Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 24 Issue 17

May 2, 2012

Volume 24, Issue 17

Pages 2217–2361

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
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    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
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    10. Communications
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    12. Communications
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    14. Communications
    1. Nanopillar Arrays: Glass Nanopillar Arrays with Nanogap-Rich Silver Nanoislands for Highly Intense Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (Adv. Mater. 17/2012) (page 2217)

      Young-Jae Oh and Ki-Hun Jeong

      Version of Record online: 23 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201290097

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      Y.-J. Oh and K.-H. Jeong report the enhancement of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) using glass nanopillars surrounded by nanogap-rich silver nanoislands at wafer level. On page 2234, they explain how high-density hot spots are generated by increasing the number of nanogap-rich nanoislands within a detection volume. The SERS substrate shows high enhancement factor with excellent signal uniformity. This novel substrate enables the label-free detection of aqueous DNA base molecules at nanomolar level.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
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    14. Communications
    1. Liquid Crystals: Self-Organized Liquid-Crystalline Nanostructured Membranes for Water Treatment: Selective Permeation of Ions (Adv. Mater. 17/2012) (page 2218)

      Masahiro Henmi, Koji Nakatsuji, Takahiro Ichikawa, Hiroki Tomioka, Takeshi Sakamoto, Masafumi Yoshio and Takashi Kato

      Version of Record online: 23 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201290098

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      A water-treatment membrane with ordered, 3D, ionic nanochannels showing high water permeability and ion selectivity is reported by M. Henmi, T. Kato, and co-workers on page 2238. The membrane transports larger divalent sulfate ions effectively, while smaller monovalent anions such as chloride and bromide are highly rejected by the membrane. These nanochannels are fixed in the membrane by in-situ photopolymerization of a thermotropic liquid crystalline monomer, forming bicontinuous cubic structures.

  3. Back Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
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    14. Communications
    1. Polymer Solar Cells: Bithiophene Imide and Benzodithiophene Copolymers for Efficient Inverted Polymer Solar Cells (Adv. Mater. 17/2012) (page 2362)

      Nanjia Zhou, Xugang Guo, Rocio Ponce Ortiz, Shiqiang Li, Shiming Zhang, Robert P. H. Chang, Antonio Facchetti and Tobin J. Marks

      Version of Record online: 23 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201290099

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      R. P. H. Chang, A. Facchetti, T. J. Marks, and co-workers synthesize bithiophene imide and benzodithiophene donor–acceptor polymer semiconductors for application in organic photovoltaic cells. Stable inverted solar cells are fabricated and achieve high power-con-version efficiencies of up to 5.5%, with open circuit voltages greater than 0.9 V, as a result of the low-lying HOMO levels of the polymers. This work, presented on page 2242, demonstrates that bithiophene imide is a promising building block for high-performance polymer donor materials for solar cell applications.

  4. Masthead

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    14. Communications
    1. Masthead: (Adv. Mater. 17/2012)

      Version of Record online: 23 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201290100

  5. Contents

    1. Top of page
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    8. Communications
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    14. Communications
  6. Frontispiece

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    14. Communications
    1. Graphene Oxide Derivatives: Hole and Electron Extraction Layers Based on Graphene Oxide Derivatives for High-Performance Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells (Adv. Mater. 17/2012) (page 2227)

      Jun Liu, Yuhua Xue, Yunxiang Gao, Dingshan Yu, Michael Durstock and Liming Dai

      Version of Record online: 23 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201290093

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      The image features a polymer solar cell with a graphene oxide (GO) hole-extraction layer and a GO–Cs electron-extraction layer to efficiently convert solar light into electricity at low cost. By tuning the GO work function through charge neutralization of its carboxylic acid groups to afford GO–Cs, a single material system is demonstrated as both hole- and electron-extractio layers for high-performance solar cells. For more information please read the paper by L. Dai and co-workers, beginning on page 2228.

  7. Communications

    1. Top of page
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    14. Communications
    1. Hole and Electron Extraction Layers Based on Graphene Oxide Derivatives for High-Performance Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells (pages 2228–2233)

      Jun Liu, Yuhua Xue, Yunxiang Gao, Dingshan Yu, Michael Durstock and Liming Dai

      Version of Record online: 4 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201104945

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      By charge neutralization of carboxylic acid groups in graphene oxide (GO) with Cs2CO3 to afford Cesium-neutralized GO (GO-Cs), GO derivatives with appropriate modification are used as both hole- and electron-extraction layers for bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. The normal and inverted devices based on GO hole- and GO-Cs electron-extraction layers both outperform the corresponding standard BHJ solar cells.

    2. Glass Nanopillar Arrays with Nanogap-Rich Silver Nanoislands for Highly Intense Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (pages 2234–2237)

      Young-Jae Oh and Ki-Hun Jeong

      Version of Record online: 27 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201104696

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      The enhancement of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) with nanogap-rich silver nanoislands surrounding glass nanopillars at wafer level is reported. High-density hot spots are generated by increasing the number of nanogap-rich nanoislands within a detection volume. The SERS substrate shows a high enhancement factor of over 107 with excellent signal uniformity (∼7.8%) and it enables the label-free detection of aqueous DNA base molecules at nanomolar level.

    3. Self-Organized Liquid-Crystalline Nanostructured Membranes for Water Treatment: Selective Permeation of Ions (pages 2238–2241)

      Masahiro Henmi, Koji Nakatsuji, Takahiro Ichikawa, Hiroki Tomioka, Takeshi Sakamoto, Masafumi Yoshio and Takashi Kato

      Version of Record online: 17 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200108

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      A membrane with ordered 3D ionic nanochannels constructed by in situ photopolymerization of a thermotropic liquid-crystalline monomer shows high filtration performance and ion selectivity. The nanostructured membrane (see figure) exhibits water-treatment performance superior to that of an amorphous membrane prepared from the isotropic melt of the monomer. Self-organized nanostructured membranes have great potential for supplying high-quality water.

    4. Bithiophene Imide and Benzodithiophene Copolymers for Efficient Inverted Polymer Solar Cells (pages 2242–2248)

      Nanjia Zhou, Xugang Guo, Rocio Ponce Ortiz, Shiqiang Li, Shiming Zhang, Robert P. H. Chang, Antonio Facchetti and Tobin J. Marks

      Version of Record online: 26 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201103948

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      Bithiophene imide (BTI) and benzodithiophene (BDT) copolymers are synthesized for application in organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells. The electron deficiency of the BTI units leads to polymers with a low-lying HOMOs (∼-5.6 eV). Inverted solar cells are fabricated to investigate the OPV performance of the BTI-based polymers and achieve power conversion efficiencies up to 5.5%, with substantial Vocs above 0.9 V which are among the highest Vocs reported to date for polymer/PCBM solar cells. The results indicate that the BTI is a promising building block for constructing polymer donors for OPV applications.

    5. Controlled Synthesis of Bulk Polymer Nanocomposites with Tunable Second Order Nonlinear Optical Properties (pages 2249–2253)

      Jianmin Gu, Yongli Yan, Yong Sheng Zhao and Jiannian Yao

      Version of Record online: 27 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201104297

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      The transparent bulk polymer nanocomposites blended with rare earth nanoparticles are prepared through the radical polymerization of trimethylolpropane trimethylacrylate (TMPTMA). These materials produce continuously tunable second harmonic (SH) radiation under illumination of a wide spectral range of fundamental waves (750–850 nm). The SHG efficiency can be controlled well by altering the Tb3+ doping content in the nanoparticles.

    6. Nanocomposite “Superhighways” by Solution Assembly of Semiconductor Nanostructures with Ligand-Functionalized Conjugated Polymers (pages 2254–2258)

      Emily B. Pentzer, Felicia A. Bokel, Ryan C. Hayward and Todd Emrick

      Version of Record online: 26 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201104788

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      Poly(3-hexyl thiophene) containing chain-end thiols or phosphonic acids is crystallized to yield nanowires with the functional groups at the wire edges. CdSe quantum dots and nanorods associate with these fibrils, leading to ‘superhighways’ that consist of alternating parallel lanes of conjugated polymer and CdSe.

    7. Design Rule of Nanostructures in Light-Emitting Diodes for Complete Elimination of Total Internal Reflection (pages 2259–2262)

      Jun Ho Son, Jong Uk Kim, Yang Hee Song, Buem Joon Kim, Chul Jong Ryu and Jong-Lam Lee

      Version of Record online: 26 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201104648

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      Cone-shaped nanostructures with controllable side-wall angle are success- fully fabricated with a SiO2 nanosphere lithography (NSL) etching mask. Vertical LEDs with cone-shaped nanostructures with a 24.1° side-wall angle provide 6% more light output power compared to those using hexagonal pyramids formed by photochemical etching. This achievement is attributed to effective elimination of total internal reflection by angle-controlled nanostructures.

    8. Observation of Lasing Emission from Carbon Nanodots in Organic Solvents (pages 2263–2267)

      W. F. Zhang, H. Zhu, S. F. Yu and H. Y. Yang

      Version of Record online: 27 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201104950

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      Lasing is observed from carbon nanodots (C-dots) dispersed into a layer of poly(ethylene glycol) coated on the surface of optical fibers under 266 nm optical excitation. This is due to the enhancement of photoluminescence intensity via the esterification of carboxylic groups of the C-dots, and the formation of high-Q cylindrical microcavities to support second-type whispering gallery modes.

  8. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
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    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
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    8. Communications
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    14. Communications
    1. Microcavity Structures: Device Engineering for Highly Efficient Top-Illuminated Organic Solar Cells with Microcavity Structures (Adv. Mater. 17/2012) (page 2268)

      Hao-Wu Lin, Si-Wen Chiu, Li-Yen Lin, Zheng-Yu Hung, Yi-Hong Chen, Francis Lin and Ken-Tsung Wong

      Version of Record online: 23 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201290094

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      Highly efficient top-illuminated organic solar cells with microcavity structures are numerically simulated and fabricated by H.-W. Lin, K.-T. Wong, and co-workers on page 2269. The high efficiencies are primarily attributed to the thin, electrically optimized active layers and the panchromatic simulation programdesigned in-cell and out-of-cell optical resonance structures, incorporating favorable materials with good electrical and optical properties. Given the insensitivity of the substrate, this approach offers a new step toward highly efficient organic solar cells on all kinds of substrates.

  9. Communications

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    1. Device Engineering for Highly Efficient Top-Illuminated Organic Solar Cells with Microcavity Structures (pages 2269–2272)

      Hao-Wu Lin, Si-Wen Chiu, Li-Yen Lin, Zheng-Yu Hung, Yi-Hong Chen, Francis Lin and Ken-Tsung Wong

      Version of Record online: 2 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200487

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      Small-molecule organic solar cells with microcavity structures utilizing very thin solar-absorbing active layers are simulated and fabricated. By carefully fine-tuning the in-cell spacer layer and out-of-cell capping layer, highly efficient top-illuminated indium tin oxide-free solar cells are created on glass and flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrates with efficiencies of up to 5.5% and 5%, respectively.

    2. Manifestation of Carrier Relaxation Through the Manifold of Localized States in PCDTBT:PC60BM Bulk Heterojunction Material: The Role of PC84BM Traps on the Carrier Transport (pages 2273–2277)

      Wei Lin Leong, Gerardo Hernandez-Sosa, Sarah R. Cowan, Daniel Moses and Alan J. Heeger

      Version of Record online: 26 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201104192

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      The transport and relaxation of photogenerated carriers in a bulk heterojunction (BHJ) material made of a blend of PCDTBT and PC60BM are studied as a function of the concentration of PC84BM impurities. For low concentrations of PC84BM, the increasing activation energy with delay time indicates transport dominated by trap-limited carrier drift while the photocarriers relax through a manifold of disorder-induced localized states near the band edge. In the BHJ material with high concentration of PC84BM, transport is dominated by carrier hopping within the PC84BM impurity band.

    3. Ambipolar Charge Transport in “Traditional” Organic Hole Transport Layers (pages 2278–2283)

      S. Khademi, J. Y. Song, P. B. Wyatt, T. Kreouzis and W. P. Gillin

      Version of Record online: 30 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201103830

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      Organic semiconductors are often labeled as electron or hole transport materials due to the primary role they perform in devices. However, despite these labels we have shown using time-of-flight that two of the traditional “hole transport materials” TPD and NPB are actually excellent electron transporters the electron transport properties of which are comparable to those for holes.

    4. Air-Bridged Ohmic Contact on Vertically Aligned Si Nanowire Arrays: Application to Molecule Sensors (pages 2284–2288)

      Hee Han, Jungkil Kim, Ho Sun Shin, Jae Yong Song and Woo Lee

      Version of Record online: 13 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200347

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      A simple, cost-effective, and highly reliable method for constructing an air-bridged electrical contact on large arrays of vertically aligned nanowires was developed. The present method may open up new opportunities for developing advanced nanowire-based devices for energy harvest and storage, power generation, and sensing applications.

    5. Organic Semiconducting Single Crystals as Next Generation of Low-Cost, Room-Temperature Electrical X-ray Detectors (pages 2289–2293)

      Beatrice Fraboni, Andrea Ciavatti, Francesco Merlo, Luca Pasquini, Anna Cavallini, Alberto Quaranta, Annalisa Bonfiglio and Alessandro Fraleoni-Morgera

      Version of Record online: 26 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200283

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      Direct, solid-state X-ray detectors based on organic single crystals are shown to operate at room temperature, in air, and at voltages as low as a few volts (see figure), delivering a stable and reproducible linear response to increasing X-ray dose rates, with notable radiation hardness and resistance to aging. All-organic and optically transparent devices are reported.

    6. Binder-Free LiCoO2/Carbon Nanotube Cathodes for High-Performance Lithium Ion Batteries (pages 2294–2298)

      Shu Luo, Ke Wang, Jiaping Wang, Kaili Jiang, Qunqing Li and Shoushan Fan

      Version of Record online: 26 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201104720

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      Binder-free LiCoO2-SACNT cathodes with excellent flexibility and conductivity are obtained by constructing a continuous three-dimensional super-aligned carbon nanotube (SACNT) framework with embedded LiCoO2 particles. These binder-free cathodes display much better cycling stability, greater rate performance, and higher energy density than classical cathodes with binder. Various functional binder-free SACNT composites can be mass produced by the ultrasonication and co-deposition method described in this paper.

    7. Facile Method for rGO Field Effect Transistor: Selective Adsorption of rGO on SAM-Treated Gold Electrode by Electrostatic Attraction (pages 2299–2303)

      Jieun Yang, Jung-Woo Kim and Hyeon Suk Shin

      Version of Record online: 2 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201104094

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      A facile method for the fabrication of negatively and positively charged rGO field effect transistors (FETs) is proposed, which utilizes electrostatic attraction between electrodes and rGO sheets. Negatively and positively charged rGO sheets are functionalized with carboxylic acid and amine groups, respectively. The FET of amine-functionalized rGO exhibits an n-doping effect. The FET devices fabricated by this method show high mobility of carriers.

  10. Frontispiece

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    14. Communications
    1. An Optimized Ultraviolet-A Light Photodetector with Wide-Range Photoresponse Based on ZnS/ZnO Biaxial Nanobelt (Adv. Mater. 17/2012) (page 2304)

      Linfeng Hu, Jian Yan, Meiyong Liao, Hongjun Xiang, Xingao Gong, Lide Zhang and Xiaosheng Fang

      Version of Record online: 23 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201290095

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      A novel 1D/1D semiconductor/semiconductor nanocomposite-based photodetector is fabricated by X. S. Fang and co-workers on page 2305 from highly crystalline ZnS/ZnO biaxial nanobelts. Optimized performance of the ZnS/ZnO nanobelt photodetector is better than that of pure ZnS or ZnO nanostructures, as it combines UV-A photoresponsivity, high sensitivity, and a fast response speed. This photodetector is particularly suitable for UV-A light detection, and its speed enables its potential application in highfrequency light-wave communications, photoelectronic switches, memory storage devices, and optoelectronic circuits.

  11. Communications

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    1. An Optimized Ultraviolet-A Light Photodetector with Wide-Range Photoresponse Based on ZnS/ZnO Biaxial Nanobelt (pages 2305–2309)

      Linfeng Hu, Jian Yan, Meiyong Liao, Hongjun Xiang, Xingao Gong, Lide Zhang and Xiaosheng Fang

      Version of Record online: 30 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200512

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      A novel 1D/1D nanocomposite-based photodetector is successfully fabricated from high-crystalline ZnS/ZnO biaxial nanobelts for the first time. Optimized performance of the ZnS/ZnO nanobelt photodetector is much better than that of pure ZnS or ZnO nanostructures, with a wide-range UV-A light photoresponse, high sensitivity, and very fast response speed.

    2. Janus Au-TiO2 Photocatalysts with Strong Localization of Plasmonic Near-Fields for Efficient Visible-Light Hydrogen Generation (pages 2310–2314)

      Zhi Wei Seh, Shuhua Liu, Michelle Low, Shuang-Yuan Zhang, Zhaolin Liu, Adnen Mlayah and Ming-Yong Han

      Version of Record online: 30 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201104241

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      The first use of non-centrosymmetric Janus Au-TiO2 photocatalysts in efficient, plasmon-enhanced visible-light hydrogen generation is demonstrated. The intense localization of plasmonic near-fields close to the Au-TiO2 interface, coupled with optical transitions involving localized electronic states in amorphous TiO2 brings about enhanced optical absorption and the generation of electron-hole pairs for photocatalysis.

    3. Ordered Nanopillar Structured Electrodes for Depleted Bulk Heterojunction Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells (pages 2315–2319)

      Illan J. Kramer, David Zhitomirsky, John D. Bass, Philip M. Rice, Teya Topuria, Leslie Krupp, Susanna M. Thon, Alexander H. Ip, Ratan Debnath, Ho-Cheol Kim and Edward H. Sargent

      Version of Record online: 30 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201104832

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      A bulk heterojunction of ordered titania nanopillars and PbS colloidal quantum dots is developed. By using a pre-patterned template, an ordered titania nanopillar matrix with nearest neighbours 275 nm apart and height of 300 nm is fabricated and subsequently filled in with PbS colloidal quantum dots to form an ordered depleted bulk heterojunction exhibiting power conversion efficiency of 5.6%.

    4. Synthesis of Large-Area MoS2 Atomic Layers with Chemical Vapor Deposition (pages 2320–2325)

      Yi-Hsien Lee, Xin-Quan Zhang, Wenjing Zhang, Mu-Tung Chang, Cheng-Te Lin, Kai-Di Chang, Ya-Chu Yu, Jacob Tse-Wei Wang, Chia-Seng Chang, Lain-Jong Li and Tsung-Wu Lin

      Version of Record online: 30 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201104798

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      Large-area MoS2 atomic layers are synthesized on SiO2 substrates by chemical vapor deposition using MoO3 and S powders as the reactants. Optical, microscopic and electrical measurements suggest that the synthetic process leads to the growth of MoS2 monolayer. The TEM images verify that the synthesized MoS2 sheets are highly crystalline.

    5. PdM (M = Pt, Au) Bimetallic Alloy Nanowires with Enhanced Electrocatalytic Activity for Electro-oxidation of Small Molecules (pages 2326–2331)

      Chengzhou Zhu, Shaojun Guo and Shaojun Dong

      Version of Record online: 2 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201104951

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      A facile and general method has been developed to synthesize well-defined PdPt and PdAu alloy nanowires, which exhibit significantly enhanced activity towards small molecules, such as ethanol, methanol, and glucose electro-oxidation in an alkaline medium. Considering the important role of one-dimensional alloy nanowires in electrocatalytic systems, the present Pd-based alloy nanostructures could offer a promising new class of advanced electrocatalysts for direct alcohol fuel cells and electrochemical sensors.

    6. Coaxial Organic p-n Heterojunction Nanowire Arrays: One-Step Synthesis and Photoelectric Properties (pages 2332–2336)

      Qiu Hong Cui, Lang Jiang, Chuang Zhang, Yong Sheng Zhao, Wenping Hu and Jiannian Yao

      Version of Record online: 4 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201104594

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      Organic/organic single-crystal coaxial p-n heterojunction nanowire arrays consisting of p-type copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) and n-type 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-pyridyl)-porphyrin (H2TPyP) are fabricated through a one-step physical vapor transport (PVT) process. Each single junction wire revealed high photodependent rectifying and sensitive photoresponsive characteristics in devices of light-controlled diodes and photoswitches. The typical photovoltaic device based on a single p-n junction exhibited a high open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.64 V.

    7. Compaction Through Buckling in 2D Periodic, Soft and Porous Structures: Effect of Pore Shape (pages 2337–2342)

      J. T. B. Overvelde, S. Shan and K. Bertoldi

      Version of Record online: 30 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201104395

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      Soft cellular structures that comprise a solid matrix with a square array of holes open avenues for the design of novel soft and foldable structures. Our results demonstrate that by simply changing the shape of the holes the response of porous structure can be easily tuned and soft structures with optimal compaction can be designed.

  12. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
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    1. Patterning: Three-Dimensional Biomimetic Patterning in Hydrogels to Guide Cellular Organization (Adv. Mater. 17/2012) (page 2343)

      James C. Culver, Joseph C. Hoffmann, Ross A. Poché, John H. Slater, Jennifer L. West and Mary E. Dickinson

      Version of Record online: 23 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201290096

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      On page 2344, J. L. West, M. E. Dickinson, and co-workers demonstrate an image-guided method for engineering complex biomimetic materials. Using laser scanning microscopes and twophoton photolithography, they use this method to create patterned poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate hydrogels that recreate 3D structural and biochemical features of endogenous vascular microenvironments, as shown here for the coronary vasculature. These biomaterials can effectively guide cellular organization in order to recapitulate endogenous vascular structures, marking an important step forward for tissue engineering.

  13. Communications

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    1. Three-Dimensional Biomimetic Patterning in Hydrogels to Guide Cellular Organization (pages 2344–2348)

      James C. Culver, Joseph C. Hoffmann, Ross A. Poché, John H. Slater, Jennifer L. West and Mary E. Dickinson

      Version of Record online: 30 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200395

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      An image-guided micropatterning method is demonstrated for generating biomimetic hydrogel scaffolds with two-photon laser scanning photolithography. This process utilizes computational methods to directly translate three-dimensional cytoarchitectural features from labeled tissues into material structures. We use this method to pattern hydrogels that guide cellular organization by structurally and biochemically recapitulating complex vascular niche microenvironments with high pattern fidelity at the microscale.

    2. Random Composites of Nickel Networks Supported by Porous Alumina Toward Double Negative Materials (pages 2349–2352)

      Zhi-cheng Shi, Run-hua Fan, Zi-dong Zhang, Lei Qian, Meng Gao, Mo Zhang, Li-tuo Zheng, Xi-hua Zhang and Long-wei Yin

      Version of Record online: 13 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200157

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      Random composites with nickel networks hosted randomly in porous alumina are proposed to realize double negative materials. The random composite for DNMs (RC-DNMs) can be prepared by typical processing of material, which makes it possible to explore new DNMs and potential applications, and to feasibly tune their electromagnetic parameters by controlling their composition and microstructure. Hopefully, various new RC-DNMs with improved performance will be proposed in the future.

    3. Photochemically Reversible Liquefaction and Solidification of Single Compounds Based on a Sugar Alcohol Scaffold with Multi Azo-Arms (pages 2353–2356)

      Haruhisa Akiyama and Masaru Yoshida

      Version of Record online: 10 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201104880

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Sugar alcohol derivatives with multi azobenzene arms are photochemically and isothermally liquefied from a powdered solid upon irradiation with ultraviolet light at room temperature, and then solidified on irradiation with visible light, where the transition between solid and liquid are reversible. These compounds possess similar chemical structures to comb-like liquid crystalline oligomers.

    4. Porous, Fluorescent, Covalent Triazine-Based Frameworks Via Room-Temperature and Microwave-Assisted Synthesis (pages 2357–2361)

      Shijie Ren, Michael J. Bojdys, Robert Dawson, Andrea Laybourn, Yaroslav Z. Khimyak, Dave J. Adams and Andrew I. Cooper

      Version of Record online: 4 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200751

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Porous, fluorescent, covalent triazine-based frameworks (CTFs) are obtained in an unprecedentedly mild reaction, opening up a scalable pathway for molecular building blocks previously thought incompatible with this chemistry. Choice of monomers and synthetic conditions determines the optical properties and nano-scale ordering of these highly microporous materials with BET surface areas exceeding 1100 m2 g−1 and exceptional CO2 capacities (up to 4.17 mmol g−1).

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