Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 23 Issue 32

August 23, 2011

Volume 23, Issue 32

Pages 3607–3735

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    1. Bioinspired Materials: Controlled Fabrication and Water Collection Ability of Bioinspired Artificial Spider Silks (Adv. Mater. 32/2011) (page 3607)

      Hao Bai, Jie Ju, Ruize Sun, Yuan Chen, Yongmei Zheng and Lei Jiang

      Version of Record online: 12 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190124

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      Bioinspired artificial spider silks with periodic spindle-knots can be fabricated under optimized conditions. As reported by Yongmei Zheng, Lei Jiang, and co-workers on page 3708, these silks are similar to natural silks in their ability to collect water from fog. Such bioinspired water collection materials may find applications in dry and fog-laden areas, using fog as an alternative water resource.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    1. Porous Polymer Networks: Highly Stable Porous Polymer Networks with Exceptionally High Gas-Uptake Capacities (Adv. Mater. 32/2011) (page 3608)

      Daqiang Yuan, Weigang Lu, Dan Zhao and Hong-Cai Zhou

      Version of Record online: 12 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190125

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      On page 3723 Hong-Cai Zhou and co-workers report a new porous material named PPN-4. PPN-4 has a Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area that transcends all materials reported to date. Its total hydrogen, methane, and carbon dioxide storage capacities are also among the highest reported. More importantly, PPN-4 has superior stability towards moisture and contaminants, making it a good adsorbent for clean energy applications.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
  4. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    1. Advanced Organic Optoelectronic Materials: Harnessing Excited-State Intramolecular Proton Transfer (ESIPT) Process (pages 3615–3642)

      Ji Eon Kwon and Soo Young Park

      Version of Record online: 22 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201102046

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      Organic fluorescent molecules harnessing excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) process are drawing great attention due to their unique and beneficial photophysical properties such as a large Stokes' shift, no self-absorption, and easy population inversion of the keto form, which are attributed to its intrinsic four-level photocycle scheme. Here, recent studies on advanced ESIPT molecules and their novel optoelectronic applications are reviewed.

  5. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    1. Macroscale Elastomeric Conductors Generated from Hydrothermally Synthesized Metal-Polymer Hybrid Nanocable Sponges (pages 3643–3647)

      Hong-Bin Yao, Gang Huang, Chun-Hua Cui, Xiao-Han Wang and Shu-Hong Yu

      Version of Record online: 4 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201102002

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      Macroscale elastomeric conductors com­posed of sponge-like three-dimensional silver-carbon hybrid nanocable/carbon nanotube networks can be fabricated through the template role of hydrothermally synthesized silver-cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol) coaxial nanocable artificial sponges. The obtained elastomeric conductors exhibit excellent elasticity, high conductivity (∼120 S·cm−1) and good reversibility with compressive deformation, showing potential application as elastomeric conductors, press sensors, and biosensors.

      Corrected by:

      Correction: Correction: Macroscale Elastomeric Conductors Generated from Hydrothermally Synthesized Metal-Polymer Hybrid Nanocable Sponge

      Vol. 23, Issue 45, 5339, Version of Record online: 29 NOV 2011

    2. Enhancement of Hole Mobility of Poly(3-hexylthiophene) Induced by Titania Nanorods in Composite Films (pages 3648–3652)

      Zhenhua Sun, Jinhua Li, Chenming Liu, Shihe Yang and Feng Yan

      Version of Record online: 18 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101715

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      TiO2 nanoparticles with different shapes and surface modifiers can change the hole mobility of a P3HT matrix in TiO2/P3HT composite films by three orders of magnitude. The composite films with TiO2 nanorods modified with pyridine show hole mobilities 2–3 times higher than that of a pristine P3HT film and the mobilities can reach as high as 0.23 cm2 V−1s−1.

  6. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    1. Hybrid Materials: Three-Dimensional Microvascular Fiber-Reinforced Composites (Adv. Mater. 32/2011) (page 3653)

      Aaron P. Esser-Kahn, Piyush R. Thakre, Hefei Dong, Jason F. Patrick, Vitalii K. Vlasko-Vlasov, Nancy R. Sottos, Jeffrey S. Moore and Scott R. White

      Version of Record online: 12 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190127

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      Four undulating microchannels of a 3D microvascular network are integrated into a structural composite, as revealed by microCT imaging. Jeffrey S. Moore, Scott R. White, and co-workers report that fabrication is accomplished by weaving sacrificial polylactide fibers into the preform prior to conventional composite manufacturing. A post-curing process depolymerizes the polylactide, leaving behind high-fidelity, inverse replicas of the original sacrificial fiber.

  7. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    1. Three-Dimensional Microvascular Fiber-Reinforced Composites (pages 3654–3658)

      Aaron P. Esser-Kahn, Piyush R. Thakre, Hefei Dong, Jason F. Patrick, Vitalii K. Vlasko-Vlasov, Nancy R. Sottos, Jeffrey S. Moore and Scott R. White

      Version of Record online: 15 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201100933

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      A method for fabricating microvascular networks in fiber-reinforced composites is presented. The method relies on sacrificial fibers woven into fiber preforms that, when removed by depolymerization and volatilization, create 3D microvascular networks inside the composite material. By circulation of functional liquids in the resulting channels, a diverse set of new functionality is demonstrated. Simplicity, robustness, scalability, and reliance on readily available components make this method compatible with composite manufacturing methods.

    2. Micrometer-Scale Photonic Circuit Components Based on Propagation of Exciton Polaritons in Organic Dye Nanofibers (pages 3659–3663)

      Ken Takazawa, Jun-ichi Inoue, Kazutaka Mitsuishi and Tadashi Takamasu

      Version of Record online: 4 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201100827

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      A new approach to create micrometer-scale photonic circuits is developed by using the propagation of exciton polaritons in organic dye nanofibers. A microring resonator component with an I/O bus channel is fabricated by micromanipulation of the nanofibers. The component functions as a wavelength filter with a signal extinction of ∼5 dB for visible light.

    3. Tunable Mesoporous Bragg Reflectors Based on Block-Copolymer Self-Assembly (pages 3664–3668)

      Stefan Guldin, Mathias Kolle, Morgan Stefik, Richard Langford, Dominik Eder, Ulrich Wiesner and Ullrich Steiner

      Version of Record online: 6 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201100640

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      Mesoporous Bragg reflectors are a promi­sing materials platform for photovoltaics, light emission, and sensing. A fast and versatile fabrication route that relies on the self-assembly of the block copolymer poly(isoprene-b-ethylene oxide) in combination with simple sol-gel chemistry is reported. The method allows extended control over porosity and pore size in the resulting inorganic material and results in high-quality optical elements.

    4. Programmable, Pattern-Memorizing Polymer Surface (pages 3669–3673)

      Zhen Wang, Curt Hansen, Qi Ge, Sajjad H. Maruf, Dae Up Ahn, H. Jerry Qi and Yifu Ding

      Version of Record online: 8 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101571

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      A Pattern memory effect is demonstrated in an acrylated-based shape memory polymer and a Nafion film. Nanoimprint lithography is applied to both fabricate permanent patterns and program temporary patterns. Upon thermal triggering, these temporary patterns recover to their permanent patterns. This allows programming and harvesting nanoscale pattern changes beyond stress- or strain- harvesting in current shape memory polymer applications.

    5. Magnetically Driven Janus Micro-Ellipsoids Realized via Asymmetric Gathering of the Magnetic Charge (pages 3674–3679)

      Oriol Güell, Francesc Sagués and Pietro Tierno

      Version of Record online: 8 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201100902

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      A simple and general method to realize Janus paramagnetic micro-ellipsoids is demonstrated. We elongate liquefied spherical paramagnetic particles embedded in a thermoplastic thin film upon application of a mechanical stress and gather the magnetic doping of the particles by using an external high magnetic field gradient. The asymmetric location of the nanoscale superparamagnetic grains inside the anisotropic particles is confirmed by TEM, and by following the particle dynamics under a rotating magnetic field.

  8. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    1. Organic Field-Effect Transistors: High Electron Mobility in Air for N,N′-1H,1H-Perfluorobutyldicyanoperylene Carboxydi-imide Solution-Crystallized Thin-Film Transistors on Hydrophobic Surfaces (Adv. Mater. 32/2011) (page 3680)

      Junshi Soeda, Takafumi Uemura, Yu Mizuno, Akiko Nakao, Yasuhiro Nakazawa, Antonio Facchetti and Jun Takeya

      Version of Record online: 12 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190128

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      As reported by Antonio Facchetti, JunTakeya, and coworkers, molecules of an n-type semiconductor PDIF-CN2 assemble with perfect periodicity into a molecular-crystal plate. The plate, formed in a narrow gap from a solution, works as an excellent n-type semiconductor. It is implemented in the best-performing printed logic element.

  9. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    1. High Electron Mobility in Air for N,N′-1H,1H-Perfluorobutyldicyanoperylene Carboxydi-imide Solution-Crystallized Thin-Film Transistors on Hydrophobic Surfaces (pages 3681–3685)

      Junshi Soeda, Takafumi Uemura, Yu Mizuno, Akiko Nakao, Yasuhiro Nakazawa, Antonio Facchetti and Jun Takeya

      Version of Record online: 8 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101467

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      High-mobility and air-stable n-type organic field transistors based on solution-crystallized N,N′-1H,1H-perfluoro­butyldicyanoperylene carboxydi-imide (PDIF- CN2) are developed. Electron mobility as high as 1.3 cm2 V−1 s−1 is achieved owing to the almost-perfect periodic crystal packing.

    2. Carbon Nanotubes with Temperature-Invariant Creep and Creep-Recovery from −190 to 970 °C (pages 3686–3691)

      Ming Xu, Don N. Futaba, Motoo Yumura and Kenji Hata

      Version of Record online: 6 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101412

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      A viscoelastic carbon nanotube (CNT) material has been created that shows creep recovery, similar to silicone rubber, from –190 to 970 °C where polymers breakdown. Excellent thermal resistance is demonstrated by sequential creep recovery tests across extreme temperatures and interpreted to originate from the contacts among the non-aligned, unbundled CNTs.

    3. Three-dimensional Directed Assembly of Block Copolymers together with Two-dimensional Square and Rectangular Nanolithography (pages 3692–3697)

      Shengxiang Ji, Umang Nagpal, Wen Liao, Chi-Chun Liu, Juan J. de Pablo and Paul F. Nealey

      Version of Record online: 7 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101813

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      Self-assembling sphere-forming block copolymers that normally adopt a hexagonal packing in thin films were directed to assemble on chemically patterned surfaces into their three-dimensional bulk-like body-centered cubic morphology; two-dimensional manufacturing-relevant patterns with square and rectangular symmetry could be derived from the films using molecular transfer printing at a resolution beyond the limits of current lithographic tools and materials.

    4. Effect of Acene Length on Electronic Properties in 5-, 6-, and 7-Ringed Heteroacenes (pages 3698–3703)

      Katelyn P. Goetz, Zhong Li, Jeremy W. Ward, Cortney Bougher, Jonathan Rivnay, Jeremy Smith, Brad R. Conrad, Sean R. Parkin, Thomas D. Anthopoulos, Alberto Salleo, John E. Anthony and Oana D. Jurchescu

      Version of Record online: 6 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101619

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      Three novel soluble acene derivatives consisting of the same functional group but varying in backbone size were characterized for their structural and electrical properties. An increase in acene length was found to directly contribute to more favourable packing schemes for hole transport, leading to field-effect mobilities of 1.8 cm2V−1s−1 for difluoro tri-sec-butylsilylethynyl pentacenedithiophene, the longest derivative.

    5. Facile Synthesis of Germanium Nanocrystals and Their Application in Organic–Inorganic Hybrid Photodetectors (pages 3704–3707)

      Ding-Jiang Xue, Jian-Jun Wang, Yong-Qing Wang, Sen Xin, Yu-Guo Guo and Li-Jun Wan

      Version of Record online: 15 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101436

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      A solution-based method is developed for the synthesis of colloidal Ge nanocrystals (NCs), which directly grow from germanium(II) bromide in an oleylamine solution with no extra reducing agents. Hybrid photodetectors based on the NCs and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) show promise for large-area applications, as revealed by their high photoresponse ratio, high sensitivity, and high stability.

    6. Controlled Fabrication and Water Collection Ability of Bioinspired Artificial Spider Silks (pages 3708–3711)

      Hao Bai, Jie Ju, Ruize Sun, Yuan Chen, Yongmei Zheng and Lei Jiang

      Version of Record online: 4 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101740

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Spider silks with periodic spindle-knots are skillful at collecting water from the foggy air. Under controlled fabrication conditions, a series of bioinspired artificial spider silks (BAS) with different sized spindle-knots are realized. Furthermore, the water collection ability of these BASs is investigated. The study is helpful for the practical application of BASs as water collecting materials.

    7. Solution-Processed Heterojunction Solar Cells Based on p-type PbS Quantum Dots and n-type Bi2S3 Nanocrystals (pages 3712–3717)

      Arup K. Rath, Maria Bernechea, Luis Martinez and Gerasimos Konstantatos

      Version of Record online: 6 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101399

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      Bi2S3 nanocrystals are employed as an n-type, non-toxic, inorganic, solution-processed semiconductor in thin film solar cells. The first solution processed-inorganic p-n junction based on p-type PbS QDs and n-type Bi2S3 nanocrystals with both phases contributing to photocarrier generation is demonstrated. The reported devices show a power conversion efficiency of 1.6% for 860 nm PbS QDs and over 1% for 1300 nm PbS QDs.

    8. Biomimetic Surface Coatings for Atmospheric Water Capture Prepared by Dewetting of Polymer Films (pages 3718–3722)

      Stuart C. Thickett, Chiara Neto and Andrew T. Harris

      Version of Record online: 15 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201100290

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      The synthesis of biomimetic, micro­patterned surface coatings with topographical and chemical features to capture water from a humid atmosphere is demonstrated. The coatings are prepared by dewetting thin polymer films to create materials consisting of raised hydrophilic bumps on a hydrophobic background. An enhanced rate of water condensation is measured on these surfaces under representative climatic conditions.

    9. Highly Stable Porous Polymer Networks with Exceptionally High Gas-Uptake Capacities (pages 3723–3725)

      Daqiang Yuan, Weigang Lu, Dan Zhao and Hong-Cai Zhou

      Version of Record online: 6 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101759

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      Highly stable porous polymer networks (PPNs) are synthesized through Yamamoto homocoupling reaction between tetrahedral monomers. Among those polymers, PPN-4 shows exceptionally high Langmuir surface area of 10063 m2 g−1 (SABET: 6461 m2 g−1). It also exhibits ultra-high hydrogen (158 mg g−1), methane (389 mg g−1), and carbon dioxide (2121 mg g−1) storage capacities. These properties make it a perfect adsorbent for clean energy applications.

    10. Green Electrophosphorescent Polymers with Poly(3,6-Carbazole) as the Backbone: A Linear Structure Does Realize High Efficiency (pages 3726–3729)

      Zhihua Ma, Lingcheng Chen, Junqiao Ding, Lixiang Wang, Xiabin Jing and Fosong Wang

      Version of Record online: 15 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201102140

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      Linear green light-emitting electro­phosphorescent polymers have been successfully developed by chemically attaching a benzoimidazole-based iridium complex to the side chain of poly(3,6-carbazole). Efficiency values as high as 33.9 cd A−1 are obtained, indicating that the linear structure in the absence of an encapsulation effect can also lead to a device performance that is comparable with that of either dendrimer or hyperbranched polymers.

    11. Vertically Aligned and Penetrated Carbon Nanotube/Polymer Composite Film and Promising Electronic Applications (pages 3730–3735)

      Li Li, Zhibin Yang, Hongjian Gao, Hui Zhang, Jin Ren, Xuemei Sun, Tao Chen, Hamid G. Kia and Huisheng Peng

      Version of Record online: 15 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101862

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      Vertically aligned and penetrated carbon nanotube/polymer film with nanotube ends opened and located on both faces and with controlled thickness from nanometer to millimeter has been developed through an easy solution process. The composite film exhibits remarkable mechanical, electronic, and sensing properties.

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