Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 23 Issue 39

October 18, 2011

Volume 23, Issue 39

Pages 4463–4586

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    9. Research News
    1. Graphene: Evidence for a New Two-Dimensional C4H-Type Polymer Based on Hydrogenated Graphene (Adv. Mater. 39/2011) (page 4463)

      Danny Haberer, Cristina E. Giusca, Ying Wang, Hermann Sachdev, Alexander V. Fedorov, Mani Farjam, S. Akbar Jafari, Denis V. Vyalikh, Dmitry Usachov, Xianjie Liu, Uwe Treske, Mandy Grobosch, Oleg Vilkov, Vera K. Adamchuk, Stephan Irle, S. Ravi P. Silva, Martin Knupfer, Bernd Büchner and Alexander Grüneis

      Article first published online: 13 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190157

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A partially hydrogenated graphene sheet with C4H stoichiometry where the hydrogen atoms self-assemble to a para-type chemisorption pattern in which the hydrogen atoms are located at opposite sides of the hexagons is reported. On page 4497, Danny Haberer, Hermann Sachdev, Stephan Irle, Alexander Grüneis, and co-workers describe the synthesis and in situ characterization by pho-toemission spectroscopy of this new compound.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    9. Research News
    1. Star Polymer Nanoparticles: Nanogel Star Polymer Architectures: A Nanoparticle Platform for Modular Programmable Macromolecular Self-Assembly, Intercellular Transport, and Dual-Mode Cargo Delivery (Adv. Mater. 39/2011) (page 4464)

      Victor Y. Lee, Karen Havenstrite, Melia Tjio, Melanie McNeil, Helen M. Blau, Robert D. Miller and Joseph Sly

      Article first published online: 13 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190158

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      On page 4509, Robert D. Miller, Joseph Sly, and co-workers report the use of sequential polymer synthesis to create highly uniform, size-controlled nanogel star polymer nanoparticles capable of programmable tandem-modal self-assembly with other functional molecules and transportation of their “cargo” across cellular membranes. These dual-mode unimolecular delivery vehicles have been developed for applications in the areas of synergistic therapeutic delivery, imaged therapeutic delivery, and dual mode bio-imaging agents.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    9. Research News
  4. Progress Report

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    9. Research News
    1. Graphene: Piecing it Together (pages 4471–4490)

      Mark H. Rümmeli, Claudia G. Rocha, Frank Ortmann, Imad Ibrahim, Haldun Sevincli, Felix Börrnert, Jens Kunstmann, Alicja Bachmatiuk, Markus Pötschke, Masashi Shiraishi, M. Meyyappan, Bernd Büchner, Stephan Roche and Gianaurelio Cuniberti

      Article first published online: 16 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101855

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      The future of graphene as a material for electronic based devices will depend heavily on our ability to piece graphene together as a single crystal and define its edges with atomic precision. In this progress report, current synthesis strategies for graphene and their weaknesses in terms of electronics applications are highlighted.

  5. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    9. Research News
    1. Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Technology With and On Paper (pages 4491–4496)

      Rodrigo Martins, Arokia Nathan, Raquel Barros, Luís Pereira, Pedro Barquinha, Nuno Correia, Ricardo Costa, Arman Ahnood, Isabel Ferreira and Elvira Fortunato

      Article first published online: 5 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201102232

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      A complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) device is described. The device is based on n-(In-Ga-Zn-O) and p-type (SnOx) active oxide semiconductors and uses a transparent conductive oxide (In-Zn-O) as gate electrode that sits on a flexible, recyclable paper substrate that is simultaneously the substrate and the dielectric.

    2. Evidence for a New Two-Dimensional C4H-Type Polymer Based on Hydrogenated Graphene (pages 4497–4503)

      Danny Haberer, Cristina E. Giusca, Ying Wang, Hermann Sachdev, Alexander V. Fedorov, Mani Farjam, S. Akbar Jafari, Denis V. Vyalikh, Dmitry Usachov, Xianjie Liu, Uwe Treske, Mandy Grobosch, Oleg Vilkov, Vera K. Adamchuk, Stephan Irle, S. Ravi P. Silva, Martin Knupfer, Bernd Büchner and Alexander Grüneis

      Article first published online: 31 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201102019

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A new polymer with C4H stoichiometry based on graphene is synthesized in situ using template-induced polymerization of self-organizing hydrogen adsorbates on graphene. The polymerization is observed “live” on the surface of graphene by photoemission spectroscopy. Photoemission spectroscopy allows for an accurate determination of the carbon/hydrogen stoichiometry, an aspect that is extremely important for understanding functionalized graphene.

    3. Highly Deformable Nanostructured Elastomeric Electrodes With Improving Conductivity Upon Cyclical Stretching (pages 4504–4508)

      Gabriele Corbelli, Cristian Ghisleri, Mattia Marelli, Paolo Milani and Luca Ravagnan

      Article first published online: 29 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201102463

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Stretchable and compliant electrodes on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) are efficiently fabricated by the implantation of neutral metallic clusters aerodynamically accelerated by a supersonic expansion. The production of these nanocomposite electrodes avoids any charging or carbonization of PDMS and the electrodes can withstand many deformation cycles, decreasing their resistance upon cyclical stretching. Micrometric patterns can be simply fabricated by stencil mask patterning.

    4. Nanogel Star Polymer Architectures: A Nanoparticle Platform for Modular Programmable Macromolecular Self-Assembly, Intercellular Transport, and Dual-Mode Cargo Delivery (pages 4509–4515)

      Victor Y. Lee, Karen Havenstrite, Melia Tjio, Melanie McNeil, Helen M. Blau, Robert D. Miller and Joseph Sly

      Article first published online: 8 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201102371

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Nanogel star polymers are developed as a new route for the formation of dual-mode nanoparticle systems for applications in the areas of synergistic therapeutic delivery, imaged therapeutic delivery, and dual-mode bioimaging agents. These extremely uniform, structurally versatile, water-soluble, unimolecular organic nanoparticles with tunable polyvalency and functionality are preprogrammed to spontaneously upload different types of complex functional macromolecules.

    5. Choline-Derivate-Modified Nanoparticles for Brain-Targeting Gene Delivery (pages 4516–4520)

      Jianfeng Li, Lu Zhou, Deyong Ye, Shixian Huang, Kun Shao, Rongqin Huang, Liang Han, Yang Liu, Shuhuan Liu, Liya Ye, Jinning Lou and Chen Jiang

      Article first published online: 5 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101899

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The choline transporter (ChT) is used to transporte choline-derivate-modified nanoparticles across the blood-brain barrier. It is demonstrated that ChT is an ideal Trojan horse. The choline-derivate-modified nanoparticles exhibit higher permeability across the brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) monolayer in vitro and higher gene distribution and expression in vivo.

    6. High-Current-Density Monolayer CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dot Light-Emitting Devices with Oxide Electrodes (pages 4521–4525)

      Edward M. Likovich, Rafael Jaramillo, Kasey J. Russell, Shriram Ramanathan and Venkatesh Narayanamurti

      Article first published online: 8 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101782

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      Films of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are promising for lighting technologies, but controlling how current flows through QD films remains a challenge. A new design for a QD light-emitting device that uses atomic layer deposition to fill the interstices between QDs with insulating oxide is introduced. It funnels current through the QDs themselves, thus increasing the light emission yield.

    7. Liquid-Crystalline Elastomer Microvalve for Microfluidics (pages 4526–4530)

      Antoni Sánchez-Ferrer, Tamás Fischl, Mike Stubenrauch, Arne Albrecht, Helmut Wurmus, Martin Hoffmann and Heino Finkelmann

      Article first published online: 12 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201102277

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Microactuators are an essential component in microsystems or microdevices, and in applications that include artificial muscles, pumps, valves, or switchers. Liquid-crystalline elastomers are a new class of actuator material in the field of microsystem technologies, which can be used in standard processes. This newly developed actuator provides new possibilities in microfluidics because of its dimensional changes activated by the increase in temperature.

  6. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    9. Research News
    1. Pentacene Growth on Fullerene: Simulation of Vapor-Phase Deposition and Growth of a Pentacene Thin Film on C60 (001) (Adv. Mater. 39/2011) (page 4531)

      Luca Muccioli, Gabriele D'Avino and Claudio Zannoni

      Article first published online: 13 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190156

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The formation of the heterojunction between two organic semiconductors, pentacene on top of Buckminster fullerene, is simulated using a virtual vapor deposition experiment. As reported by Luca Muccioli and co-workers, the thin-film growth is characterized by a lying-to-standing collective reorientation of pentacene molecules, corresponding to the onset of crystalline order. The mechanism is coverage dependent and reorientation occurs earlier for the second monolayer.

  7. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    9. Research News
    1. Simulation of Vapor-Phase Deposition and Growth of a Pentacene Thin Film on C60 (001) (pages 4532–4536)

      Luca Muccioli, Gabriele D'Avino and Claudio Zannoni

      Article first published online: 8 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101652

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The formation of the heterojunction between two organic semiconductors, pentacene on top of Buckminster fullerene, is simulated using a virtual vapor deposition experiment. The thin-film growth is characterized by a lying-to-standing collective reorientation of pentacene molecules, corresponding to the onset of crystalline order. The mechanism is coverage dependent and reorientation occurs earlier for the second monolayer.

    2. Electric-Field-Assisted Protein Transport, Capture, and Interferometric Sensing in Carbonized Porous Silicon Films (pages 4537–4542)

      Michelle Y. Chen, Margaret D. Klunk, Vinh M. Diep and Michael J. Sailor

      Article first published online: 29 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201102090

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A carbonized porous silicon Fabry–Perot film acts as an electrically addressable, label-free optical biosensor that allows simultaneous separation, capture, and detection of charged proteins within a volume of 5 nL. Electroadsorption of protein within the 40 nm diameter pores is induced by an applied bias and the process is monitored in real-time by optical interferometry.

    3. Direct Probing of Nanodimensioned Oxide Multilayers with the Aid of Focused Ion Beam Milling (pages 4543–4548)

      Yener Kuru, Helia Jalili, Zhuhua Cai, Bilge Yildiz and Harry L. Tuller

      Article first published online: 8 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201102401

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The La0.65Sr0.35MnO3 (LSM)/SrTi0.2Fe0.8O3 (STF) multilayer is observed using scanning probe microscopy following a focused-ion beam milling process with shallow incidence angle. Although the nominal thickness of each layer is about 5 nm, the exposed layers are magnified by several orders of magnitude on the surface after FIB cutting. This procedure enables high spatial resolution and coordinated property measurements directly on the inner layers and at their interfaces.

    4. Controlled Protein Delivery Based on Enzyme-Responsive Nanocapsules (pages 4549–4553)

      Jing Wen, Sean M. Anderson, Juanjuan Du, Ming Yan, Jun Wang, Meiqing Shen, Yunfeng Lu and Tatiana Segura

      Article first published online: 12 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101771

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Enzyme-responsive protein nanocapsules are synthesized to release their protein cargoes in response to specific enzymes secreted in certain cellular events with both specificity and with a controlled rate by composition tuning. The unique nanocapsule structures protect the encapsulated proteins during hydrogel synthesis, providing a new direction for responsive protein delivery according to specific cellular events or the local environment.

    5. Novel Benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene–Benzothiadiazole Derivatives with Variable Side Chains for High-Performance Solar Cells (pages 4554–4558)

      Qiang Peng, Xiangju Liu, Dan Su, Guanwen Fu, Jun Xu and Liming Dai

      Article first published online: 5 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101933

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Low bandgap copolymers are prepared by incorporating thiophene-modified benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene and alkyloxy or fluorine-modified benzothiadiazole as donor and acceptor units. These copolymers exhibit a high open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current density. Good power conversion efficiencies are demonstrated in solar cell studies, indicating their promising photovoltaic application as donor materials.

    6. Application of a Bilayer TiO2 Nanofiber Photoanode for Optimization of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (pages 4559–4562)

      Lijun Yang and Wallace Woon-Fong Leung

      Article first published online: 29 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201102717

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The power conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells can be increased above 8% by using a one-dimensional bilayer nanofiber photoanode. The smaller-diameter nanofiber layer with a large surface for adsorbed sensitized dyes efficiently harvests sunlight and transports photogenerated electrons, while the bigger-diameter nanofiber layer reflects and traps sunlight in the photoanode. Both nanofiber layers can be fabricated readily by electrospinning.

    7. A Tough Silicon Nitride Ceramic with High Thermal Conductivity (pages 4563–4567)

      You Zhou, Hideki Hyuga, Dai Kusano, Yu-ichi Yoshizawa and Kiyoshi Hirao

      Article first published online: 8 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201102462

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A silicon nitride ceramic is prepared by a modified sintering of reaction bonded silicon nitride method (SRBSN). This ceramic has a very high thermal conductivity, high fracture toughness, and a high strength. It is expected to be used as the next-generation insulating substrate material for high-power electronic devices and other new applications.

    8. Low Driving Voltage, High Quantum Efficiency, High Power Efficiency, and Little Efficiency Roll-Off in Red, Green, and Deep-Blue Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Using a High-Triplet-Energy Hole Transport Material (pages 4568–4572)

      Yong Joo Cho and Jun Yeob Lee

      Article first published online: 8 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201102045

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Improved device performance in red, green, and deep-blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes is achieved using a new high-triplet-energy hole transport material. The driving voltage is lowered and the power efficiency is improved by more than 70% using the new hole transport material.

    9. Enhancing Photocurrent Efficiencies by Resonance Energy Transfer in CdTe Quantum Dot Multilayers: Towards Rainbow Solar Cells (pages 4573–4577)

      Andrés Ruland, Christian Schulz-Drost, Vito Sgobba and Dirk M. Guldi

      Article first published online: 8 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101423

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The impact of Förster resonant energy transfer (FRET) in CdTe quantum dot (QD) based photoelectrochemical cells is investigated. By deposition of different CdTe QD sizes onto indium on oxide electrodes, FRET across the photoactive film could be obtained, resulting in a 25% enhancement of the photon-to-current efficiency when compared to reference systems that lack FRET.

  8. Research News

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    9. Research News
    1. Towards Ultrastrong Glasses (pages 4578–4586)

      Lothar Wondraczek, John C. Mauro, Jürgen Eckert, Uta Kühn, Jürgen Horbach, Joachim Deubener and Tanguy Rouxel

      Article first published online: 8 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201102795

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      Glassy materials are key for addressing major global challenges in energy, medicine, and advanced communications systems. Emerging applications of thin, flexible, and large-area glass substrates in flexible displays, roll-to-roll processing of solar cells, next-generation touch-screen devices, and encapsulation of organic semiconductors are primarily limited by mechanical performance. Therefore, the design of ultrastrong glassy materials and strengthening techniques is of crucial importance.

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