Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 24 Issue 18

May 8, 2012

Volume 24, Issue 18

Pages 2365–2505

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Communications
    1. DNA Hybridization: Direct Attachment of Microbial Organisms to Material Surfaces Through Sequence-Specific DNA Hybridization (Adv. Mater. 18/2012) (page 2365)

      Amy A. Twite, Sonny C. Hsiao, Hiroaki Onoe, Richard A. Mathies and Matthew B. Francis

      Version of Record online: 2 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201290104

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      M. B. Francis and co-workers develop a new chemical method for the attachment of single-stranded DNA molecules to the surfaces of these organisms. On page 2380, they describe how, when exposed to substrates bearing the sequence complements, the microbes can be attached to specified locations with very high efficiency. The use of multiple DNA sequences allows complex microbial ‘communities’ to be generated, potentially allowing the study of symbiotic relationships. Shown are Synechocystis (red), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (green), and Azotobacter vinelandii (blue).

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Communications
    1. Angle-Independent Reflectors: Flexible, Angle-Independent, Structural Color Reflectors Inspired by Morpho Butterfly Wings (Adv. Mater. 18/2012) (page 2366)

      Kyungjae Chung, Sunkyu Yu, Chul-Joon Heo, Jae Won Shim, Seung-Man Yang, Moon Gyu Han, Hong-Seok Lee, Yongwan Jin, Sang Yoon Lee, Namkyoo Park and Jung H. Shin

      Version of Record online: 2 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201290105

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      The image shows a schematic representation of close-packed multilayer reflecting columns with the same periodicity but with random variations in location, both in horizontal and vertical dimensions, that form the Morpho-mimetic thin-film structural color reflectors described in the manuscript by J. H. Shin and co-workers, on page 2375. Overlaid are photographs of an actual Morpho butterfly, a 6-inch diameter Morpho-mimetic thin film that demonstrates its color, brightness, and flexibility, and images of cyan, green, and red ‘Morpho butterflies’ created from photos of Morpho-mimetic thin films with corresponding colors.

  3. Back Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Communications
    1. Carbon Fibers: Patterned Functional Carbon Fibers from Polyethylene (Adv. Mater. 18/2012) (page 2506)

      Marcus A. Hunt, Tomonori Saito, Rebecca H. Brown, Amar S. Kumbhar and Amit K. Naskar

      Version of Record online: 2 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201290106

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Flower-shaped carbon fibers are created from novel processes using polyethylene-based precursors by A. K. Naskar and co-workers. Such patterned, continuous carbon fibers have tunable cross-sections, from hollow circular to gear-shaped, and tailored properties arising from the highly versatile fabrication methods described on page 2386. The fibers exhibit ordered graphitic structures near the surface and porous disordered carbon near the core. These porous fibers have 3–30-fold higher BET surface areas relative to solid fibers of similar construction, rendering them amenable to myriad applications.

  4. Masthead

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Communications
    1. Masthead: (Adv. Mater. 18/2012)

      Version of Record online: 2 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201290107

  5. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Communications
  6. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Communications
    1. Flexible, Angle-Independent, Structural Color Reflectors Inspired by Morpho Butterfly Wings (pages 2375–2379)

      Kyungjae Chung, Sunkyu Yu, Chul-Joon Heo, Jae Won Shim, Seung-Man Yang, Moon Gyu Han, Hong-Seok Lee, Yongwan Jin, Sang Yoon Lee, Namkyoo Park and Jung H. Shin

      Version of Record online: 10 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200521

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Thin-film color reflectors inspired by Morpho butterflies are fabricated. Using a combination of directional deposition, silica microspheres with a wide size distribution, and a PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) encasing, a large, flexible reflector is created that actually provides better angle-independent color characteristics than Morpho butterflies and which can even be bent and folded freely without losing its Morpho-mimetic photonic properties.

    2. Direct Attachment of Microbial Organisms to Material Surfaces Through Sequence-Specific DNA Hybridization (pages 2380–2385)

      Amy A. Twite, Sonny C. Hsiao, Hiroaki Onoe, Richard A. Mathies and Matthew B. Francis

      Version of Record online: 19 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201104336

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A new technique is reported for the attachment of synthetic DNA strands to the surfaces of microbial organisms. This gives algal, bacterial, and fungal cells the ability to bind to complementary strands extending from patterned surfaces that can be produced on platforms such as microfluidic devices. The ability of this method to establish complex 2- and 3-dimensional cocultures comprising multiple organism types is also presented.

    3. Patterned Functional Carbon Fibers from Polyethylene (pages 2386–2389)

      Marcus A. Hunt, Tomonori Saito, Rebecca H. Brown, Amar S. Kumbhar and Amit K. Naskar

      Version of Record online: 27 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201104551

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Carbon fibers having unique morphologies, from hollow circular to gear-shaped, are produced from a novel melt-processable precursor and method. The resulting carbon fiber exhibits microstructural and topological properties that are dependent on processing conditions, rendering them highly amenable to myriad applications.

    4. Large Scale Monodisperse Hexagonal Arrays of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxides Nanodots: A Facile Block Copolymer Inclusion Method (pages 2390–2397)

      Tandra Ghoshal, Tuhin Maity, Jeffrey F. Godsell, Saibal Roy and Michael A. Morris

      Version of Record online: 10 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200357

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      Highly dense hexagonal ordered arrays of superparamagnetic iron oxides nanodots are fabricated by a simple and cost-effective route. Spectroscopic, microscopic and magnetic measurements show that the nanodots have uniform size, shape and their placement mimics the original self-assembled block copolymer pattern. The nanodots show good thermal stability and strong adherence to the substrate surface, making them useful for practical device applications.

  7. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Communications
    1. Tissue Engineering: Tailoring Substrates for Long-Term Organotypic Culture of Adult Neuronal Tissue (Adv. Mater. 18/2012) (page 2398)

      Valentina Dallacasagrande, Mareike Zink, Steven Huth, Alexander Jakob, Marcus Müller, Andreas Reichenbach, Josef A. Käs and S. G. Mayr

      Version of Record online: 2 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201290102

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      Organotypic culture of adult neuronal tissue over several weeks is an unresolved challenge due to rapid distortion and cell death. M. Zink, S. G. Mayr, and co-workers demonstrate for the first time on page 2399 that superhydrophilic nanostructured substrates with tunable surface morphologies offer ideal conditions for culturing adult retinal explants (upper right) and adult brain slices (lower left). Even after two weeks, the neuronal tissue structures are maintained without signs of degeneration, which paves the way for in-vitro retina and brain tissue regeneration.

  8. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Communications
    1. Tailoring Substrates for Long-Term Organotypic Culture of Adult Neuronal Tissue (pages 2399–2403)

      Valentina Dallacasagrande, Mareike Zink, Steven Huth, Alexander Jakob, Marcus Müller, Andreas Reichenbach, Josef A. Käs and S. G. Mayr

      Version of Record online: 4 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200816

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Organotypic tissue cultures are highly promising for performing in vivo type studies in vitro. Currently, however, very limited survival times of only a few days for adult tissue often severely limit their application. Here, superhydrophilic nanostructured substrates with ideal material properties ensure tissue adhesion, essential for organotypic culture, while migration of single cells out of the tissue is hampered. Tuning substrate properties, for the first time, adult neuronal tissue could be cultured for 14 days with no indications of degeneration.

    2. Lasing from Epitaxially Oriented Needle Crystals of a Thiophene/Phenylene Co-Oligomer (pages 2404–2408)

      Hitoshi Mizuno, Itaru Ohnishi, Hisao Yanagi, Fumio Sasaki and Shu Hotta

      Version of Record online: 11 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201104182

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      Optically pumped lasing of epitaxially oriented molecular crystals is presented. Needle-like crystals of a thiophene/phenylene co-oligomer is grown along the [110] direction of a KCl substrate. The fluorescence light is one-dimensionally confined and amplified by the self-waveguiding effect in the elongated needles. The Fabry-Pérot resonation by the terminated ends results in laser oscillations corresponding to the needle length.

    3. Fluoroalkyl Silane Modified Silicone Rubber/Nanoparticle Composite: A Super Durable, Robust Superhydrophobic Fabric Coating (pages 2409–2412)

      Hua Zhou, Hongxia Wang, Haitao Niu, Adrian Gestos, Xungai Wang and Tong Lin

      Version of Record online: 10 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200184

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A superhydrophobic fabric coating made of a crosslinked polydimethylsiloxane elastomer, containing well-dispersed hydrophobic silica nanoparticles and fluorinated alkyl silane, shows remarkable durability against repeated machine washes, severe abrasion, strong acid or base, boiling water or beverages and excellent stain resistance.

    4. Cross-Linked Multifunctional Conjugated Polymers Prepared by In Situ Electrochemical Deposition for a Highly-Efficient Blue-Emitting and Electron-Transport Layer (pages 2413–2417)

      Cheng Gu, Wenyue Dong, Liang Yao, Ying Lv, Zhongbo Zhang, Dan Lu and Yuguang Ma

      Version of Record online: 20 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200559

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      An efficient and controllable approach to prepare cross-linked films from a conjugated polymer precursor by electrochemical deposition (ED) is reported for the first time. A novel polymer precursor with high solubility, high electroactivity, and electron-transport ability has been designed. The electrochemically deposited polymer film shows high thickness, smooth morphology, and high fluorescence. The single-layer pure-blue-emitting ED PLED exhibits a luminous efficiency of 3.8 cd A−1.

    5. Resistive Switching WOx-Au Core-Shell Nanowires with Unexpected Nonwetting Stability Even when Submerged Under Water (pages 2418–2423)

      Seunghyup Lee, Junghan Lee, Jinjoo Park, Youngwoo Choi and Kijung Yong

      Version of Record online: 10 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200068

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The resistive switching (RS) characteristics of a tungsten oxide (WOx)-Au core-shell nanowire device array is demonstrated for the first time. In addition to the stable bipolar RS characteristics, the nanowire structure of our RS devices provides superhydrophobic properties. The superhydrophobic RS nanowires repelled water that was poured over, such that the device was protected from failure by water contact-driven leakage currents. Moreover, surprisingly, the devices still work even with when the device is submerged underwater.

    6. Light and pH Cooperative Nanofluidic Diode Using a Spiropyran-Functionalized Single Nanochannel (pages 2424–2428)

      Minghui Zhang, Xu Hou, Jingtao Wang, Ye Tian, Xia Fan, Jin Zhai and Lei Jiang

      Version of Record online: 10 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201104536

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      An artificial nanofluidic diode system is prepared (see figure), mimicking the light-gated and pH-tunable ion channels that play an important role in life sciences. When UV light is off, the nanochannel is in the closed state, analogous to a resistance. Under UV light irradiation and at pH 7, the current flows from the tip to the base, analogous to a diode; at pH 3, the situation (and the diode) is reversed.

    7. Development of Nanoparticle Stabilized Polymer Nanocontainers with High Content of the Encapsulated Active Agent and Their Application in Water-Borne Anticorrosive Coatings (pages 2429–2435)

      Martin F. Haase, Dmitry O. Grigoriev, Helmuth Möhwald and Dmitry G. Shchukin

      Version of Record online: 4 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201104687

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A novel method for the encapsulation of organic active agents in nanoparticle-armored polymer composite nanocontainers (analog of Pickering emulsions) is introduced. The multifunctionality of the constituents allows a fabrication path that does not require auxiliary materials. Embedding the composite nanocontainers into a water-based alkyd resin and subsequent film formation yields a homogeneous polymer film doped with highly disperse composite nanocontainers. The resistance and self-healing of such a film on aluminium is enhanced.

    8. Solution-Processed Metallic Conducting Polymer Films as Transparent Electrode of Optoelectronic Devices (pages 2436–2440)

      Yijie Xia, Kuan Sun and Jianyong Ouyang

      Version of Record online: 10 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201104795

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      The conductivity of PEDOT:PSS films was significantly enhanced from 0.3 S cm−1 to 3065 S cm−1 through a treatment with dilute sulfuric acids. PEDOT:PSS films with a sheet resistance of 39 Ω sq−1 and transparency of around 80% at 550 nm are obtained. These PEDOT:PSS films with conductivity and transparency comparable to ITO can replace ITO as the transparent electrode of optoelectronic devices.

    9. Solution-Processed Small Molecule-Polymer Blend Organic Thin-Film Transistors with Hole Mobility Greater than 5 cm2/Vs (pages 2441–2446)

      Jeremy Smith, Weimin Zhang, Rachid Sougrat, Kui Zhao, Ruipeng Li, Dongkyu Cha, Aram Amassian, Martin Heeney, Iain McCulloch and Thomas D. Anthopoulos

      Version of Record online: 10 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200088

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Using phase-separated organic semiconducting blends containing a small molecule, as the hole transporting material, and a conjugated amorphous polymer, as the binder material, we demonstrate solution-processed organic thin-film transistors with superior performance characteristics that include; hole mobility >5 cm2/Vs, current on/off ratio ≥106 and narrow transistor parameter spread. These exceptional characteristics are attributed to the electronic properties of the binder polymer and the advantageous nanomorphology of the blend film.

    10. Label-Free Ultrasensitive Detection of Human Telomerase Activity Using Porphyrin-Functionalized Graphene and Electrochemiluminescence Technique (pages 2447–2452)

      Li Wu, Jiasi Wang, Lingyan Feng, Jinsong Ren, Weili Wei and Xiaogang Qu

      Version of Record online: 10 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200412

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      Using porphyrin-functionalized graphene, we construct a PCR-free, low-cost, rapid, and electrochemiluminenscence (ECL) assay for detection of telomerase activity that has been demonstrated in six different cell lines and can be used as initial screening of G-quadruplex DNA binding agents and telomerase inhibitors. This ECL sensor shows highly sensitive for detection of telomerase with the detection limit as low as 10 HeLa cells mL−1.

    11. Metal-Filled Carbon Nanotubes as a Novel Class of Photothermal Nanomaterials (pages 2453–2458)

      Francesco Rossella, Caterina Soldano, Vittorio Bellani and Matteo Tommasini

      Version of Record online: 10 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201104393

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      Metal-filled carbon nanotubes represent a novel class of photothermal nanomaterials: when illuminated by visible light they exhibit a strong enhancement of the temperature at the metal sites, due to the enhanced plasmonic light absorption at the metal surface, which behaves as a heat radiator. Potential applications include nanomedicine, heat-assisted magnetic recording, and light-activated thermal gradient-driven devices.

    12. Solution Processed MoO3 Interfacial Layer for Organic Photovoltaics Prepared by a Facile Synthesis Method (pages 2459–2462)

      Seiichiro Murase and Yang Yang

      Version of Record online: 10 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201104771

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      An MoO3 film spin-coated from a solution prepared by an extremely facile and cost-effective synthetic method is introduced as an anode buffer layer of bulk-heterojunction polymer photovoltaic devices. The device efficiency using the MoO3 anode buffer layer is comparable to that using a conventional PEDOT:PSS layer without annealing at an elevated temperature.

    13. Carbon-Carbon Contacts for Robust Nanoelectromechanical Switches (pages 2463–2468)

      Owen Loh, Xiaoding Wei, John Sullivan, Leonidas E. Ocola, Ralu Divan and Horacio D. Espinosa

      Version of Record online: 10 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201104889

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      Nanoelectromechanical devices exhibiting dramatically improved robustness through novel material selection are demonstrated. A unique combination of carbon nanotube active elements and conductive diamond-like carbon contact electrodes results in reliable switching performance not found in devices with ubiquitously-used metal thin film electrodes. This in turn represents a viable means to improve the reliability of a diverse, and widely-pursued class of nanoscale devices ranging from single-nanostructure switches to massively parallel arrays.

    14. CuBr2 – A New Multiferroic Material with High Critical Temperature (pages 2469–2473)

      Li. Zhao, Tsu-Lien Hung, Ching-Chien Li, Yang-Yuan Chen, Maw-Kuen Wu, Reinhard K. Kremer, Michael G. Banks, Arndt Simon, Myung-Hwan Whangbo, Changhoon Lee, Jun Sung Kim, Ingyu Kim and Kee Hoon Kim

      Version of Record online: 10 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200734

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A new multiferroic material, CuBr2, is reported for the first time. CuBr2 has not only a high transition temperature (close to liquid nitrogen temperature) but also low dielectric loss and strong magnetoelectric coupling. These findings reveal the importance of anion effects, in the search for the high temperature multiferroics materials among these low-dimensional spin systems.

  9. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Communications
    1. Laser-Induced Artificial Defects (LIADs): Towards the Control of the Spatiotemporal Dynamics in Spin Transition Materials (Adv. Mater. 18/2012) (page 2474)

      Salma Bedoui, Manuel Lopes, Sipeng Zheng, Sylvestre Bonnet, Gábor Molnár and Azzedine Bousseksou

      Version of Record online: 2 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201290103

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The image shows a snapshot of the propagation of the phase boundary during the spin transition in a single crystal of a ferrous spin-crossover complex. A micrometric surface-relief defect was laser-ablated in the middle of the crystal by G. Molnár, A. Bousseksou, and coworkers, in order to manipulate the spatiotemporal dynamics of the spin transition. This type of ‘domain engineering’ opens up novel perspectives for the investigation of phase transitions and also for their technological applications, as described on page 2475.

  10. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Communications
    1. Laser-Induced Artificial Defects (LIADs): Towards the Control of the Spatiotemporal Dynamics in Spin Transition Materials (pages 2475–2478)

      Salma Bedoui, Manuel Lopes, Sipeng Zheng, Sylvestre Bonnet, Gábor Molnár and Azzedine Bousseksou

      Version of Record online: 10 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200386

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Micrometer-sized defects, induced by laser ablation, radically change the spatiotemporal dynamics of a first-order structural phase transition, in this case of a spin crossover material. This type of “domain engineering” is thus based on artificial defects, such as that in the image, which can serve either as nucleation sites or as pinning sites. The subsequent growth of the nucleated domains can also be guided to some extent.

    2. Conjugated Polyelectrolyte-Antibody Hybrid Materials for Highly Fluorescent Live Cell-Imaging (pages 2479–2484)

      Kangwon Lee, Jiseok Lee, Eun Jeong Jeong, Adam Kronk, Kojo S. J. Elenitoba-Johnson, Megan S. Lim and Jinsang Kim

      Version of Record online: 10 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201103895

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      Conjugated polyelectrolyte-antibody hybrid materials promise to enhance the utility of conjugated polymers in bioimaging field. Polymer-antibody conjugates that are biologically safe and highly sensitive and selective to cells are designed to image human T or B lymphocytes. In the clear state, the observed efficiency of luminescence is superior to that of commercially available FITC-antibody probe.

    3. Magnetic-Plasmonic Dual Modulated FePt-Au Ternary Heterostructured Nanorods as a Promising Nano-Bioprobe (pages 2485–2490)

      Yong Zhang and Qian Wang

      Version of Record online: 10 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201103991

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      Ternary FePt-Au nanorods are synthesized as magnetic-plasmonic 1D nanostructures. Besides their widely tunable magnetic properties, their unique plasmonic response to the illumination polarization provides a powerful tool to optically image these sub-wavelength single nanorods. These nanoparticles also show the potential as a novel nano-bioprobe based on the demonstration of simultaneous magnetic manipulation and optical imaging of single particles inside live cells.

      Corrected by:

      Correction: Correction: Magnetic-Plasmonic Dual Modulated FePt-Au Ternary Heterostructured Nanorods as a Promising Nano-Bioprobe

      Vol. 25, Issue 4, 502, Version of Record online: 18 JAN 2013

    4. Facile Synthesis of a Large Quantity of Graphene by Chemical Vapor Deposition: an Advanced Catalyst Carrier (pages 2491–2495)

      Changsheng Shan, Hao Tang, Tailun Wong, Lifang He and Shuit-Tong Lee

      Version of Record online: 10 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200480

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      A large quantity of highly conductive graphene was prepared by a novel CVD method with nickel powder as a template and PMMA as carbon source. With Pt as a model, PtNP–modified graphene showed much better electrocatalytic ability for O2 and methanol than PtNP–reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and commercial Pt/C, showing that this graphene is a better catalyst carrier than RGO and commercial carbon.

    5. A Light-Controlled Resistive Switching Memory (pages 2496–2500)

      Mariana Ungureanu, Raul Zazpe, Federico Golmar, Pablo Stoliar, Roger Llopis, Felix Casanova and Luis E. Hueso

      Version of Record online: 10 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200382

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Sketch of the configuration of a light-controlled resistive switching memory. Light enters through the Al2O3 uncovered surface and reaches the optically active p-Si substrate, where carriers are photogenerated and subsequently injected in the Al2O3 layer when a suitable voltage pulse is applied. The resistance of the Al2O3 can be switched between different non-volatile states, depending on the applied voltage pulse and on the illumination conditions.

    6. Electrical Control of Protein Conformation (pages 2501–2505)

      Alwin M. D. Wan, Rebecca M. Schur, Christopher K. Ober, Claudia Fischbach, Delphine Gourdon and George G. Malliaras

      Version of Record online: 10 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200436

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Conducting polymer devices that enable precise control of fibronectin conformation over macroscopic areas are reported. Single conformations as well as conformation gradients are achieved by applying an appropriate potential. These surfaces remain biologically relevant and support cell culture; hence, they may serve as a model to understand and control cell-surface interactions, with applications in basic research, medical diagnostics, and tissue engineering.

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