Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 23 Issue 34

September 8, 2011

Volume 23, Issue 34

Pages 3867–3994

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    1. Magnetic Materials: Dynamic Control of MOF-5 Crystal Positioning Using a Magnetic Field (Adv. Mater. 34/2011) (page 3867)

      Paolo Falcaro, Francois Normandin, Masahide Takahashi, Paolo Scopece, Heinz Amenitsch, Stefano Costacurta, Cara M. Doherty, Jamie S. Laird, Matthew D. H. Lay, Fabio Lisi, Anita J. Hill and Dario Buso

      Article first published online: 2 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190133

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Controlling the position of metal organic frameworks is essential for the fabrication of devices that exploit the hybrid porous crystal properties. On page 3901, Paolo Falcaro, Dario Buso, and co-workers report the preparation of framework composites based on MOF-5 and carbon-coated cobalt nanoparticles, producing a highly porous powder that responds to magnetic stimuli. The framework composites can be impregnated with optically responsive molecules and used as a position-controlled molecular sensor.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    1. Flame-Retardant Materials: Intumescent All-Polymer Multilayer Nanocoating Capable of Extinguishing Flame on Fabric (Adv. Mater. 34/2011) (page 3868)

      Yu-Chin Li, Sarah Mannen, Alexander B. Morgan, SeChin Chang, You-Hao Yang, Brian Condon and Jaime C. Grunlan

      Article first published online: 2 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190134

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Cotton fabric is the most used natural textile, but it is highly flammable. By treating fabric with intumescent nanocoatings, composed of nitrogen-rich and phosphorous-rich polymers and prepared via layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly, the cotton fabric can be rendered anti-flammable. In some cases, no ignition occurs, as reported by Jaime C. Grunlan and co-workers on page 3926. The cover photograph is a dramatization created by Texas A&M Engineering graphic designer Charlie Apel.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    1. Contents: (Adv. Mater. 34/2011) (pages 3869–3875)

      Article first published online: 2 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190135

  4. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    1. Bipolar Host Materials: A Chemical Approach for Highly Efficient Electrophosphorescent Devices (pages 3876–3895)

      Atul Chaskar, Hsiao-Fan Chen and Ken-Tsung Wong

      Article first published online: 1 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101848

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Tailor-made bipolar host molecules obtained by selection of hole-transporting (HT) and electron-transporting (ET) moieties connected by proper linkages provide electrophosphorescence devices with balanced charge flux, allowing the realization of high performance organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). An overview of the recent development of bipolar host molecules is presented with a special emphasis on the molecular design strategies and the relationships between structure, properties, and performance.

  5. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    1. Three-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Intermediate Reflectors for Enhanced Light-Trapping in Tandem Solar Cells (pages 3896–3900)

      Johannes Üpping, Andreas Bielawny, Ralf B. Wehrspohn, Thomas Beckers, Reinhard Carius, Uwe Rau, Stefan Fahr, Carsten Rockstuhl, Falk Lederer, Matthias Kroll, Thomas Pertsch, Lorenz Steidl and Rudolf Zentel

      Article first published online: 25 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101419

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      A three-dimensional photonic crystal intermediate reflector for enhanced light trapping in tandem solar cells is presented. The intermediate reflector consists of a transparent and conductive ZnO:Al inverted opal sandwiched in between the top amorphous silicon and bottom microcrystalline silicon cell.

    2. Dynamic Control of MOF-5 Crystal Positioning Using a Magnetic Field (pages 3901–3906)

      Paolo Falcaro, Francois Normandin, Masahide Takahashi, Paolo Scopece, Heinz Amenitsch, Stefano Costacurta, Cara M. Doherty, Jamie S. Laird, Matthew D. H. Lay, Fabio Lisi, Anita J. Hill and Dario Buso

      Article first published online: 20 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101233

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Dynamic spatial control of MOF position is obtained by incorporating carbon-coated cobalt nanoparticles within metal organic framework (MOF)-5 crystals. The cobalt framework composite obtained responds efficiently to magnetic stimuli. A luminescent functionality is added, showing that multifunctional MOF devices can be prepared. This new generation of adaptive material is tested as a position-controlled molecular sensor.

    3. Triggered Cell Release from Materials Using Bioadhesive Photocleavable Linkers (pages 3907–3910)

      Melanie Wirkner, José María Alonso, Verona Maus, Marcelo Salierno, Ted T. Lee, Andrés J. García and Aránzazu del Campo

      Article first published online: 25 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201100925

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A light-controlled method for cell release by means of surface modification with photolabile linkers is presented. This approach is applicable to any material, provided that the linker is properly designed, and provides direct control over the molecular interactions involved in cell adhesion.

    4. Ultrathin Multifunctional Oxide Coatings for Lithium Ion Batteries (pages 3911–3915)

      Xingcheng Xiao, Peng Lu and Dongjoon Ahn

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101915

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      Ultrathin oxide coatings are demonstrated to offer multiple functions for improving the cycling performance of lithium ion batteries. The coatings can serve as an artificial solid electrolyte interphase layer, which significantly suppresses electrolyte decomposition as well as mitigates mechanical degradation. Structure modification is critical for increasing the ion conductivity, and therefore leads to improved current efficiency.

    5. Cellular Association and Cargo Release of Redox-Responsive Polymer Capsules Mediated by Exofacial Thiols (pages 3916–3921)

      Yan Yan, Yajun Wang, Joan K. Heath, Edouard C. Nice and Frank Caruso

      Article first published online: 2 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101609

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      Redox-responsive polymer capsules stabilized by disulfide bonds and loaded with hydrophobic cargo are prepared by templating mesoporous silica particles via layer-by-layer assembly. The thiols and disulfide bonds in the capsules interact with the exofacial thiols on the cell membrane, which regulate cellular association and cargo release from the capsules.

    6. Photoinduced Dispersibility Tuning of Carbon Nanotubes by a Water-Soluble Stilbene as a Dispersant (pages 3922–3925)

      Yoko Matsuzawa, Haruhisa Kato, Harumi Ohyama, Daisuke Nishide, Hiromichi Kataura and Masaru Yoshida

      Article first published online: 26 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101960

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A water-soluble stilbene derivative with cationic charges enables tuning of the dispersibility of the single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in aqueous solution by photoirradiation. The nearly coplanar core of the stilbene dispersant interacts with the SWNTs via ππ interactions, resulting in a stable dispersion of the SWNTs. Photoinduced cyclization for the dispersant-triggered reprecipitation of the SWNTs is due to detachment of the dispersant from SWNTs surfaces.

    7. Intumescent All-Polymer Multilayer Nanocoating Capable of Extinguishing Flame on Fabric (pages 3926–3931)

      Yu-Chin Li, Sarah Mannen, Alexander B. Morgan, SeChin Chang, You-Hao Yang, Brian Condon and Jaime C. Grunlan

      Article first published online: 29 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101871

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      An intumescent nanocoating composed of poly(allylamine) and poly(sodium phosphate) is deposited layer-by-layer on cotton fabric. Fire is extinguished right after ignition on the fabric during vertical flame testing. The individual fibers are conformally coated and bubbles form on the fiber surfaces during burning, which is due to an intumescent effect.

    8. Macroscopic Alignment of Lyotropic Liquid Crystals Using Magnetic Nanoparticles (pages 3932–3937)

      Jijo J. Vallooran, Sreenath Bolisetty and Raffaele Mezzenga

      Article first published online: 26 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101760

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      A versatile approach to align anisotropic mesophases in the presence of magnetic nanoparticles in response to an external magnetic field is demonstrated. A memory effect is shown, as the alignment of the nanoparticles, the mesophase, and the overall birefringence can be stored, erased, and rewritten reversibly by changing the temperature and the direction of the external magnetic field.

    9. Site-Specific Transfer-Printing of Individual Graphene Microscale Patterns to Arbitrary Surfaces (pages 3938–3943)

      Ya-Qing Bie, Yang-Bo Zhou, Zhi-Min Liao, Kai Yan, Song Liu, Qing Zhao, Shishir Kumar, Han-Chun Wu, Georg S. Duesberg, Graham L. W. Cross, Jun Xu, Hailin Peng, Zhongfan Liu and Da-Peng Yu

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201102122

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Suspended poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/graphene microstamps can be site-specifically printed to any targeted position using a micromanipulator. The surface-enhanced Raman spectrum, gate-voltage-dependent conductance, half-integer quantum Hall effect, and electrical interconnection are investigated. Advantages of the technique include precise positioning, avoiding extrinsic doping effect, maintaining the graphene quality, improving the efficiency of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown graphene deployment, and convenient device repair.

    10. Large-Scale Exfoliation of Inorganic Layered Compounds in Aqueous Surfactant Solutions (pages 3944–3948)

      Ronan J. Smith, Paul J. King, Mustafa Lotya, Christian Wirtz, Umar Khan, Sukanta De, Arlene O'Neill, Georg S. Duesberg, Jaime C. Grunlan, Gregory Moriarty, Jun Chen, Jiazhao Wang, Andrew I. Minett, Valeria Nicolosi and Jonathan N. Coleman

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201102584

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A method to exfoliate MoS2 in large quantities in surfactant-water solutions is described. The layered material tends to be exfoliated as dispersions of thin, relatively defect-free flakes with lateral sizes of hundreds of nanometers. This method can be extended to a range of other layered compounds. The dispersed flakes can be mixed with nanotubes or graphene to greate functional hybrid materials.

    11. Rational Design and Enhanced Biocompatibility of a Dry Adhesive Medical Skin Patch (pages 3949–3953)

      Moon Kyu Kwak, Hoon-Eui Jeong and Kahp Y. Suh

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101694

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A new type of medical skin patch is developed that contains high-density, mushroom-like micropillars. Such dry-adhesive micropillars are highly biocompatible, have minimized side effects, and provide reasonable normal adhesion strength. To arrive at optimal conditions for the dry adhesive skin patch, the proper design of various structural and material parameters of micropillars is investigated.

    12. Permanent Polarity and Piezoelectricity of Electrospun α-Helical Poly(α-Amino Acid) Fibers (pages 3954–3958)

      Dawnielle Farrar, Kailiang Ren, Derek Cheng, Sungjoo Kim, Wonkyu Moon, William L. Wilson, James E. West and S. Michael Yu

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101733

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Poly(γ-benzyl α, L-glutamate) fibers with high non-linear optical activity and thermally stable piezoelectricity are fabricated by simple electrospinning methods that apply directional shear force and electric field causing parallel alignment of helical polymer chains and permanent dipoles.

    13. Sulfonated Graphene for Persistent Aromatic Pollutant Management (pages 3959–3963)

      Guixia Zhao, Lang Jiang, Yudong He, Jiaxing Li, Huanli Dong, Xiangke Wang and Wenping Hu

      Article first published online: 29 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101007

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A kind of sulfonated graphene (around 3 nm thick) with high dispersion properties has been synthesized. It is demonstrated to adsorb persistent organic aromatic pollutants effectively from aqueous solutions. The adsorption capability of the prepared sulfonated graphene nanomaterials approaches ∼2.3–2.4 mmol g−1 for naphthalene and 1-naphthol, which is one of the highest capabilities of today's nanomaterials. This highly effective adsorbent may be a promising candidate to remove aromatic chemicals from large volumes of aqueous solutions. It opens a new door for cost effective environmental pollution management with graphene in the near future.

  6. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    1. Nanofiber Sensors: PZT Nanoactive Fiber Composites for Acoustic Emission Detection (Adv. Mater. 34/2011) (page 3964)

      Xi Chen, Jinwei Li, Guitao Zhang and Yong Shi

      Article first published online: 2 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190136

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The concept of using piezoelectric (PZT) nanoactive fiber composites (NAFCs) with interdigitated electrodes as acoustic emission (AE)sensors for structural health monitoring (SHM) applications is demonstrated. As reported by Yong Shi and co-workers, the high sensitivity, microscale dimensions, low weight, large flexibility, low cost, and anisotropic sensitivity cause these PZT NAFCs sensors to have promising applications in health monitoring.

  7. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    1. PZT Nanoactive Fiber Composites for Acoustic Emission Detection (pages 3965–3969)

      Xi Chen, Jinwei Li, Guitao Zhang and Yong Shi

      Article first published online: 26 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101592

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A concept of using piezoelectric (PZT) nanoactive fiber composites (NAFCs) with interdigitated electrodes as acoustic emission (AE) sensors for structural health monitoring (SHM) applications is demonstrated. Due to their high sensitivity, microscale size, low weight, large flexibility, low cost, and anisotropic sensitivity, the PZT NAFCs sensors have a promising application in health monitoring by integrating them into composites.

    2. The Role of the Fabrication of Anatase-TiO2 Chain-Networked Photoanodes (pages 3970–3973)

      Jing-Zhi Chen, Yin-Cheng Yen, Wen-Yin Ko, Ching-Yuan Cheng and Kuan-Jiuh Lin

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101485

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      A novel, sandwich-layered Ti/TiO2/Ti/fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) architecture is reported. The Ti layers play a critical role in the formation of long pear-necklace chains made of interconnected TiO2 nanoparticles. The chains interpenetrate a network structure on FTO glass substrates under alkaline hydrothermal-processing conditions. A significant enhancement in the photocurrent density of dye-sensitized solar cells employing non-volatile polymer-based electrolytes is obtained.

    3. Laser-Induced Control of TiO2 Porosity for Enhanced Photovoltaic Behavior (pages 3974–3978)

      Junghwan Yoon, Minhea Jin and Myeongkyu Lee

      Article first published online: 25 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101837

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Porosity values between 0.12 and 0.40 are achieved in a controllable way for TiO2 electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells by irradiation with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm. Whereas the electron lifetime and diffusion distance increase with reduced porosity, the amount of adsorbed dyes remains almost constant. This greatly enhances the photocurrent density and energy conversion efficiency of the solar cell.

    4. Bio-Inspired Complementary Photoconductor by Porphyrin-Coated Silicon Nanowires (pages 3979–3983)

      Sung-Jin Choi, Young-Chul Lee, Myeong-Lok Seol, Jae-Hyuk Ahn, Sungho Kim, Dong-Il Moon, Jin-Woo Han, Stephen Mann, Ji-Won Yang and Yang-Kyu Choi

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101931

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      A symbiotically bio-inspired complementary photoconductor is demonstrated using a well-defined silicon nanowire (SiNW) and porphyrins. The observed direction of the conductance change by light illumination has opposite signs for n- and p-type SiNWs. On the basis of this observation, it is concluded that complementary photoconductors can be used to form functional logic gates of optical input with remarkably low static power dissipation.

    5. Efficient Heterojunction Photovoltaic Cell Utilizing Nanocomposites of Lead Sulfide Nanocrystals and a Low-Bandgap Polymer (pages 3984–3988)

      Jangwon Seo, Min Ju Cho, Dongho Lee, A. N. Cartwright and Paras N. Prasad

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101912

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A facile approach to make an efficient hybrid bulk heterojunction photovoltaic device with lead sulfide nanocrystals and a low-bandgap polymer is demonstarted, resulting in a power conversion efficiency of about 2–3%.

    6. Intrinsically Stretchable Polymer Light-Emitting Devices Using Carbon Nanotube-Polymer Composite Electrodes (pages 3989–3994)

      Zhibin Yu, Xiaofan Niu, Zhitian Liu and Qibing Pei

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101986

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Polymer light-emitting devices are fabricated using single-walled carbon nanotube-polymer composite electrodes as both the electron and hole injection electrodes. The devices are metal-free and can be linearly stretched up to 45% strain. This represents a proof-of-concept, highly stretchable semiconductor device wherein every part of the device is intrinsically stretchable.

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