesicles.

    5. Equiangular Hexagon-Shape-Controlled Synthesis of Graphene on Copper Surface (pages 3522–3525)

      Bin Wu, Dechao Geng, Yunlong Guo, Liping Huang, Yunzhou Xue, Jian Zheng, Jianyi Chen, Gui Yu, Yunqi Liu, Lang Jiang and Wenping Hu

      Article first published online: 4 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101746

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      Hexagonal graphene flakes: Equiangular hexagon-shaped graphene domains are synthesized by methane chemical vapor deposition on copper surface in a controlled manner. These graphene domains possess either armchair or zigzag edge, and are formed via nucleation and growth mechanism. Left image is a typical AFM image of one graphene flake, and right image indicates the armchair or zigzag edge of hexagonal graphene.

    6. Design of a Cellular-Uptake-Shielding “Plug and Play” Template for Photo Controllable Drug Release (pages 3526–3530)

      Wang Xiao, Wei-Hai Chen, Xiao-Ding Xu, Cao Li, Jing Zhang, Ren-Xi Zhuo and Xian-Zheng Zhang

      Article first published online: 4 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101806

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      A novel template was designed for photocontrollable drug release. Multiple functional groups can be loaded and unloaded onto the template via UV irradiation. Importantly, the template can inhibit loaded drug being uptaken by normal cells. However, upon the irradiation of UV light to the target site, such as tumor tissues, the loaded drug can be released from the template quickly and thereafter endocytosed by target cells to achieve the desirable cure effect.

    7. Inking Elastomeric Stamps with Micro-Patterned, Single Layer Graphene to Create High-Performance OFETs (pages 3531–3535)

      Seok Ju Kang, Bumjung Kim, Keun Soo Kim, Yue Zhao, Zheyuan Chen, Gwan Hyoung Lee, James Hone, Philip Kim and Colin Nuckolls

      Article first published online: 4 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101570

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      Pattern array of CVD-grown single layer graphene (SLG) is demonstrated by using micro-patterned PDMS stamp. These ultrathin SLG electrodes can use as the source and drain for organic field effect transistors. The devices have high hole mobilities exceeding 10 cm2/Vs, high on-off current ratios larger than 107 and a low threshold voltage for switching.

    8. Self-heating and External Strain Coupling Induced Phase Transition of VO2 Nanobeam as Single Domain Switch (pages 3536–3541)

      Bin Hu, Yan Zhang, Wen Chen, Chen Xu and Zhong Lin Wang

      Article first published online: 7 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101731

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      The single domain insulator-to-metal transition in VO2 nanobeam triggered by coupling Joule heating and external strain is utilized to fabricate the high performance electromechanical switch, which can be controlled by stretching or compressing the substrate, and the device has the potential application in high sensitivity strain monitor and micro/nano-systems action control such as dynamic logic gate.

    9. Hydrophilic Flower-Like CuS Superstructures as an Efficient 980 nm Laser-Driven Photothermal Agent for Ablation of Cancer Cells (pages 3542–3547)

      Qiwei Tian, Minghua Tang, Yangang Sun, Rujia Zou, Zhigang Chen, Meifang Zhu, Shiping Yang, Jinglong Wang, Jianhua Wang and Junqing Hu

      Article first published online: 7 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101295

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      Hydrophilic flower-like CuS superstructures synthesized by a hydrothermal route can serve as an efficient 980 nm laser-driven photothermal agent for ablation of cancer cells, because the CuS superstructures exhibit greatly enhanced photothermal effects upon irradiation by a 980 nm laser. This finding demonstrates the great potential application of the CuS superstructures in the photothermal ablation of in vivo tumor tissues.

    10. Preparation of Hierarchical Mesocrystalline DL-Lysine·HCl–Poly(acrylic acid) Hybrid Thin Films (pages 3548–3552)

      Yuan Jiang, Haofei Gong, Dirk Volkmer, Laurie Gower and Helmut Cölfen

      Article first published online: 4 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101468

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      A novel reprecipitation route is combined with an evaporation process for the synthesis of self-assembled mesocrystalline thin films with at least five hierarchical levels including pattern assembly, fan-shaped patterns, dendrites, fibers with branches, lamellae, and nanoparticles. The hierarchical thin films presented here show several similarities to biological structures such as fern structures.

    11. Near-Band-Edge Electroluminescence from Heavy-Metal-Free Colloidal Quantum Dots (pages 3553–3558)

      Zhanao Tan, Yu Zhang, Chuang Xie, Huaipeng Su, Jie Liu, Chunfeng Zhang, Nicholas Dellas, Suzanne E. Mohney, Yongqiang Wang, Jingkang Wang and Jian Xu

      Article first published online: 6 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201100719

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      The first observation of near-band-edge electroluminescent emission from the colloidal quantum dots (QDs) consisting of CuInS2-ZnS alloyed (ZCIS) cores and ZnSe/ZnS double shells is reported. Bright and organic-free electroluminescence (EL) emission peaked at red (λ = 623 nm), yellow (λ = 594 nm), and green (λ = 560 nm) wavelengths is observed from the heavy-metal-free QD light-emitting diodes (QD-LEDs). The onset voltages, luminance output uniformity, and efficiencies of the heavy-metal-free QD-LEDs are characterized.

    12. Towards All-Soft Matter Circuits: Prototypes of Quasi-Liquid Devices with Memristor Characteristics (pages 3559–3564)

      Hyung-Jun Koo, Ju-Hee So, Michael D. Dickey and Orlin D. Velev

      Article first published online: 4 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101257

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      A new class of memristors based entirely on soft and liquid-based matter is presented. The devices are formed by interfacing liquid metal electrodes with water-based gel doped with polyelectrolytes. They memorize the last state of bias polarization on the basis of the asymmetric conductance of the hydrogel-oxide-liquid metal stack. Such devices may find application in circuit-live tissue interfaces, soft robotics, and neuromorphic systems.

    13. Ultrahigh-Aspect Ratio Microfiber-Furs as Plant-Surface Mimics Derived from Teeth (pages 3565–3569)

      Christoph P. Fik, Monika Meuris, Ulrich Salz, Thorsten Bock and Joerg C. Tiller

      Article first published online: 15 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101102

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      Ultrahydrophobic surfaces that mimic the surface of a Corokia cotoneaster leaf were created by using cow teeth as natural template. After UV curing of an acrylate resin and removing the template, a highly dense hairy fur-like structure with high aspect ratio could be obtained. Subsequent modification with silica nanoparticles and fluorosilane afforded a water contact angle of some 170°.

    14. A Novel, Bipolar Polymeric Host for Highly Efficient Blue Electrophosphorescence: a Non-Conjugated Poly(aryl ether) Containing Triphenylphosphine Oxide Units in the Electron-Transporting Main Chain and Carbazole Units in Hole-Transporting Side Chains (pages 3570–3574)

      Shiyang Shao, Junqiao Ding, Tengling Ye, Zhiyuan Xie, Lixiang Wang, Xiabin Jing and Fosong Wang

      Article first published online: 4 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101074

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      A novel, bipolar polymeric host based on a poly(aryl ether) containing phosphine oxide units in the electron-transporting main chain and carbazole units in the hole-transporting side chains is designed and synthesized for blue electrophosphorescence. This polymeric host possesses a bipolar character and a high ET of 2.96 eV. The efficiency of blue-emitting PhPLEDs based on this polymeric host doped with FIrpic reaches 23.3 cd A−1 (EQE = 10.8%).

    15. Sandwich-Like, Graphene-Based Titania Nanosheets with High Surface Area for Fast Lithium Storage (pages 3575–3579)

      Shubin Yang, Xinliang Feng and Klaus Müllen

      Article first published online: 4 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101599

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      Sandwich-like, graphene-based mesoporous titania (G-TiO2) nanosheets possess thin thickness, large aspect ratio, and mesoporous structure and show enhanced electrical conductivity. Such unique features provide numerous open channels for the access of electrolyte and facilitate the fast diffusion of lithium ions during the cycling processes. The graphene layer within each nanosheet can act as a mini-current collector, which is favorable for the fast electron transport in the electrode. As a consequence, G-TiO2 nanosheets exhibit a ultrahigh rate capability and excellent cycle performance, holding great potential as a high-rate anode material for lithium storage.

    16. Buckled, Stretchable Polypyrrole Electrodes for Battery Applications (pages 3580–3584)

      Caiyun Wang, Wen Zheng, Zhilian Yue, Chee O. Too and Gordon G. Wallace

      Article first published online: 4 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101067

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      Highly stretchable 2D buckled polypyrrole film is prepared by a simple electropolymerization method on pre-strained Au-coated elastic substrate. This electrode retains its electrochemical properties in Mg batteries after 2000 stretching cycles with 30% strain applied. A combination of exceptional stretchability and electrochemical properties makes these novel conducting polymer films promising materials for many technological applications.

    17. Dense Carbide/Metal Composite Membranes for Hydrogen Separations Without Platinum Group Metals (pages 3585–3589)

      Sabina K. Gade, Sara J. Chmelka, Sterling Parks, J. Douglas Way and Colin A. Wolden

      Article first published online: 4 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201100931

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      Mo2C-coated vanadium composites are presented as an example of a new class of metallic membranes for hydrogen separations. Unlike conventional platinum- group catalysts, Mo2C does not alloy with the bulk metal at temperatures >350 °C, allowing for operation without risk of embrittlement or loss of catalyst activity. Optimal permeabilities approach that of palladium, at a far lower cost.

    18. High-Efficiency Solution-Processed Small Molecule Electrophosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (pages 3590–3596)

      Min Cai, Teng Xiao, Emily Hellerich, Ying Chen, Ruth Shinar and Joseph Shinar

      Article first published online: 4 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101154

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      Spin-coated small-molecule organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on green-emitting Ir(mppy)3-doped 4,4'-bis(9-carbazolyl)-biphenyl (CBP) blended with electron- and hole-transporting molecules are demonstrated to have very high efficiencies (up to 60 lm/W and 69 Cd/A without any outcoupling enhancement, which can double with a high-quality microlens array). An additional electron-transporting/hole-blocking BPhen layer is thermally evaporated on the active layer, followed by the LiF/Al cathode.

  7. Research News

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Communications
    8. Research News
    1. P3HT:PCBM, Best Seller in Polymer Photovoltaic Research (pages 3597–3602)

      Minh Trung Dang, Lionel Hirsch and Guillaume Wantz

      Article first published online: 18 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201100792

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      This Research News article is a survey of the tremendous amount of literature published from 2002 to 2010 that exhibits polymeric solar cells based on the well-known bulk heterojunction based on P3HT and PCBM. The power-conversion-efficiency discrepancy is correlated with the solar-cell-fabrication parameters.

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