Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 23 Issue 47

December 15, 2011

Volume 23, Issue 47

Pages 5583–5699

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    1. Nanoscale In Situ Characterization of Li-Ion Batteries: Nanoscale In Situ Characterization of Li-ion Battery Electrochemistry Via Scanning Ion Conductance Microscopy (Adv. Mater. 47/2011) (page 5583)

      Albert L. Lipson, Ryan S. Ginder and Mark C. Hersam

      Article first published online: 8 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190192

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Scanning ion conductance microscopy has been developed by Mark C. Hersam and co-workers as a tool for studying Li-ion battery electrodes, such as LiCoO2. This novel in situ technique, reported on page 5613, concurrently measures the local electrochemistry and topography at the nanoscale, thus yielding unprecedented insight into the evolution of Li-ion battery electrodes during cycling.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    1. Surface Nanopatterning: Mussel-Inspired Block Copolymer Lithography for Low Surface Energy Materials of Teflon, Graphene, and Gold (Adv. Mater. 47/2011) (page 5584)

      Bong Hoon Kim, Duck Hyun Lee, Ju Young Kim, Dong Ok Shin, Hu Young Jeong, Seonki Hong, Je Moon Yun, Chong Min Koo, Haeshin Lee and Sang Ouk Kim

      Article first published online: 8 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190193

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Mussel-inspired block copolymer lithography is reported on page 5618 by Haeshin Lee, Sang Ouk Kim, and co-workers. Mussel-inspired poly-dopamine coating enables the organic surface energy modification of low surface energy materials, such as Teflon, graphene, and gold, which is required for block copolymer lithography. Further pattern transfer generates unconventional nano structures, such as Teflon nanowires, nano-patterned graphene, and vertical carbon nanotubes directly grown on Au substrates. The image shows an uncoated (left) and a polydopamine-coated (right) cherry tomato.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    1. Contents: (Adv. Mater. 47/2011) (pages 5585–5590)

      Article first published online: 8 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190190

  4. Progress Report

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    1. Efficient Solar-Driven Synthesis, Carbon Capture, and Desalinization, STEP: Solar Thermal Electrochemical Production of Fuels, Metals, Bleach (pages 5592–5612)

      S. Licht

      Article first published online: 25 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201103198

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      Solar thermal electrochemical production (STEP) is derived and experimentally verified for the electrosynthesis of energetic molecules at solar energy efficiency greater than any photovoltaic conversion efficiency. In STEP the efficient formation of metals, fuels, chlorine, and carbon capture is driven by solar thermal heated endothermic electrolyses of concentrated reactants at high solar energy conversion efficiency.

  5. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    1. Nanoscale In Situ Characterization of Li-ion Battery Electrochemistry Via Scanning Ion Conductance Microscopy (pages 5613–5617)

      Albert L. Lipson, Ryan S. Ginder and Mark C. Hersam

      Article first published online: 3 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201103094

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Scanning ion conductance microscopyimaging of battery electrodes, using the geometry shown in the figure, is a tool for in situ nanoscale mapping of surface topography and local ion current. Images of silicon and tin electrodes show that the combination of topography and ion current provides insight into the local electrochemical phenomena that govern the operation of lithium ion batteries

    2. Mussel-Inspired Block Copolymer Lithography for Low Surface Energy Materials of Teflon, Graphene, and Gold (pages 5618–5622)

      Bong Hoon Kim, Duck Hyun Lee, Ju Young Kim, Dong Ok Shin, Hu Young Jeong, Seonki Hong, Je Moon Yun, Chong Min Koo, Haeshin Lee and Sang Ouk Kim

      Article first published online: 21 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201103650

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Mussel-inspired interfacial engineering is synergistically integrated with block copolymer (BCP) lithography for the surface nanopatterning of low surface energy substrate materials, including, Teflon, graphene, and gold. The image shows the Teflon nanowires and their excellent superhydrophobicity.

  6. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    1. Photovoltaic Devices: Direct and Seamless Coupling of TiO2 Nanotube Photonic Crystal to Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell: A Single-Step Approach (Adv. Mater. 47/2011) (page 5623)

      Cho Tung Yip, Haitao Huang, Limin Zhou, Keyu Xie, Yu Wang, Tianhua Feng, Jensen Li and Wing Yim Tam

      Article first published online: 8 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190191

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Light harvesting in a TiO2 nanotube-based dyesensitized solar cell can be greatly enhanced by coupling to a TiO2 nanotubular photonic crystal with periodic structure along the axial direction, as demonstrated by Haitao Huang, Limin Zhou, and co-workers. The TiO2 nanotubes and nanotubular photonic crystal are synthesized by a single anodization process, ensuring good physical contact and easy electrolyte infiltration.

  7. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Progress Report
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    1. Direct and Seamless Coupling of TiO2 Nanotube Photonic Crystal to Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell: A Single-Step Approach (pages 5624–5628)

      Cho Tung Yip, Haitao Huang, Limin Zhou, Keyu Xie, Yu Wang, Tianhua Feng, Jensen Li and Wing Yim Tam

      Article first published online: 7 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201103591

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A TiO2 nanotube layer with a periodic structure is used as a photonic crystal to greatly enhance light harvesting in TiO2 nanotube-based dye-sensitized solar cells. Such a tube-on-tube structure fabricated by a single-step approach facilitates good physical contact, easy electrolyte infiltration, and efficient charge transport. An increase of over 50% in power conversion efficiency is obtained in comparison to reference cells without a photonic crystal layer (under similar total thickness and dye loading).

    2. Chiral Nanoporous Metal-Organic Frameworks with High Porosity as Materials for Drug Delivery (pages 5629–5632)

      Chun-Yi Sun, Chao Qin, Chun-Gang Wang, Zhong-Min Su, Shuang Wang, Xin-Long Wang, Guang-Sheng Yang, Kui-Zhan Shao, Ya-Qian Lan and En-Bo Wang

      Article first published online: 18 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201102538

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A chiral nanoporous metal-organic framework (MOF) with high porosity is obtained based on nontoxic zinc and achiral hexadentate ligand. It shows high drug loading and slow release of the proportion of the loaded drug with a complete delivery time of about one week when used as a material for adsorption and delivery of anticancer 5-fluorouracil.

    3. Anatomy of a Nanoscale Conduction Channel Reveals the Mechanism of a High-Performance Memristor (pages 5633–5640)

      Feng Miao, John Paul Strachan, J. Joshua Yang, Min-Xian Zhang, Ilan Goldfarb, Antonio C. Torrezan, Peter Eschbach, Ronald D. Kelley, Gilberto Medeiros-Ribeiro and R. Stanley Williams

      Article first published online: 8 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201103379

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      By employing a precise method for locating and directlyimaging the active switching region in a resistive random access memory (RRAM) device, a nanoscale conducting channel consisting of an amorphous Ta(O) solid solution surrounded by nearly stoichiometric Ta2O5 is observed. Structural and chemical analysis of the channel combined with temperature-dependent transport measurements indicate a unique resistance switching mechanism.

    4. Sulfur-Impregnated Activated Carbon Fiber Cloth as a Binder-Free Cathode for Rechargeable Li-S Batteries (pages 5641–5644)

      Ran Elazari, Gregory Salitra, Arnd Garsuch, Alexander Panchenko and Doron Aurbach

      Article first published online: 4 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201103274

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      A route for the preparation of binder-free sulfur-carbon cathodes is developed for lithium sulfur batteries. The method is based on the impregnation of elemental sulfur into the micropores of activated carbon fibers. These electrodes demonstrate good electrochemical performance at high current density attributed to the uniform dispersion of sulfur inside the carbon fiber.

    5. Magnetic Nanocarriers with Tunable pH Dependence for Controlled Loading and Release of Cationic and Anionic Payloads (pages 5645–5650)

      Nadja C. Bigall, Alberto Curcio, Manuel Pernia Leal, Andrea Falqui, Domenico Palumberi, Riccardo Di Corato, Ennio Albanesi, Roberto Cingolani and Teresa Pellegrino

      Article first published online: 18 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201103505

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Superparamagnetic nanocarriers with tunable pH dependence of the surface charge are designed by a simple co-precipitation method. By exploiting electrostatic interactions, cationic or anionic payloads can be adsorbed and desorbed depending on the pH. On three different resulting nanocarrier systems, experiments of loading and release of gold nanoparticles as well as effective siRNA loading and in vitro delivery on human cells are performed.

    6. Direct Writing By Way of Melt Electrospinning (pages 5651–5657)

      Toby D. Brown, Paul D. Dalton and Dietmar W. Hutmacher

      Article first published online: 18 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201103482

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Melt electrospun fibers of poly(ϵ-caprolactone) are accurately deposited using an automated stage as the collector. Matching the translation speed of the collector to the speed of the melt electrospinning jet establishes control over the location of fiber deposition. In this sense, melt electrospinning writing can be seen to bridge the gap between solution electrospinning and direct writing additive manufacturing processes.

    7. Diisopropylammonium Chloride: A Ferroelectric Organic Salt with a High Phase Transition Temperature and Practical Utilization Level of Spontaneous Polarization (pages 5658–5662)

      Da-Wei Fu, Wen Zhang, Hong-Ling Cai, Jia-Zhen Ge, Yi Zhang and Ren-Gen Xiong

      Article first published online: 7 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201102938

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A simple organic salt, diisopropylammonium chloride, shows the highest ferroelectric phase transition temperature among molecule-based ferroelectrics with a large spontaneous polarization, making it a candidate for practical technological applications.

    8. Fast Lithium-Ion Conducting Thin-Film Electrolytes Integrated Directly on Flexible Substrates for High-Power Solid-State Batteries (pages 5663–5667)

      Jon F. Ihlefeld, Paul G. Clem, Barney L. Doyle, Paul G. Kotula, Kyle R. Fenton and Christopher A. Apblett

      Article first published online: 7 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201102980

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      By utilizing an equilibrium processing strategy that enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, a means to integrate the lithium-stable fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate directly with a thin copper foil current collector appropriate for a solid-state battery is presented. This resulting thin-film electrolyte possesses a room temperature lithium-ion conductivity of 1.5 × 10−5 S cm−1, which has the potential to increase the power of a solid-state battery over current state of the art.

    9. Bromoisobutyramide as an Intermolecular Surface Binder for the Preparation of Free-standing Biopolymer Assemblies (pages 5668–5673)

      Damien Mertz, Pramudana Tan, Yajun Wang, Tor Kit Goh, Anton Blencowe and Frank Caruso

      Article first published online: 7 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201102890

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Bromoisobutyramide (BrIBAM)-modified silica templates facilitate the formation of bio-functional thin films made of a range of biopolymers (e.g., polypeptides, nucleic acids or polysaccharides). Upon template removal, non-covalent free-standing biopolymeric assemblies (e.g., hollow capsules or replicated spheres and fibers) are formed without the need for covalent cross-linking.

    10. Stabilizing the Optimal Carrier Concentration for High Thermoelectric Efficiency (pages 5674–5678)

      Yanzhong Pei, Aaron D. LaLonde, Nicholas A. Heinz, Xiaoya Shi, Shiho Iwanaga, Heng Wang, Lidong Chen and G. Jeffrey Snyder

      Article first published online: 4 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201103153

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The band structure of PbTe can be manipulated by alloying with MgTe to control the band degeneracy. This is used to stabilize the optimal carrier concentration, making it less temperature dependent, demonstrating a new strategy to improve overall thermoelectric efficiency over a broad temperature range.

    11. Self-Assembly and Embedding of Nanoparticles by In Situ Reduced Graphene for Preparation of a 3D Graphene/Nanoparticle Aerogel (pages 5679–5683)

      Wufeng Chen, Sirong Li, Chunhua Chen and Lifeng Yan

      Article first published online: 4 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201102838

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      A 3D graphene architecture can be prepared via an in situ self-assembly of graphene prepared by a mild chemical reduction. Fe3O4 nanoparticles are homogeneously dispersed into graphene oxide (GO) aqueous suspension and a 3D magnetic graphene/Fe3O4 aerogel is prepared during the reduction of GO to graphene. This provides a general method to prepare 3D graphene/nanoparticle composites for a wide range of applications including catalysis and energy conversion.

    12. Nanomechanics of Streptavidin Hubs for Molecular Materials (pages 5684–5688)

      Minkyu Kim, Chien-Chung Wang, Fabrizio Benedetti, Mahir Rabbi, Vann Bennett and Piotr E. Marszalek

      Article first published online: 21 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201103316

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A new strategy is reported for creating protein-based nanomaterials by genetically fusing large polypeptides to monomeric streptavidin and exploiting the propensity of streptavidin monomers(SM) to self-assemble into stable tetramers. We have characterized the mechanical properties of streptavidin-linked structures and measured, for the first time, the mechanical strength of streptavidin tetramers themselves. Using streptavidin tetramers as molecular hubs offers a unique opportunity to create a variety of well-defined, self-assembled protein-based (nano)materials with unusual mechanical properties.

    13. High-Performance Organic Optoelectronic Devices Enhanced by Surface Plasmon Resonance (pages 5689–5693)

      Mihee Heo, Heesook Cho, Jae-Woo Jung, Jong-Ryul Jeong, Soojin Park and Jin Young Kim

      Article first published online: 15 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201103753

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The surface plasmon effect on polymer solar cells and polymer light-emitting diodes is demonstrated by using metal nanoparticles prepared from block copolymer templates. Light absorption of the polymer thin layer is increased with the incorporation of metallic nanostructures, resulting in a significant surface plasmon effect in the optoelectronic devices.

    14. Nanoparticle Cages for Enzyme Catalysis in Organic Media (pages 5694–5699)

      Changzhu Wu, Shuo Bai, Marion B. Ansorge-Schumacher and Dayang Wang

      Article first published online: 10 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201102693

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Encapsulation of enzymes in Pickering emulsions results in a large interfacial area of the enzyme-containing aqueous phase for biocatalysis in organic media. This immobilization technique minimizes enzyme inactivation through stabilizing immiscible liquids by particles, facilitates separation processes, and significantly increases catalytic performance of both stable and vulnerable enzymes. Thus, a broad technical applicability can be envisioned.

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