Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 23 Issue 33

September 1, 2011

Volume 23, Issue 33

Pages 3739–3863

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Comment
    6. Progress Report
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    1. Multiplexed Biological Detection: Fluorescence Upconversion Microbarcodes for Multiplexed Biological Detection: Nucleic Acid Encoding (Adv. Mater. 33/2011) (page 3739)

      Fan Zhang, Qihui Shi, Yichi Zhang, Yifeng Shi, Kunlun Ding, Dongyuan Zhao and Galen D. Stucky

      Article first published online: 24 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190129

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      Fluoride rare-earth-doped upconversion micro-barcodes are developed for multiplexed signaling and nucleic-acid encoding. As reported on page 3775 by Fan Zhang, Galen D. Stucky, and co-workers, this type of novel barcode material can be used for rapid and sensitive analysis of nucleic acids and antigens and will have many potential applications in clinical, food, and environmental detection.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Comment
    6. Progress Report
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    1. Nanomanufacturing: Direct Fabrication of Arbitrary-Shaped Ferroelectric Nanostructures on Plastic, Glass, and Silicon Substrates (Adv. Mater. 33/2011) (page 3740)

      Suenne Kim, Yaser Bastani, Haidong Lu, William P. King, Seth Marder, Kenneth H. Sandhage, Alexei Gruverman, Elisa Riedo and Nazanin Bassiri-Gharb

      Article first published online: 24 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190130

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      On page 3786 Suenne Kim, Nazanin Bassiri-Gharb, and co-workers report on the use of thermochemical nanolithography for direct and complimentary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible fabrication of perovskite-based ferroelectric materials. Such nanostructured piezoelectric materials are highly attractive for a variety of applications, including miniaturized energy harvesting devices, piezoelectric sensors, actuators, and transducers, as well as pyroelectric sensors and memory devices.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Comment
    6. Progress Report
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    1. Contents: (Adv. Mater. 33/2011) (pages 3741–3746)

      Article first published online: 24 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190131

  4. Comment

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Comment
    6. Progress Report
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    1. Comment on: “Photocurrent Amplification at Carbon Nanotube-Metal Contacts” (pages 3747–3750)

      M. Omari and N. A. Kouklin

      Article first published online: 19 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101704

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      Lien et al. (Adv. Mater. 2006, vol. 18, p. 98) reported on photocurrent generation in SWNT thin films suspended across metal electrodes at zero bias and the effect was attributed to the Schottky contacts formed at the nanotube-metal interfaces. By performing a set of independent experiments and tests on similarly engineered two-terminal devices and analyzing the results reported in said paper we show that the response is not associated with the contacts or temperature-induced conductance change (bolometric effect), but is instead caused by an optically induced thermovoltaic effect.

  5. Progress Report

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Comment
    6. Progress Report
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    1. Toward Flexible Polymer and Paper-Based Energy Storage Devices (pages 3751–3769)

      Leif Nyholm, Gustav Nyström, Albert Mihranyan and Maria Strømme

      Article first published online: 10 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201004134

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      Recent progress within the field of conducting polymer and cellulose-based charge storage is reviewed with particular emphasis on the development of environmentally friendly, versatile and flexible paper-based batteries and supercapacitors. The latter devices, which can be constructed from a few paper sheets, enable the realization of a range of new types of charge storage devices.

  6. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Comment
    6. Progress Report
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    1. Quantum-Dot-Doped Polymer Nanofibers for Optical Sensing (pages 3770–3774)

      Chao Meng, Yao Xiao, Pan Wang, Lei Zhang, Yanxin Liu and Limin Tong

      Article first published online: 18 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101392

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      High-quality quantum-dot/polystyrene nanofibers (QD/PS NFs) are synthesized by drawing solvated PS doped with CdSe/ZnS QDs. As-drawn QD/PS NFs offer ultra-long-term photostability, flexibility, and excellent optical properties for sensing applications. Based on these active NFs, optical humidity sensors with extremely low power consumption, fast response, and long-term stability are successfully demonstrated, which may lead to a new category of nanometer-scale optical sensors.

    2. Fluorescence Upconversion Microbarcodes for Multiplexed Biological Detection: Nucleic Acid Encoding (pages 3775–3779)

      Fan Zhang, Qihui Shi, Yichi Zhang, Yifeng Shi, Kunlun Ding, Dongyuan Zhao and Galen D. Stucky

      Article first published online: 18 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101868

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Fluoride rare-earth-doped upconversion microbarcodes have been successfully developed for multiplexed signaling and nucleic-acid encoding. This kind of novel barcode material can be used for rapid and sensitive analysis of nucleic acids and antigens, which would have many potential applications in clinical, food, and environment detection.

    3. Ambipolarity in Benzobisthiadiazole-Based Donor–Acceptor Conjugated Polymers (pages 3780–3785)

      Jonathan D. Yuen, Rajeev Kumar, Dante Zakhidov, Jason Seifter, Bogyu Lim, Alan J. Heeger and Fred Wudl

      Article first published online: 18 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101134

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      A family of four new DA polymers, in which the acceptor moiety benzobisthiadiazole was paired with four different donor moieties, has been synthesized. Surpri­singly, all members of the family exhibit balanced ambipolar behavior, despite polymer to polymer mobilities varying from 10−4 cm2 V−1 s−1 to 10−1 cm2 V−1 s−1. Applications in single component CMOS integrated circuits are envisioned.

    4. Direct Fabrication of Arbitrary-Shaped Ferroelectric Nanostructures on Plastic, Glass, and Silicon Substrates (pages 3786–3790)

      Suenne Kim, Yaser Bastani, Haidong Lu, William P. King, Seth Marder, Kenneth H. Sandhage, Alexei Gruverman, Elisa Riedo and Nazanin Bassiri-Gharb

      Article first published online: 15 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101991

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      A complementary metal–oxide–semico­nductor (CMOS)-compatible method for the direct fabrication of arbitrary-shaped Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3and PbTiO3 ferroelectric/piezoelectric nanostructures on plastic, silicon, and soda-lime glass substrates is reported. Thermochemical nanolithography is used to induce nanoscale crystallization of sol-gel precursor films. Ferroelectric lines with width ≥30 nm, spheres with diameter ≥10 nm, and densities up to 213 Gb in−2 are produced.

    5. Coloured Semi-reflective Thin Films for Biomass-hydrolyzing Enzyme Detection (pages 3791–3795)

      Carole Cerclier, Aurélie Guyomard-Lack, Céline Moreau, Fabrice Cousin, Nadège Beury, Estelle Bonnin, Bruno Jean and Bernard Cathala

      Article first published online: 25 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101971

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      A new enzymatic activity detection assay based on colour change of the semi-reflective films is presented. The method is based on the preparation of multilayered thin films of controlled thickness obtained by sequential deposition of cellulose nanocrystals and xyloglucan. The hydrolysis of the films leads to a decrease in layer thickness that enables to detect enzyme activity, to the naked eye, from the resulting colour changes in a span of few minutes. The method allows direct, fast, highly sensitive, and easy-to-use characterization of enzymatic activities.

    6. Photoluminescence Quenching in Carbon Nanotube-Polymer/Fullerene Films: Carbon Nanotubes as Exciton Dissociation Centres in Organic Photovoltaics (pages 3796–3800)

      N. Aamina Nismy, K. D. G. Imalka Jayawardena, A. A. Damitha T. Adikaari and S. Ravi P. Silva

      Article first published online: 18 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101549

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      Photoluminescence quenching is observed in acid functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes incorporated polymer: fullerene films, suggesting efficient charge transfer, believed to be due to nanotubes acting as exciton dissociation centres. The fabricated photovoltaic devices with triple heterojunction interfaces show increased short circuit current density compared to the device without nanotubes.

    7. Wafer-Scale Strain Engineering of Ultrathin Semiconductor Crystalline Layers (pages 3801–3807)

      Marina S. Leite, Emily C. Warmann, Gregory M. Kimball, Stanley P. Burgos, Dennis M. Callahan and Harry A. Atwater

      Article first published online: 19 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101309

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      The fabrication of a wafer-scale dislocation-free, fully relaxed single crystalline template for epitaxial growth is demonstrated. Transferring biaxially-strained InxGa1-xAs ultrathin films from InP substrates to a handle support results in full strain relaxation and the InxGa1-xAs unit cell assumes its bulk value. Our realization demonstrates the ability to control the lattice parameter and energy band structure of single layer crystalline compound semiconductors in an unprecedented way.

  7. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Comment
    6. Progress Report
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    1. Optical Arrays: Graphene/Carbon Nanotube Hybrid-Based Transparent 2D Optical Array (Adv. Mater. 33/2011) (page 3808)

      Un Jeong Kim, IL Ha Lee, Jung Jun Bae, Sangjin Lee, Gang Hee Han, Seung Jin Chae, Fethullah Güneş, Jun Hee Choi, Chan Wook Baik, Sun Il Kim, Jong Min Kim and Young Hee Lee

      Article first published online: 24 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190132

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      Direct integration of vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNTs) patterns on a graphene layer combined with a liquid crystal cell can be utilized as an optical array. The hybrid structures have high transparency and conductivity and, as reported by Sun IL Kim, Jong Min Kim, Young Hee Lee, and co-workers, clear diffraction patterns are obtained by modulating an external electric field.

  8. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Comment
    6. Progress Report
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    1. Graphene/Carbon Nanotube Hybrid-Based Transparent 2D Optical Array (pages 3809–3814)

      Un Jeong Kim, IL Ha Lee, Jung Jun Bae, Sangjin Lee, Gang Hee Han, Seung Jin Chae, Fethullah Güneş, Jun Hee Choi, Chan Wook Baik, Sun Il Kim, Jong Min Kim and Young Hee Lee

      Article first published online: 19 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101622

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      Graphene/carbon nanotube (CNT) hybrid structures are fabricated for use as optical arrays. Vertically aligned CNTs are directly synthesized on a graphene/quartz substrate using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). Graphene preserves the transparency and resistance during CNT growth. Highly aligned single-walled CNTs show a better performance for the diffraction intensity.

    2. Widely Tunable Lasing in a Colloidal Crystal Gel Film Permanently Stabilized by an Ionic Liquid (pages 3815–3820)

      Seiichi Furumi, Toshimitsu Kanai and Tsutomu Sawada

      Article first published online: 20 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101825

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      Widely tunable laser action by low threshold optical excitation can be realized by a colloidal crystal gel (CC-G) film permanently stabilized by a non-volatile ionic liquid. The CC-G film consists of a non-close-packed structure of microparticles immobilized in a polymer gel. Optical excitation with green light gives rise to a single and very narrow laser emission with red color. The single laser emission peak can be tuned in a wide wavelength range by applying mechanical stress.

    3. Monolithic Integration of Arrays of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Sheets of Graphene (pages 3821–3826)

      Suck Won Hong, Frank Du, Wei Lan, Sangmin Kim, Hoon-Sik Kim and John A. Rogers

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101955

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      Sheets of graphene and arrays of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are formed separately using chemical vapor deposition techniques onto different optimized growth substrates. Techniques of transfer printing provide a route to integration, yielding two terminal devices and transistors in which patterned structures of graphene form the electrodes and the SWNTs arrays serve as the semiconducting channels.

    4. Molecular-Shape-Controlled Photovoltaic Performance Probed via Soluble π-Conjugated Arylacetylenic Semiconductors (pages 3827–3831)

      Mirko Seri, Assunta Marrocchi, Diego Bagnis, Rocio Ponce, Aldo Taticchi, Tobin J. Marks and Antonio Facchetti

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101700

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      The synthesis and characterization of a new series of anthracene-based derivatives and their use as donors in bulk-heterojunction solar cells is reported. It is found that when using well-defined building blocks in constructing the chromophore, the donor molecular shape dramatically affects organic photovoltaic (OPV) performance in a previously unrecognized way.

    5. Electron Acceptor Materials Engineering in Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells (pages 3832–3837)

      Huan Liu, Jiang Tang, Illan J. Kramer, Ratan Debnath, Ghada I. Koleilat, Xihua Wang, Armin Fisher, Rui Li, Lukasz Brzozowski, Larissa Levina and Edward H. Sargent

      Article first published online: 15 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101783

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      Lead sulfide colloidal quantum dot (CQD) solar cells with a solar power conversion efficiency of 5.6% are reported. The result is achieved through careful optimization of the titanium dioxide electrode that serves as the electron acceptor. Metal-ion-doped sol-gel-derived titanium dioxide electrodes produce a tunable-bandedge, well-passivated materials platform for CQD solar cell optimization.

    6. In-Plane Mechanical Response of TiO2 Nanotube Arrays – Intrinsic Properties and Impact of Adsorbates for Sensor Applications (pages 3838–3841)

      K. Fischer and S. G. Mayr

      Article first published online: 18 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101286

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      In-plane mechanical response of TiO2nano­tube arrays is intrinsically characterized by very low elastic moduli and significant damping, while both are strongly affected by presence of adsorbates. These findings suggest use of TiO2 nanotube arrays as novel types of sensors, actuators as well as highly stretchable coatings in biomedical applications.

    7. Bio-Inspired Borate Cross-Linking in Ultra-Stiff Graphene Oxide Thin Films (pages 3842–3846)

      Zhi An, Owen C. Compton, Karl W. Putz, L. Catherine Brinson and SonBinh T. Nguyen

      Article first published online: 25 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101544

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      Adjacent graphene oxide nanosheets in a thin-film structure have been covalently cross-linked in a fashion similar to the cell walls of higher-order plants. The resulting ultra-stiff structure exhibits a maximum storage modulus of 127 GPa that can be tuned by varying borate concentration.

    8. Purely Electronic Switching with High Uniformity, Resistance Tunability, and Good Retention in Pt-Dispersed SiO2 Thin Films for ReRAM (pages 3847–3852)

      Byung Joon Choi, Albert B. K. Chen, Xiang Yang and I-Wei Chen

      Article first published online: 21 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201102132

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      Resistance switching memory operating by a purely electronic switching mechanism, which was first realized in Pt-dispersed SiO2 thin films, satisfies criteria including high uniformity, fast switching speed, and long retention for non-volatile memory application. This resistive element obeys Ohm's law for the area dependence, but its resistance exponentially increases with the film thickness, which provides new freedom to tailor the device characteristics.

    9. Multiferroic Polymer Composites with Greatly Enhanced Magnetoelectric Effect under a Low Magnetic Bias (pages 3853–3858)

      Jiezhu Jin, Sheng-Guo Lu, Chalathorn Chanthad, Qiming Zhang, M. A. Haque and Qing Wang

      Article first published online: 25 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101790

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      Multiferroic laminate composites consisting of chain-end cross-linked ferroelectric polymers and magnetostrictive Metglas are reported. The composites exhibit a greatly enhanced multiferroic voltage coefficient and sensitivity relative to analogous composites. These remarkable properties are attributed to high piezoelectric and electromechanical coupling coefficients, because of the formation of larger crystalline sizes and concurrent improvement in the polarization ordering in the cross-linked polymers.

    10. High-Performance and Highly Durable Inverted Organic Photovoltaics Embedding Solution-Processable Vanadium Oxides as an Interfacial Hole-Transporting Layer (pages 3859–3863)

      Chih-Ping Chen, Yeu-Ding Chen and Shih-Ching Chuang

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201102142

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      Inverted OPV devices based on sol-gel derived vanadium oxides (VOx) as an interfacial layer are demonstrated. The VOx shows excellent characteristics as a hole-transporting and protecting layer. The constructed devices exhibit enhanced performance with the studied polymers and are highly durable under accelerated conditions for long time periods.

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