Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 23 Issue 4

January 25, 2011

Volume 23, Issue 4

Pages 435–554

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Reports
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    1. Nanoimprinting: Sub-15nm Optical Fiber Nanoimprint Lithography: A Parallel, Self-aligned and Portable Approach (Adv. Mater. 4/2011) (page 435)

      Gorgi Kostovski, Udayakumar Chinnasamy, Sasani Jayawardhana, Paul R. Stoddart and Arnan Mitchell

      Version of Record online: 21 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190003

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      Gorgi Kostovski and co-workers demonstrate on on p. 531 the parallel nanoimprinting of multiple optical-fiber facets on a novel imprinting platform. A passive, self-alignment mechanism is used to relax the mechanical demands placed on the imprinting platform, allowing the fiber array to accommodate the non-planarity of biological nanotemplates, as well as the demonstration of a compact, portable imprinting module. A resolution of better than 15 nm is demonstrated, and up to 40 optical-fiber facets have been imprinted in parallel. This demonstration will enable the high-throughput fabrication of fiber-facet devices in a high-resolution, cost-effective and accessible way.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Reports
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    1. Liquid Crystals: Vertically Aligned Graphene Layer Arrays from Chromonic Liquid Crystal Precursors (Adv. Mater. 4/2011) (page 436)

      Fei Guo, Amartya Mukhopadhyay, Brian W. Sheldon and Robert H. Hurt

      Version of Record online: 21 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190004

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      The inside cover shows the optical texture of a “chromonic liquid crystal”, formed by a disklike organic dye in aqueous solution. The disks stack into supramolecular rods, which then self-avoid at high concentration to make ordered liquid phases, as reported by Fei Guo, Robert Hurt, and co-workers on p. 508. They show that chromonic precursors can be used to fabricate vertically aligned graphene layer arrays on substrates by liquid coating and carbonization. The arrays can be aligned or patterned using local shear forces and have unique high-activity graphene edge-rich surfaces.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Reports
    6. Review
    7. Communications
  4. Progress Reports

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Reports
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    1. Topochemical Manipulation of Perovskites: Low-Temperature Reaction Strategies for Directing Structure and Properties (pages 442–460)

      K. G. Sanjaya Ranmohotti, Elisha Josepha, Jonglak Choi, Jianxia Zhang and John B. Wiley

      Version of Record online: 21 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201002274

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      Topochemical reaction strategies are effective for the low temperature (<500°C) modification of solid state structures, allowing the preparation of nonmolecular compounds not accessible by standard synthetic routes. This Progress Report highlights recent efforts in topochemical reactions as applied to perovskite-related compounds and the future prospects for the utilization of such methodologies.

    2. Bulk Metallic Glass: The Smaller the Better (pages 461–476)

      Golden Kumar, Amish Desai and Jan Schroers

      Version of Record online: 4 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201002148

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      Limitations of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) imposed by their brittle behavior and high costs are overcome by fabricating BMG parts on miniature length scales, which take advantage of their enhanced plasticity and reduced costs. This opens up new opportunities for BMGs in the fields of MEMS, bio-implants, miniature tools, self-assembly templates, nanoimprinting, and the study of size-effects.

  5. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Reports
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    1. Recent Trends in Surface Characterization and Chemistry with High-Resolution Scanning Force Methods (pages 477–501)

      Clemens Barth, Adam S. Foster, Claude R. Henry and Alexander L. Shluger

      Version of Record online: 11 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201002270

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      Non-contact atomic force microscopy (nc-AFM) and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) for studying insulating surfaces and thin insulating films in high resolution are reviewed. The methods are introduced, then experimental and theoretical studies of insulating surfaces and thin films, with specific focus on defects, atomic and molecular adsorbates, doping, and metallic nanoclusters are discussed.

  6. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Reports
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    1. Surface Potential Mapping of SAM-Functionalized Organic Semiconductors by Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (pages 502–507)

      David J. Ellison, Bumsu Lee, V. Podzorov and C. Daniel Frisbie

      Version of Record online: 6 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201003122

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      Kelvin probe force microscopy measurements on rubrene single crystals partially coated with fluorinated and non-fluorinated SAM derivatives are employed to determine the SAM-induced surface potentials caused by an interfacial charge-transfer doping process resulting in an interface dipole. The surface potential and topographic information in turn allow calculation of the effective intramolecular electric fields and carrier densities due to doping in the SAM-modified rubrene crystals.

    2. Vertically Aligned Graphene Layer Arrays from Chromonic Liquid Crystal Precursors (pages 508–513)

      Fei Guo, Amartya Mukhopadhyay, Brian W. Sheldon and Robert H. Hurt

      Version of Record online: 22 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201003158

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Graphene layers can be fabricated in vertical arrays by non-covalent water-based assembly of chromonic liquid crystals followed by carbonization. Local shear forces can be used to write orientational micropatterns in the arrays (Figure). The unique vertical layer arrangement produces rafts of graphenic edge sites on the active upper surface, which can be used to create Z-directional nanopores through Co-catalyzed nanoparticle channeling.

    3. Cooperation of Biological and Mechanical Signals in Cardiac Progenitor Cell Differentiation (pages 514–518)

      Stefania Pagliari, Ana Cristina Vilela-Silva, Giancarlo Forte, Francesca Pagliari, Corrado Mandoli, Giovanni Vozzi, Stefano Pietronave, Maria Prat, Silvia Licoccia, Arti Ahluwalia, Enrico Traversa, Marilena Minieri and Paolo Di Nardo

      Version of Record online: 12 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201003479

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      Three-dimensional cardiac tissue-specific scaffolds made of poly-lactic acid (PLA) have an ordered array of square pores reproducing anisotropic cardiac-like stiffness. The mechano-physical features of the scaffolds favor cardiomyocyte adhesion and survival and combined with biological signals released by neonatal cardiomyocytes can accelerate cardiac stem cell differentiation by emulating in vitro cardiac niche.

    4. Multifunctional SWCNT-ZnO Nanocomposites for Enhancing Performance and Stability of Organic Solar Cells (pages 519–522)

      Won Hyun Shim, Sun-Young Park, Mi Yeong Park, Hyun Ook Seo, Kwang-Dae Kim, Young Tae Kim, Yang Do Kim, Jae-Wook Kang, Kyu Hwan Lee, Yongsoo Jeong, Young Dok Kim and Dong Chan Lim

      Version of Record online: 10 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201003083

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A novel fabrication process for the efficient incorporation of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) into ZnO layers was developed, and this technique was used for constructing organic solar cells having a ZnO-based inverted structure with embedded SWCNTs. By SWCNT, significant enhancement in photovoltaic performance and stability of device was found.

    5. Solution-Processable Organic Single Crystals with Bandlike Transport in Field-Effect Transistors (pages 523–526)

      Chuan Liu, Takeo Minari, Xubing Lu, Akichika Kumatani, Kazuo Takimiya and Kazuhito Tsukagoshi

      Version of Record online: 15 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201002682

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      Simple solvent-vapor annealing was used to fabricate single crystals of dioctylbenzothienobenzothiophene on a polymer dielectric surface. By involving self-organized phase separation, crystal length is enhanced and a good semiconductor/insulator interface is obtained. The field-effect transistors (FETs) exhibit an average p-type FET mobility of 3.0 cm2 V−1 s−1, with a highest value of 9.1 cm2 V−1 s−1. The FET mobility increases as temperature decreases, which suggests intrinsic bandlike transport.

    6. Multilayer Polymer Stacking by In Situ Electrochemical Polymerization for Color-Stable White Electroluminescence (pages 527–530)

      Cheng Gu, Teng Fei, Liang Yao, Ying Lv, Dan Lu and Yuguang Ma

      Version of Record online: 22 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201003027

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We report a novel multilayer electrochemical polymerization method and the first color-stable polymer-based multilayer white-emissive device, which exhibited CIE coordinates of (0.35, 0.35), a CRI of 93 and extremely stable white-light emission over a wide range of driving voltages of 8 to 20 V. The multilayer electrochemical polymerization method affords more opportunities to develop multilayer polymer heterostructures in organic solid-state devices.

    7. Sub-15nm Optical Fiber Nanoimprint Lithography: A Parallel, Self-aligned and Portable Approach (pages 531–535)

      Gorgi Kostovski, Udayakumar Chinnasamy, Sasani Jayawardhana, Paul R. Stoddart and Arnan Mitchell

      Version of Record online: 22 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201002796

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We demonstrate the parallel patterning of multiple optical-fiber facets using nanoimprint lithography on a novel platform. A resolution of better than 15 nm is demonstrated and up to 40 optical-fiber facets have been imprinted in parallel. The lithography platform features a self-alignment mechanism (see figure) that greatly relaxes the mechanical requirements, allowing for the demonstration of a compact, portable imprinting-module and the accommodation of non-planar, biological molds. The imprinted fibers are metalized and employed as bi-directional probes for surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

    8. Chemical Sensing with Polyaniline Coated Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (pages 536–540)

      Mengning Ding, Yifan Tang, Pingping Gou, Michael J. Reber and Alexander Star

      Version of Record online: 30 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201003304

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A positive synergy: Single-walled carbon nanotube/polyaniline (SWNT/PAni) nanocomposite with controlled core/shell morphology was synthesized by a noncovalent functionalization approach. Unique electron interactions between the SWNT core and the PAni shell were studied electrochemically and spectroscopically, and superior sensor performance to chemical gases and vapors was demonstrated.

    9. Current-Induced Mass Transport in Filled Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes (pages 541–544)

      Markus Löffler, Uhland Weissker, Thomas Mühl, Thomas Gemming, Jürgen Eckert and Bernd Büchner

      Version of Record online: 11 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201002247

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    10. Curvature-Driven Reversible In Situ Switching Between Pinned and Roll-Down Superhydrophobic States for Water Droplet Transportation (pages 545–549)

      Dong Wu, Si-Zhu Wu, Qi-Dai Chen, Yong-Lai Zhang, Jia Yao, Xi Yao, Li-Gang Niu, Jiang-Nan Wang, Lei Jiang and Hong-Bo Sun

      Version of Record online: 12 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201001688

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Precise tuning of surface wettability – by means of curvature-driven reversible switching from the pinned to the roll-down superhydrophobic state (see figure) – is reported for for the first time. The adhesion force and sliding behaviors of superhydrophobic poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) pillar arrays show strong dependence on surface curvature. Alteration of the curvature of the surface allows a water droplet to be easily adjusted from the “ pinned” to the “roll-down” state, which provides the possibility of precise, in situ control of the movements of water droplets.

    11. Decoupling Local Disorder and Optical Effects in Infrared Spectra: Differentiating Between Calcites with Different Origins (pages 550–554)

      Kristin M. Poduska, Lior Regev, Elisabetta Boaretto, Lia Addadi, Steve Weiner, Leeor Kronik and Stefano Curtarolo

      Version of Record online: 22 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201003890

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Infrared spectral peak broadening due to atomic disorder and narrowing due to particle-size-related optical absorption effects can be decoupled experimentally and theoretically. Applied to different sources of polycrystalline calcite, the method provides a powerful diagnostic tool for archaeology, geology, and materials/biomaterials science.

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