Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 24 Issue 1

January 3, 2012

Volume 24, Issue 1

Pages 1–136

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Reviews
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Communications
    12. Frontispiece
    13. Communications
    1. A “Living” Microvascular Stamp: “Living” Microvascular Stamp for Patterning of Functional Neovessels; Orchestrated Control of Matrix Property and Geometry (Adv. Mater. 1/2012) (page 1)

      Jae Hyun Jeong, Vincent Chan, Chaenyung Cha, Pinar Zorlutuna, Casey Dyck, K. Jimmy Hsia, Rashid Bashir and Hyunjoon Kong

      Article first published online: 29 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190202

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      Orchestrated control of matrix property and geometry is reported by Rashid Bashir, Hyunjoon Kong, and co-workers on page 58. The “living” microvascular stamp releases multiple angiogenic factors and subsequently creates functional neo-vessels with the same pattern as that engraved in the stamp. The stamp consists of live cells that secrete angiogenic factors, an engineered hydrogel matrix that promotes cellular expression of angiogenic factors, and a three-dimensional geometry that localizes the angiogenic factors within the pattern.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Reviews
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Communications
    12. Frontispiece
    13. Communications
    1. Bioactive Hydrogels: Maleimide Cross-Linked Bioactive PEG Hydrogel Exhibits Improved Reaction Kinetics and Cross-Linking for Cell Encapsulation and In Situ Delivery (Adv. Mater. 1/2012) (page 2)

      Edward A. Phelps, Nduka O. Enemchukwu, Vincent F. Fiore, Jay C. Sy, Niren Murthy, Todd A. Sulchek, Thomas H. Barker and Andrés J. García

      Article first published online: 29 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190203

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      The cover image shows a biofunctionalized hydrogel that is bonded directly onto myocardial tissue, delivering regenerative cells and therapeutics. On page 64, Andrés García and co-workers describe how maleimide-based cross-linking improves polyethylene glycol hydrogel engineering, leading to rapid gelation, high cytocom-patibility, and facile in situ delivery.

  3. Masthead

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Reviews
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Communications
    12. Frontispiece
    13. Communications
    1. Masthead: (Adv. Mater. 1/2012)

      Article first published online: 29 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190204

  4. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Reviews
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Communications
    12. Frontispiece
    13. Communications
    1. Contents: (Adv. Mater. 1/2012) (pages 3–8)

      Article first published online: 29 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190199

  5. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Reviews
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Communications
    12. Frontispiece
    13. Communications
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  6. Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Reviews
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Communications
    12. Frontispiece
    13. Communications
    1. Composition and Bandgap-Graded Semiconductor Alloy Nanowires (pages 13–33)

      Xiujuan Zhuang, C. Z. Ning and Anlian Pan

      Article first published online: 22 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201103191

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      Semiconductor alloy nanowires with spatially graded compositions (and bandgaps) provide a new material platform for many new multifunctional optoelectronic devices, such as broadly tunable lasers, multispectral photodetectors, broad-band light emitting diodes (LEDs) and high-efficiency solar cells. Here, recent studies on composition or bandgap-graded semiconductor alloy nanowires based on a single substrate or along single nanowires are reviewed.

    2. Organic Thin-Film Transistors for Chemical and Biological Sensing (pages 34–51)

      Peng Lin and Feng Yan

      Article first published online: 21 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201103334

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      Organic thin-film transistors, including organic field-effect transistors and organic electrochemical transistors, can be used in various types of chemical and biological sensors, such as pH, humidity, ion, glucose, DNA, enzyme, antibody-antigen, cell and dopamine sensors. The organic transistors are expected to have more important sensing applications with the development of organic electronics.

  7. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Reviews
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Communications
    12. Frontispiece
    13. Communications
    1. Graphene Sensors: Polycrystalline Graphene Ribbons as Chemiresistors (Adv. Mater. 1/2012) (page 52)

      Amin Salehi-Khojin, David Estrada, Kevin Y. Lin, Myung-Ho Bae, Feng Xiong, Eric Pop and Richard I. Masel

      Article first published online: 29 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190200

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      Polycrystalline graphene sensors are presented by Richard I. Masel and co-workers on page 53. The image shows polycrystalline graphene ribbon chemiresistors with gold contacts visualizing linear defects or wrinkles in the graphene. Floating or attached toluene molecules act as electron donors. Such defective graphene devices exhibit a higher chemical sensitivity than pristine graphene or carbon nanotube chemire-sistors. (Image by Alex Jerez, Beckman Institute, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.)

  8. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Reviews
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Communications
    12. Frontispiece
    13. Communications
    1. Polycrystalline Graphene Ribbons as Chemiresistors (pages 53–57)

      Amin Salehi-Khojin, David Estrada, Kevin Y. Lin, Myung-Ho Bae, Feng Xiong, Eric Pop and Richard I. Masel

      Article first published online: 23 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201102663

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      Polycrystalline graphene sensors easily obtained through chemical vapor deposition (CVD) have been developed for chemical sensing. We show that linear defects or continuous lines of point defects on these sensors result in significantly higher sensitivity than that of pristine graphene and carbon nanotube film sensors. Further sensitivity enhancement is obtained by cutting the graphene into ribbons of width comparable to the linear defect dimensions (micrometers).

    2. “Living” Microvascular Stamp for Patterning of Functional Neovessels; Orchestrated Control of Matrix Property and Geometry (pages 58–63)

      Jae Hyun Jeong, Vincent Chan, Chaenyung Cha, Pinar Zorlutuna, Casey Dyck, K. Jimmy Hsia, Rashid Bashir and Hyunjoon Kong

      Article first published online: 23 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201103207

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This study presents a “living” microvascular stamp that releases multiple angiogenic factors and subsequently creates functional neovessels with the same pattern as that engraved in the stamp. The stamp consists of live cells that secrete angiogenic factors, an engineered hydrogel matrix that promotes cellular expression of angiogenic factors, and a three-dimensional geometry that localizes the angiogenic factors within the pattern.

    3. Maleimide Cross-Linked Bioactive PEG Hydrogel Exhibits Improved Reaction Kinetics and Cross-Linking for Cell Encapsulation and In Situ Delivery (pages 64–70)

      Edward A. Phelps, Nduka O. Enemchukwu, Vincent F. Fiore, Jay C. Sy, Niren Murthy, Todd A. Sulchek, Thomas H. Barker and Andrés J. García

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201103574

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Engineered polyethylene glycol-maleimide matrices for regenerative medicine exhibit improved reaction efficiency and a wider range of Young's moduli by utilizing maleimide cross-linking chemistry. This hydrogel chemistry is advantageous for cell delivery due to the mild reaction that occurs rapidly enough for in situ delivery, while easily lending itself to “plug-and-play” design variations such as incorporation of enzyme-cleavable cross-links and cell-adhesion peptides.

    4. DC Magnetic Cloak (pages 71–74)

      Supradeep Narayana and Yuki Sato

      Article first published online: 23 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201104012

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      Utilizing a non-resonant graded material consisting of an array of artificially patterned superconducting and soft ferromagnetic elements, we construct a dc magnetic cloak. When an external dc magnetic field is applied, we find that the interior of the cloak is completely shielded while the exterior field remains unperturbed, as if the cloak and the cloaked region are just an empty space.

  9. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Reviews
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Communications
    12. Frontispiece
    13. Communications
    1. Energy Storage: A Percolating Membrane with Superior Polarization and Power Retention for Rechargeable Energy Storage (Adv. Mater. 1/2012) (page 75)

      Xian Ning Xie, Yuzhan Wang, Qian Wang and Kian Ping Loh

      Article first published online: 29 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190201

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      An entirely new class of membranes with superior polarization is presented by Xian Ning Xie and co-workers, on page 76. The polarization of such a membrane is up to a million times that of conventional polarizable materials and, in practice, the membrane is immediately applicable for energy storage and associated technologies, such as hybrid/electric vehicles, solar panels, power grids, and consumer electronics.

  10. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Reviews
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Communications
    12. Frontispiece
    13. Communications
    1. A Percolating Membrane with Superior Polarization and Power Retention for Rechargeable Energy Storage (pages 76–81)

      Xian Ning Xie, Yuzhan Wang, Qian Wang and Kian Ping Loh

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201103677

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      A new class of super polarization membrane is described. In terms of fundamental properties, the membrane exhibits the largest polarization, reasonable polarization retention, and high ionic conductivity. In practice, the membrane is immediately applicable in energy storage, and the associated technology is not only inexpensive, but also massive scalable and environment-friendly. The energy-storage membrane has wide applications in the energy efficiency and management of solar panels, wind turbines, and hybrid/electric vehicles.

    2. Directed Self-Assembly of Hybrid Oxide/Polymer Core/Shell Nanowires with Transport Optimized Morphology for Photovoltaics (pages 82–87)

      Shanju Zhang, Candice I. Pelligra, Gayatri Keskar, Jie Jiang, Pawel W. Majewski, André D. Taylor, Sohrab Ismail-Beigi, Lisa D. Pfefferle and Chinedum O. Osuji

      Article first published online: 23 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201103708

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      An entirely bottom-up approach for the preparation of liquid crystalline suspensions of core-shell nanowires for ordered bulk heterojunction photovoltaics is demonstrated. Side-on attachment of polythiophene derivatives to ZnO nanowires promotes a co-axial polymer backbone-nanowire arrangement which favors high hole mobility. This strategy offers structural control over multiple length scales and a viable means of fabricating ordered films over large areas.

    3. Solution Processable Low-Voltage Organic Thin Film Transistors with High-k Relaxor Ferroelectric Polymer as Gate Insulator (pages 88–93)

      Jinhua Li, Zhenhua Sun and Feng Yan

      Article first published online: 24 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201103542

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      A relaxor ferroelectric polymer poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene-chlorofloroethylene) exhibits a high relative dielectric constant (k) (∼60). The high-k polymer is used successfully in solution processable low-voltage OTFTs as the gate insulator for the first time. Both n-channel and p-channel OTFTs based on conjugated polymers are fabricated and show carrier mobilities higher than 0.1 cm2 V−1 s−1 at an operating voltage of 3 V.

    4. A Gold Nanocrystal/Poly(dimethylsiloxane) Composite for Plasmonic Heating on Microfluidic Chips (pages 94–98)

      Caihong Fang, Lei Shao, Yihua Zhao, Jianfang Wang and Hongkai Wu

      Article first published online: 6 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201103517

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      Gold nanocrystals are dispersed uniformly in poly(dimethylsiloxane) to produce a plasmonic composite. The composite can be readily used to fabricate microfluidic channels. An efficient optical heating approach on the microfluidic chips made of the composite is realized on the basis of plasmon-enabled photothermal conversion. A fluid flow switch based on the plasmonic heating is also demonstrated.

    5. Ionic and Electronic Transport in Ag2S Nanocrystal–GeS2 Matrix Composites with Size-Controlled Ag2S Nanocrystals (pages 99–103)

      Robert Y. Wang, Ravisubhash Tangirala, Simone Raoux, Jean L. Jordan-Sweet and Delia J. Milliron

      Article first published online: 6 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201102623

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      Ag2S nanocrystals (NCs) are embedded into a GeS2 matrix while controlling the size, shape, and interparticle spacing of the Ag2S NCs. We demonstrate that the ionic and electronic properties of these inorganic nanocomposites can be systematically controlled by varying the diameter of the Ag2S NCs. We also observe an ionic conductivity enhancement relative to pure Ag2S and (GeS2)0.5(Ag2S)0.5 glass.

  11. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Reviews
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Communications
    12. Frontispiece
    13. Communications
    1. Polymer Fibers: Silk and Synthetic Polymers: Reconciling 100 Degrees of Separation (Adv. Mater. 1/2012) (page 104)

      Chris Holland, Fritz Vollrath, Anthony J. Ryan and Oleksandr O. Mykhaylyk

      Article first published online: 29 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201190198

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      The image shows a sketch of a Chinese silkworm spinning a silk fiber. Using shear-induced polarization light imaging, Oleksandr O. Mykhaylyk and co-workers at Sheffield and Oxford Universities demonstrate on page 105 that the work required to produce natural silk fibers is at least ten times less than that required for a typical synthetic polymer. They also (re)define the concept of polymer crys-tallization and class silks as a new nanocomposite state of biological matter: “aquamelts”.

  12. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Reviews
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Communications
    12. Frontispiece
    13. Communications
    1. Silk and Synthetic Polymers: Reconciling 100 Degrees of Separation (pages 105–109)

      Chris Holland, Fritz Vollrath, Anthony J. Ryan and Oleksandr O. Mykhaylyk

      Article first published online: 23 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201103664

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      It is shown that the work required to produce natural silk fibers is at least ten times less than a classic synthetic polymer, yet still nature produces a fiber with superior mechanical properties. The concept of polymer crystallization is (re)defined and silks are classed as a new nanocomposite state of biological matter called aquamelts.

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      Replacing a Battery by a Nanogenerator with 20 V Output (pages 110–114)

      Youfan Hu, Long Lin, Yan Zhang and Zhong Lin Wang

      Article first published online: 7 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201103727

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      Replacing batteries by nanogenerators (NGs) in small consumer electronics is one of the goals in the emerging field of self-powered nanotechnology. We show that the maximum measured output voltage of an NG optimized with pretreatments on the as-grown ZnO nanowire films reaches 20 V and the output current exceeds 6 μA, which corresponds to a power density of 0.2 W cm−3. The NG is also demonstrated to replace a battery for driving a electronic watch.

    3. Design of Multifunctional Micelle for Tumor-Targeted Intracellular Drug Release and Fluorescent Imaging (pages 115–120)

      Weiwei Wang, Du Cheng, Faming Gong, Xiangmin Miao and Xintao Shuai

      Article first published online: 6 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201104066

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      A novel multifunctional polymeric micelle bearing a pH-tunable on-off module for programmed drug release, folate for tumor targeting, and quantum dots for fluorescent imaging is described. The micelle can turn drug release off at neutral pH whereas on inside lysosomes. QD functionalization allows a clear elucidation of pH-tunable drug release and facile visualization of in vivo delivery event.

    4. Novel Ester-Functionalized Solid-State Electrolyte for Highly Efficient All-Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (pages 121–124)

      Hong Wang, Xi Zhang, Feng Gong, Gang Zhou and Zhong-Sheng Wang

      Article first published online: 2 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201103785

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      A novel solid electrolyte with a three-dimensional ionic channel is used in a solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell, which produces a power conversion efficiency of 6.63% with a fill factor of 0.73. The findings presented will pave a new way for the design of new solid electrolytes towards high-efficiency solid state dye-sensitized solar cells.

    5. Detection of a Prognostic Indicator in Early-Stage Cancer Using Functionalized Graphene-Based Peptide Sensors (pages 125–131)

      Lingyan Feng, Li Wu, Jiasi Wang, Jinsong Ren, Daisuke Miyoshi, Naoki Sugimoto and Xiaogang Qu

      Article first published online: 5 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201103205

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      Using a porphyrin-functionalized graphene-modified electrode, an electrochemical impedance peptide sensor for label-free detection of cyclin A2 has been constructed. This electrochemical sensor can not only detect protein in cancer cells but also differentiate cancer cells from normal ones. Furthermore, the assay provides the potential of using a simple electrochemical technique to estimate the efficiency of anticancer drugs in cancer therapy.

    6. Magnetoresistance Switch Effect of a Sn-Doped Bi2Te3 Topological Insulator (pages 132–136)

      Hong Bin Zhang, Hai Lin Yu, Ding Hua Bao, Shu Wei Li, Cheng Xin Wang and Guo Wei Yang

      Article first published online: 2 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201103530

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      A reproducible and steady magnetoresistance switch effect of Sn-doped Bi2Te3 topological insulator films with a Pt/Sn-doped Bi2Te3/Pt structure is observed when a parallel magnetic field is applied.

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