Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 23 Issue 8

February 22, 2011

Volume 23, Issue 8

Pages 919–1029

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Reviews
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    1. Stretchable Solar Cells: Stretchable GaAs Photovoltaics with Designs That Enable High Areal Coverage (Adv. Mater. 8/2011) (page 919)

      Jongho Lee, Jian Wu, Mingxing Shi, Jongseung Yoon, Sang-Il Park, Ming Li, Zhuangjian Liu, Yonggang Huang and John A. Rogers

      Article first published online: 21 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190018

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The cover image shows a stretchable photovoltaic module consisting of ultrathin, inorganic solar cells interconnected in mesh-like geometries and mounted onto structured elastomeric substrates, as reported by Yonggang Huang, John A. Rogers, and co-workers on p. 986. Mechanical deformations are accommodated by the flexible interconnects of the mesh and stretchable trenches of the substrate.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Reviews
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    1. Flexible Mesh Electrodes: Woven Electrodes for Flexible Organic Photovoltaic Cells (Adv. Mater. 8/2011) (page 920)

      William Kylberg, Fernando Araujo de Castro, Peter Chabrecek, Uriel Sonderegger, Bryan Tsu-Te Chu, Frank Nüesch and Roland Hany

      Article first published online: 21 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190019

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Low-cost transparent and conductive electrodes are an important requirement for flexible, largescale organic optoelectronic device applications. Roland Hany and co-workers present a high-precision fabric with metal wires and polymer fibers woven into a mesh for the fabrication of efficient organic solar cells on p. 1015. The inside cover demonstrates the flexibility of such a roll-to-roll produced mesh electrode: the inset is an optical microscopy view of a photovoltaic device, through the fabric and the active organic layer onto the round metal back electrode. Cover design by Thomas Geiger.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Reviews
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    1. Contents: (Adv. Mater. 8/2011) (pages 921–925)

      Article first published online: 21 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190020

  4. Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Reviews
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    1. Recent Progresses on Materials for Electrophosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Devices (pages 926–952)

      Lixin Xiao, Zhijian Chen, Bo Qu, Jiaxiu Luo, Sheng Kong, Qihuang Gong and Junji Kido

      Article first published online: 28 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201003128

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Red phosphorescent dye has already been commercialized since 2003. Highly efficient green phosphorescent emitter is underway of commercialization. Very recently blue phosphorescence approaching the theoretical efficiency has also been obtained, which overcomes the final obstacle against commercialization of full color display and white light sources from electrophosphorescent materials. In this article, recent progresses in red, green, blue, and white phosphorescent materials for OLEDs are reviewed, with special emphasis on blue electrophosphorescent materials.

    2. Strategies for Post-Synthesis Alignment and Immobilization of Carbon Nanotubes (pages 953–970)

      Tamara Druzhinina, Stephanie Hoeppener and Ulrich S. Schubert

      Article first published online: 22 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201003509

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) frequently requires their organization and ordering, both horizontally and vertically on surfaces. This review provides an overview of current state-of-the-art methods for the post-synthesis alignment of CNTs. The techniques are classified into three main categories: chemical-driven alignment and immobilization, physical-driven alignment and immobilization, and alignment and immobilization by external fields.

  5. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Reviews
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    1. Room-Temperature Fabrication of Ultrathin Oxide Gate Dielectrics for Low-Voltage Operation of Organic Field-Effect Transistors (pages 971–974)

      Young Min Park, Jürgen Daniel, Martin Heeney and Alberto Salleo

      Article first published online: 13 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201003641

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A high-κ zirconium oxide gate dielectric is fabricated using a solution-based process at room temperature. UV irradiation decomposes and oxidizes a zirconium-based gel film, which densifies into an ultrathin (<10 nm) dielectric, providing high areal capacitance and low leakage current when passivated with a SAM. Polymeric transistors are fabricated on the gate dielectric entirely at room temperaure and operate with gate swings below 3 V, displaying high mobility (0.2 cm2 V−1 s−1)

    2. Intrafibrillar Collagen Mineralization Produced by Biomimetic Hierarchical Nanoapatite Assembly (pages 975–980)

      Yan Liu, Nan Li, Yi-pin Qi, Lin Dai, Thomas E. Bryan, Jing Mao, David H. Pashley and Franklin R. Tay

      Article first published online: 15 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201003882

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Phosphorous-based templating analogs of extracellular matrix proteins are used as templates in conjunction with polycarboxylic acid-stabilized amorphous calcium phosphate nanoprecursors to create a highly ordered intrafibrillar apatite crystallite assembly within a collagen fibril. The assembly recapitulates the gap and overlap arrangement of collagen molecules.

    3. Photon-Assisted Oxygen Diffusion and Oxygen-Related Traps in Organic Semiconductors (pages 981–985)

      Hikmet Najafov, Daniel Mastrogiovanni, Eric Garfunkel, Leonard C. Feldman and Vitaly Podzorov

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201004239

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A highly sensitive trap characterization technique based on wavelength- and polarization-resolved photocurrent excitation spectroscopy of single crystalline organic semiconductors is described. The method reveals that even a brief illumination of organic molecular crystals in an oxygen atmosphere triggers a long-term oxygen diffusion in the dark that results in formation of traps at depth scales comparable to the light penetration length.

    4. Stretchable GaAs Photovoltaics with Designs That Enable High Areal Coverage (pages 986–991)

      Jongho Lee, Jian Wu, Mingxing Shi, Jongseung Yoon, Sang-Il Park, Ming Li, Zhuangjian Liu, Yonggang Huang and John A. Rogers

      Article first published online: 11 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201003961

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Strategies are presented for achieving, simultaneously, both large areal coverage and high stretchability by using elastomeric substrates with surface relief in geometries that confine strains at the locations of the interconnections, and away from the devices. The studies involve a combination of theory and experiment to reveal the essential mechanics, and include demonstrations of the ideas in stretchable solar modules that use ultrathin, single junction GaAs solar cells.

    5. Reinforced Self-Assembled Nanodielectrics for High-Performance Transparent Thin Film Transistors (pages 992–997)

      Jun Liu, Jonathan W. Hennek, D. Bruce Buchholz, Young-geun Ha, Sujing Xie, Vinayak P. Dravid, Robert P. H. Chang, Antonio Facchetti and Tobin J. Marks

      Article first published online: 20 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201004198

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Reinforced self-assembled nano-dielectrics (R-SANDs) are fabricated by depositing a thin protective layer on high-capacitance SAND films, thus significantly improving SAND durability and expanding SAND compatibility with a broader range of semiconductor deposition techniques. Fully transparent TFTs with excellent field-effect mobilities ∼140 cm2/V·s and low operating voltages ∼1.0 V are demonstrated by combining the R-SAND and an amorphous Zn-In-Sn-O transparent oxide semiconductor.

    6. Sandwich-Like, Stacked Ultrathin Titanate Nanosheets for Ultrafast Lithium Storage (pages 998–1002)

      Jiehua Liu, Jun Song Chen, Xiangfeng Wei, Xiong Wen Lou and Xue-Wei Liu

      Article first published online: 27 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201003759

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Sandwich-like stacked titanate nanosheets with the thickness of ≈0.4 nm are successfully synthesized on a large scale using a clean and facile method. The unique material exhibits superior capacity and excellent high rate performance for ultrafast lithium storage.

    7. Polarization Conversion in Surface-Plasmon-Coupled Emission from Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Using Spontaneously Formed Buckles (pages 1003–1007)

      Won Hoe Koo, Soon Moon Jeong, Suzushi Nishimura, Fumito Araoka, Ken Ishikawa, Takehiro Toyooka and Hideo Takezoe

      Article first published online: 10 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201003357

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Shine on: An organic light-emitting-diode device with buckling structure is remarkably effective at outcoupling the surface plasmon (SP) mode over all emission wavelengths and angles. Peak wavelengths in angle-dependent light-enhancement ratios (see graphic) are consistent with the Bragg equation. Moreover, polarization conversion was found to occur from the transverse-magnetic mode to the transverse-electric mode during the outcoupling of the SP mode by buckles.

  6. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Reviews
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    1. Organic Thin-Film Transistors: Interfacial Heterogeneity of Surface Energy in Organic Field-Effect Transistors (Adv. Mater. 8/2011) (page 1008)

      Xiangnan Sun, Yunqi Liu, Chong-an Di, Yugeng Wen, Yunlong Guo, Lei Zhang, Yan Zhao and Gui Yu

      Article first published online: 21 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190017

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The growth mode and morphology of semiconductors show changes with varying surface energy heterogeneity of dielectrics in thin-film transistors (TFTs). In previous interfacial investigations of TFTs, the surface energy heterogeneity has always been neglected. However, in work reported by Yunqi Liu and co-workers on p. 1009, it is found that the surface energy heterogeneity of dielectrics has a high impact on the morphology of the semiconductor as well as the performance of the transistor.

  7. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Reviews
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    1. Interfacial Heterogeneity of Surface Energy in Organic Field-Effect Transistors (pages 1009–1014)

      Xiangnan Sun, Yunqi Liu, Chong-an Di, Yugeng Wen, Yunlong Guo, Lei Zhang, Yan Zhao and Gui Yu

      Article first published online: 18 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201004187

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Heterogeneities in surface energy are demonstrated to indeed have a major impact on the performance of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) based on a variety of semiconductors, and the current understanding of these technologically important devices is significantly extended. The results suggest that the heterogeneous nature of the semiconductor/dielectric interface must always be taken into account in the design of future OFETs.

    2. Woven Electrodes for Flexible Organic Photovoltaic Cells (pages 1015–1019)

      William Kylberg, Fernando Araujo de Castro, Peter Chabrecek, Uriel Sonderegger, Bryan Tsu-Te Chu, Frank Nüesch and Roland Hany

      Article first published online: 27 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201003391

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A stable, conductive, transparent, and flexible electrode based on a precision fabric with metal wires and polymer fibers woven into a mesh is presented. Organic solar cells on woven mesh electrodes and on conventional glass/ITO substrates with very similar performance characteristics are demonstrated.

    3. Synthesis of Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Using Embedded Carbon and Nitrogen Sources (pages 1020–1024)

      Chaohua Zhang, Lei Fu, Nan Liu, Minhao Liu, Yayu Wang and Zhongfan Liu

      Article first published online: 14 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201004110

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A facile strategy to grow nitrogen-doped graphene using embedded nitrogen and carbon in metal substrate via a segregation method is reported. As doping is concurrently carried out in the segregation process of the carbon species, N atoms can be substitutionally doped into the graphene lattice. This approach allows precise control of the doping degree and location, which enables growing various heterojunctions at the desired location.

    4. On-Nanowire Band-Graded Si:Ge Photodetectors (pages 1025–1029)

      Cheol-Joo Kim, Hyun-Seung Lee, Yong-Jun Cho, Jee-Eun Yang, Ru Ri Lee, Ja Kyung Lee and Moon-Ho Jo

      Article first published online: 14 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201004034

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      An on-nanowire (on-NW) band-graded photodetector that pertains to the on-nanowire composition gradation from pure Si to pure Ge, Si1–xGex (0 ≤ x ≤ 1), is reported. The spectral onset of interband photocarrier generation and photocurrent amplitude are on-NW de-multiflexed over the continuously varying energy band gap and surface trap state density in an individually addressable manner.

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