Carbon Nanotubes Induce Bone Calcification by Bidirectional Interaction with Osteoblasts (pages 2176–2185)
Masayuki Shimizu, Yasuhiro Kobayashi, Toshihide Mizoguchi, Hiroaki Nakamura, Ichiro Kawahara, Nobuyo Narita, Yuki Usui, Kaoru Aoki, Kazuo Hara, Hisao Haniu, Nobuhide Ogihara, Norio Ishigaki, Koichi Nakamura, Hiroyuki Kato, Masatomo Kawakubo, Yoshiko Dohi, Seiichi Taruta, Yoong Ahm Kim, Morinobu Endo, Hidehiro Ozawa, Nobuyuki Udagawa, Naoyuki Takahashi and Naoto Saito
Article first published online: 22 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201103832
Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) promote calcification during hydroxyapatite (HA) formation by osteoblasts. Primary cultured osteoblasts are incubated with MWCNTs or carbon black. After culture for 3 weeks, the degree of calcification is very high in the 50 μg mL−1 MWCNT group. Transmission electron microscopy shows needle-like crystals around the MWCNTs, and diffraction patterns reveal that the peak of the crystals almost coincides with the known peak of HA.