Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 23 Issue 42

November 9, 2011

Volume 23, Issue 42

Pages 4819–4964

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    1. Organic Solar Cells: Solution-Processable Reduced Graphene Oxide as a Novel Alternative to PEDOT:PSS Hole Transport Layers for Highly Efficient and Stable Polymer Solar Cells (Adv. Mater. 42/2011) (page 4819)

      Jin-Mun Yun, Jun-Seok Yeo, Juhwan Kim, Hyung-Gu Jeong, Dong-Yu Kim, Yong-Jin Noh, Seok-Soon Kim, Bon-Cheol Ku and Seok-In Na

      Article first published online: 26 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190167

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      Solution-processable reduced graphene oxide as a hole-transporting layer for highly efficient and stable organic solar cells is reported on page 4923 by Dong-Yu Kim, Seok-In Na, and co-workers. Introduction of a newly reduced graphene oxide by simple solution processing into solar cells dramatically raises the cell efficiency and cell life-time. The results will allow full use of chemically reduced graphene and will advance the realization of carbon-based printable optoelectronic devices.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    1. Nanoengineered Superconducting Wire: Tailored Materials for High-Performance MgB2 Wire (Adv. Mater. 42/2011) (page 4820)

      Jung Ho Kim, Sangjun Oh, Hiroaki Kumakura, Akiyoshi Matsumoto, Yoon-Uk Heo, Kyeong-Se Song, Yong-Mook Kang, Minoru Maeda, Matt Rindfleisch, Mike Tomsic, Seyong Choi and Shi Xue Dou

      Article first published online: 26 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190168

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      Low-cost high-performance superconducting MgB2 wires are demonstrated using tailored starting materials.46 As reported on page 4942 by Jung Ho Kim, Sangjun Oh, and co-workers, nanoengi-neered carbon-encapsulated boron powder allows for low sintering temperature and prevents surface oxidation. Furthermore, grain alignment by elon-gated magnesium coarse powder enhances the critical current density up to the level of commercial applications.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    1. Contents: (Adv. Mater. 42/2011) (pages 4821–4827)

      Article first published online: 26 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190165

  4. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    1. Carbon Materials for Chemical Capacitive Energy Storage (pages 4828–4850)

      Yunpu Zhai, Yuqian Dou, Dongyuan Zhao, Pasquale F. Fulvio, Richard T. Mayes and Sheng Dai

      Article first published online: 26 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201100984

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      Carbon materials have attracted intense interest as electrodes for supercapacitors. A brief summary of recent research progress on carbon-based electrodes is provided. An analysis of both advantages and disadvantages of different types of carbons are presented. The future trends of electrochemical capacitors with high energy and power are proposed.

  5. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    1. New Encoding Schemes with Infofuses (pages 4851–4856)

      Kyeng Min Park, Choongik Kim, Samuel W. Thomas III, Hyo Jae Yoon, Greg Morrison, L. Mahadevan and George M. Whitesides

      Article first published online: 30 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201103045

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      Non-binary encoding schemes for “infofuses”, that is chemically based systems for non-electronic communication, allow a single pulse of light to encode and transmit each of the alphanumeric characters.

    2. Extraordinary Selectivity of CoMo3S13 Chalcogel for C2H6 and CO2 Adsorption (pages 4857–4860)

      Maryam Shafaei-Fallah, Alexander Rothenberger, Alexandros P. Katsoulidis, Jiaqing He, Christos D. Malliakas and Mercouri G. Kanatzidis

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201102006

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      The chalcogel CoMo3S13 is obtained from the reaction of (NH4)2[Mo3S13] with cobalt acetate in solution. The chalcogel has a BET surface area of 570 m2 g−1, and pair distribution function analysis (PDF) and infrared spectroscopy indicate that the [Mo3S13]2− cluster is a building block in the porous network. The CoMo3S13 chalcogel exhibits high selectivity for separating ethane and carbon dioxide from hydrogen and methane.

    3. Stabilization of Proteins by Nanoencapsulation in Sugar–Glass for Tissue Engineering and Drug Delivery Applications (pages 4861–4867)

      Jyotsnendu Giri, Wan-Ju Li, Rocky S. Tuan and Marcus T. Cicerone

      Article first published online: 26 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201102267

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      A novel sugar–glass-nanoparticle (SGnP) system is developed to stabilize biomolecules for incorporation and delivery from a drug delivery system. It yields excellent protection from process-related stresses with little or no degradation, very good encapsulation efficiency, and storage stability, as well as giving burst-free sustained release for essentially any protein and polymer system of interest.

    4. Novel Solid-State Polymer Electrolyte of Colloidal Crystal Decorated with Ionic-Liquid Polymer Brush (pages 4868–4872)

      Takaya Sato, Takashi Morinaga, Shoko Marukane, Takuya Narutomi, Tatsuya Igarashi, Yuko Kawano, Kohji Ohno, Takeshi Fukuda and Yoshinobu Tsujii

      Article first published online: 30 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101983

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      A solid type of electrolyte is developed by three-dimensionally self-assembling hybrid particles in a crystal with the concentrated brush of ionic-liquid polymers containing a small amount of ionic liquid. The operation of a bipolar lithium-ion rechargeable battery is successfully demonstrated.

    5. Closer to Nature–Bio-inspired Patterns by Transforming Latent Lithographic Images (pages 4873–4879)

      Stefan Giselbrecht, Martina Reinhardt, Timo Mappes, Martin Börner, Eric Gottwald, Clemens van Blitterswijk, Volker Saile and Roman Truckenmüller

      Article first published online: 21 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201102759

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      Inspired by nature, a new strategy to create three-dimensional organic structures spanning orders of magnitude by using a combination of deep UV or X-ray direct lithography with a solid-state forming process. The stored latent lithographic image is transferred to three-dimensional curvilinear surfaces by forming the irradiated film under conditions of permanent material coherence.

    6. Viscosity Gradient as a Novel Mechanism for the Centrifugation-Based Separation of Nanoparticles (pages 4880–4885)

      Penghe Qiu and Chuanbin Mao

      Article first published online: 26 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201102636

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      A novel viscosity gradient, built by stacking aqueous solutions of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), is introduced to achieve precise size separation of nanoparticles. The viscosity gradient is more powerful than the conventional density gradient in separating larger nanoparticles. Nanoparticles that aggregate in PVP solutions are successfully stabilized and separated by size.

    7. Large-Scale Synthesis of Bi2S3 Nanodots as a Contrast Agent for In Vivo X-ray Computed Tomography Imaging (pages 4886–4891)

      Kelong Ai, Yanlan Liu, Jianhua Liu, Qinghai Yuan, Yangyang He and Lehui Lu

      Article first published online: 28 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201103289

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      A facile strategy for the large-scale fabrication of Bi2S3 nanodots is presented. Surface modification and control over the size of the nanodots is easily achieved. The as-prepared hydrophilic Bi2S3 nanodots exhibit long in vivo circulation time and, more significantly, a contrast efficacy higher than that of the clinical iodinate agent without any adverse effect.

    8. Anodized Aluminum Oxide Thin Films for Room-Temperature-Processed, Flexible, Low-Voltage Organic Non-Volatile Memory Elements with Excellent Charge Retention (pages 4892–4896)

      Martin Kaltenbrunner, Philipp Stadler, Reinhard Schwödiauer, Achim Walter Hassel, Niyazi Serdar Sariciftci and Siegfried Bauer

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201103189

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      A flexible organic non-volatile memory transistor on a 50 μm polyethylene naphtalate (PEN) substrate is presented. The gate and floating gate dielectric are prepared by potentiostatic anodization of aluminum, resulting in dense aluminum oxide high-k dielectric films. Such memory transistors show tuneable program and erase voltages and a large charge retention time.

  6. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    1. Graphene: Growth of Single Crystal Graphene Arrays by Locally Controlling Nucleation on Polycrystalline Cu Using Chemical Vapor Deposition (Adv. Mater. 42/2011) (page 4897)

      Wei Wu, Luis A. Jauregui, Zhihua Su, Zhihong Liu, Jiming Bao, Yong P. Chen and Qingkai Yu

      Article first published online: 26 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190166

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      Control of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene nucleation on polycrystalline Cu by locally providing a high concentration of carbon is demonstrated. As reported by Qingkai Yu and coworkers, solid carbon source poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA) is used to enhance local nucleation and spatially ordered arrays of single crystal graphene grains can be synthesized at predetermined sites on the Cu surface.

  7. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    1. Growth of Single Crystal Graphene Arrays by Locally Controlling Nucleation on Polycrystalline Cu Using Chemical Vapor Deposition (pages 4898–4903)

      Wei Wu, Luis A. Jauregui, Zhihua Su, Zhihong Liu, Jiming Bao, Yong P. Chen and Qingkai Yu

      Article first published online: 23 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201102456

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      Spatially ordered arrays of single crystal graphene grains are synthesized by locally controlling nucleation on polycrystalline Cu using chemical vapor deposition. The grains can be transferred on an arbitrary substrate for further characterization and device fabrication. This offers a way to potentially fabricate graphene-based devices by regular microelectronic processes free of graphene grain boundaries and with more reliable performances.

    2. Multifunctional Response of Anatase Nanostructures Based on 25 nm Mesocrystal-Like Porous Assemblies (pages 4904–4907)

      Pedro Tartaj and Jose M. Amarilla

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201103168

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      Ultrasmall porous anatase mesocrystals show good electrochemical performance and good capabilities for enzyme immobilization and photocatalytic degradation of contaminants. These materials are potential candidates for energy storage devices, photocatalysis, enzyme immobilization, and, when properly functionalized, could be used for photoelectrochemistry and healthcare applications.

    3. DNA-Coated Microbubbles with Biochemically Tunable Ultrasound Contrast Activity (pages 4908–4912)

      Matthew A. Nakatsuka, Mark J. Hsu, Sadik C. Esener, Jennifer N. Cha and Andrew P. Goodwin

      Article first published online: 28 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201102677

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      Changing the mechanical properties of the microbubble shell in response to a biochemical stimulus leads to vast changes in both ultrasound-induced bubble dynamics and contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging. DNA-coated microbubbles are shown to be a simple and highly versatile platform that can silence and re-activate contrast activity in response to the introduction and removal of biochemical stimuli.

    4. Redox-Active Fe(CN)64−-Doped Conducting Polymers with Greatly Enhanced Capacity as Cathode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries (pages 4913–4917)

      Min Zhou, Jianfeng Qian, Xinping Ai and Hanxi Yang

      Article first published online: 4 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201102867

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      Polypyrrole and polythiophenes doped with redox-active Fe(CN)64− anions deliver a 56% to 300% enhanced redox capacity and also exhibit greatly improved cycling stability, enabling them to be used as a new class of low-cost, environmentally benign, and high-capacity cathode material for electric storage applications.

    5. Virus-Templated Synthesis of ZnO Nanostructures and Formation of Field-Effect Transistors (pages 4918–4922)

      Petia Atanasova, Dirk Rothenstein, Jörg J. Schneider, Rudolf C. Hoffmann, Stefan Dilfer, Sabine Eiben, Christina Wege, Holger Jeske and Joachim Bill

      Article first published online: 30 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201102900

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      A bioinspired approach to the fabrication of nanostructured functional devices is described. ZnO nanowires are formed by self-assembly of nanosized ZnO building blocks controlled by tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) templates at nearly ambient conditions. This process allows the integration of TMV/ZnO nanostructures into field-effect transistors (FETs) with prestructured electrodes. The FETs operate as-deposited, without further treatment.

    6. Solution-Processable Reduced Graphene Oxide as a Novel Alternative to PEDOT:PSS Hole Transport Layers for Highly Efficient and Stable Polymer Solar Cells (pages 4923–4928)

      Jin-Mun Yun, Jun-Seok Yeo, Juhwan Kim, Hyung-Gu Jeong, Dong-Yu Kim, Yong-Jin Noh, Seok-Soon Kim, Bon-Cheol Ku and Seok-In Na

      Article first published online: 23 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201102207

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      The preparation of a reduced graphene oxide (pr-Go) is with a novel p-TosNHNH2 reductant is demonstrated for use as an efficient anode interfacial layer for high-performance and highstability organic solar cells (OSCs). The efficiency of the cells with pr-GO is highly comparable to those of the PEDOT:PSSbased devices. Furthermore, the pr-GO based OSCs show a much longer cell life time in air stability tests in comparison with PEDOT:PSS-based cells.

    7. Facile Preparation of High-Quality Graphene Scrolls from Graphite Oxide by a Microexplosion Method (pages 4929–4932)

      Fanyan Zeng, Yafei Kuang, Ye Wang, Zhongyuan Huang, Chaopeng Fu and Haihui Zhou

      Article first published online: 26 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201102798

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      High-quality graphene scrolls with several possible conformations are designed using a facile microexplosion method under an ultrasonic reaction between MnO2 and H2O2. The as-obtained graphene scrolls exhibit a tubular structure. The methodology successfully realizes the transformation from a 2D material to a nearly 1D material.

    8. Wide-Range Color Tuning of Iridium Biscarbene Complexes from Blue to Red by Different NN Ligands: an Alternative Route for Adjusting the Emission Colors (pages 4933–4937)

      Kun-Yi Lu, Ho-Hsiu Chou, Cheng-Han Hsieh, Yu-Han Ou Yang, Huei-Ru Tsai, Hsiu-Yun Tsai, Lun-Chia Hsu, Chien-Yu Chen, I-Chia Chen and Chien-Hong Cheng

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201102886

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      Four new iridium biscarbene complexes with different N⁁N ligands showing very different emission colors from deep-blue to red are synthesized. The emission colors are mainly controlled by the N⁁N ligands. The electroluminescent devices using these complexes as dopant emitters exhibit extremely high efficiencies.

    9. Alumina-Coated Patterned Amorphous Silicon as the Anode for a Lithium-Ion Battery with High Coulombic Efficiency (pages 4938–4941)

      Yu He, Xiqian Yu, Yanhong Wang, Hong Li and Xuejie Huang

      Article first published online: 26 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201102568

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      A patterned silicon electrode as the anode of lithium ion batteries is fabricated by microfabrication technology. An ultrathin alumina layer is coated on the patterned electrode by atomic layer deposition (ALD). This results in obviously enhanced coulombic efficiency and cycling performance.

    10. Tailored Materials for High-Performance MgB2 Wire (pages 4942–4946)

      Jung Ho Kim, Sangjun Oh, Hiroaki Kumakura, Akiyoshi Matsumoto, Yoon-Uk Heo, Kyeong-Se Song, Yong-Mook Kang, Minoru Maeda, Matt Rindfleisch, Mike Tomsic, Seyong Choi and Shi Xue Dou

      Article first published online: 28 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201101243

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      Carbon-encapsulated crystalline boron nanopowder and coarse magnesium powder are used as inexpensive tailored starting materials for the fabrication of high-performance MgB2 superconducting wire. A low sintering temperature leads to a high critical current density, as a result of nanometer-sized boron powder, surface oxidation preclusion by carbon encapsulation, and grain alignment by elongated magnesium coarse powder.

    11. Single-Crystal Silicon Membranes with High Lithium Conductivity and Application in Lithium-Air Batteries (pages 4947–4952)

      Tu T. Truong, Yan Qin, Yang Ren, Zonghai Chen, Maria K. Chan, Jeffery P. Greeley, Khalil Amine and Yugang Sun

      Article first published online: 30 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201102449

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      Single-crystalline membranes are assembled in test cells to evaluate their lithium conductivity and to monitor in situ the crystallinity variations under current flows. The results show that the single-crystalline membranes exhibit lithium conductivity as high as 10−6 S cm−1 while their single crystallinity remains to effectively block diffusion of oxygen molecules.

    12. A Radio-Fluorogenic Organic Gel for Real-Time, 3D Radiation Dosimetry (pages 4953–4955)

      John M. Warman, Matthijs P. de Haas, Leonard H. Luthjens and Lars H.P. Murrer

      Article first published online: 11 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201102831

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      A radio-fluorogenic gel makes it possible to visualize the spatial intensity of “invisible” ionizing radiation. This is illustrated for the gamma-ray emission from a small seed of the radioactive 192Ir isotope of iridium. The underlying mechanism involves the conversion of a non-fluorescent molecule into a fluorescent form when incorporated into a radiation-initiated, growing chain of a bulk monomer.

    13. Highly Efficient Deep-Blue Electrophosphorescence Enabled by Solution-Processed Bipolar Tetraarylsilane Host with Both a High Triplet Energy and a High-Lying HOMO Level (pages 4956–4959)

      Shaolong Gong, Qiang Fu, Qiang Wang, Chuluo Yang, Cheng Zhong, Jingui Qin and Dongge Ma

      Article first published online: 30 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201102758

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      A new bipolar tetraarylsilane derivative with both a sufficiently high triplet energy and a high-lying highest occupied molecular orbital energy level is presented as an excellent host for the deep-blue phosphor. A solution-processed FIr6-based deep-blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode (PhOLED) is realized with high efficiency and low efficiency roll-off.

    14. Bulk Heterojunction Photovoltaic Cells with Low Donor Concentration (pages 4960–4964)

      Minlu Zhang, Hui Wang, Hongkun Tian, Yanhou Geng and Ching. W. Tang

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201102173

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      A high-performance organic photovoltaic cellwith C70 as the sole absorber, mixed with 1,1-bis-(4-bis(4-methyl-phenyl)-amino-phenyl)-cyclohexane (TAPC), is fabricated and demonstrates a power conersion efficiency of 5.2%. With fullerene as the acceptor, high open-circuit voltages are achieved using a donor–acceptor bulk heterojunction with a low concentration of donor in conjunction with MoOx as a Schottky barrier contact.

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