Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 24 Issue 20

May 22, 2012

Volume 24, Issue 20

Pages 2653–2791

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
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    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
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    7. Communications
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    9. Communications
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    13. Communications
    14. Research News
    1. Elastomeric Emissive Materials: Stretchable Light-Emitting Electrochemical Cells Using an Elastomeric Emissive Material (Adv. Mater. 20/2012) (page 2653)

      Heather L. Filiatrault, Gyllian C. Porteous, R. Stephen Carmichael, Gregory J. E. Davidson and Tricia Breen Carmichael

      Version of Record online: 15 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201290117

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      On page 2673, T. B. Carmichael and co-workers describe an emerging methodology in which devices, rather than device interconnects, are designed to tolerate strain. Intrinsically stretchable light-emitting devices provide uniform and diffuse light emission over large areas, suitable for new applications in lighting. The image shows an intrinsically stretchable light-emitting electrochemical cell, in which the integration of an electroluminescent compound with an elastomeric material enables device operation during stretching and bending.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Communications
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    13. Communications
    14. Research News
    1. Functional Fibers: Functional Fibers with Unique Wettability Inspired by Spider Silks (Adv. Mater. 20/2012) (page 2654)

      Hao Bai, Jie Ju, Yongmei Zheng and Lei Jiang

      Version of Record online: 15 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201290118

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      Spider silks readily collect water from a humid atmosphere in a directional manner. The principles behind from this natural example have inspired people to design functional fibers with unique wettability properties. Because of these unique properties, these fibers can be applied in water-collecting, liquid transportation, catalysis, sensing, filtration, and more, as outlined by Y. Zheng, L. Jiang, and co-workers on page 2786.

  3. Masthead

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    1. Masthead: (Adv. Mater. 20/2012)

      Version of Record online: 15 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201290119

  4. Contents

    1. Top of page
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    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
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    7. Communications
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    13. Communications
    14. Research News
  5. Frontispiece

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    1. Templating Assembly of Multifunctional Hybrid Colloidal Spheres (Adv. Mater. 20/2012) (page 2662)

      Xuehai Yan, Junbai Li and Helmuth Möhwald

      Version of Record online: 15 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201290113

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      3D hybrid colloidal spheres with integrated functions and collective properties are fabricated by X. Yan, Y. Li, and co-workers on page 2663 using a variety of common, inorganic nano-objects as building blocks in association with polyelectrolyte encapsulation through a facile template strategy. This simple and controllable strategy is suited to the design and fabrication of functional colloidal spheres, thereby allowing the development of new multifunctional hybrid materials.

  6. Communications

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    1. Templating Assembly of Multifunctional Hybrid Colloidal Spheres (pages 2663–2667)

      Xuehai Yan, Junbai Li and Helmuth Möhwald

      Version of Record online: 23 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200408

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      3D hybrid colloidal spheres with integrated functions and collective properties are fabricated using a variety of common inorganic nano-objects as building blocks in association with polyelectrolyte encapsulation through a facile template strategy. The fabrication strategy is generally suited for design of functional colloidal spheres in a simple and controllable manner, and thus opens a new avenue for developing hybrid materials with multiple functions and collective properties.

    2. Nanomembrane Quantum-Light-Emitting Diodes Integrated onto Piezoelectric Actuators (pages 2668–2672)

      R. Trotta, P. Atkinson, J. D. Plumhof, E. Zallo, R. O. Rezaev, S. Kumar, S. Baunack, J. R. Schröter, A. Rastelli and O. G. Schmidt

      Version of Record online: 13 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200537

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      We integrate resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes containing quantum dots onto substrates with giant piezoelectric response. Via strain, the energy of the photons emitted by the diode can be precisely controlled during electrical injection over a spectral range larger than 20 meV. Simultaneously, the exciton fine-structure-splitting and the biexciton binding energy can be tuned to the values required for entangled photon generation.

    3. Stretchable Light-Emitting Electrochemical Cells Using an Elastomeric Emissive Material (pages 2673–2678)

      Heather L. Filiatrault, Gyllian C. Porteous, R. Stephen Carmichael, Gregory J. E. Davidson and Tricia Breen Carmichael

      Version of Record online: 26 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200448

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      Dispersing an ionic transition metal complex into an elastomeric matrix enables the fabrication of intrinsically stretchable light-emitting devices that possess large emission areas (∼175 mm2) and tolerate linear strains up to 27% and repetitive cycles of 15% strain. This work demonstrates the suitability of this approach to new applications in conformable lighting that require uniform, diffuse light emission over large areas.

    4. Bias Stress Effect in “Air-Gap” Organic Field-Effect Transistors (pages 2679–2684)

      Y. Chen and V. Podzorov

      Version of Record online: 13 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200455

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      The origin of the bias stress effect related only to semiconductor properties is investigated in “air-gap” organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) in the absence of a material gate dielectric. The effect becomes stronger as the density of trap states in the semiconductor increases. A theoretical model based on carrier trapping and relaxation in localized tail states is formulated. Polar molecular vapors in the gap of “air-gap” OFETs also have a significant impact on the bias stress effect via the formation of bound states between the charge carriers and molecular dipoles at the semiconductor surface.

    5. A Near-Infrared Mechano Responsive Polymer System (pages 2685–2690)

      Gökçe Uǧur, Jiyoung Chang, Shuhuai Xiang, Liwei Lin and Jennifer Lu

      Version of Record online: 13 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201104538

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      A new type of crosslinked polyarylamide based film with a fibrillar morphology that is photomechanically responsive has been created. Without any additive or need of pre-alignment, these films can actuate under NIR stimulation. By constructing the photoresponsive film on top of a piezoelectric poly(vinylidene difluoride) film, electrical energy can be generated under NIR excitation. This is the first polymer system that exhibits NIR response without any conventional photosensitive moieties.

  7. Frontispiece

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    1. Molecular Orientation: Guiding Crystallization around Bends and Sharp Corners (Adv. Mater. 20/2012) (page 2691)

      Stephanie S. Lee, Samuel B. Tang, Detlef-M. Smilgies, Arthur R. Woll, Marsha A. Loth, Jeffrey M. Mativetsky, John E. Anthony and Yueh-Lin Loo

      Version of Record online: 15 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201290114

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      The growth rate of spherulites in solution-processed, triethylsilylethynyl anthra-dithiophene thin films can vary by a factor of three depending on the surface energy of the underlying substrate. By selectively patterning the underlying substrate to have regions of different surface energies, Y.-L. Loo and co-workers show on page 2692 how they are able to guide crystallization along pre-specified, nonlinear patterns over large areas in the plane of the film.

  8. Communications

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    1. Guiding Crystallization around Bends and Sharp Corners (pages 2692–2698)

      Stephanie S. Lee, Samuel B. Tang, Detlef-M. Smilgies, Arthur R. Woll, Marsha A. Loth, Jeffrey M. Mativetsky, John E. Anthony and Yueh-Lin Loo

      Version of Record online: 17 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201104619

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      Control over the molecular orientation in organic thin films is demonstrated with precise in-plane spatial resolution over large areas. By exploiting the differential crystallization rates on substrates with different surface energies, the radial symmetry of spherulitic growth can be disrupted by preferentially selecting the molecular orientations that promote growth along the paths of the underlying patterns.

    2. Enhancement in the Performance of Ultrathin Hematite Photoanode for Water Splitting by an Oxide Underlayer (pages 2699–2702)

      Takashi Hisatomi, Hen Dotan, Morgan Stefik, Kevin Sivula, Avner Rothschild, Michaël Grätzel and Nripan Mathews

      Version of Record online: 17 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201104868

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      A 2-nm thick Nb2O5 underlayer deposited by atomic layer deposition increases the charge separation efficiency and the photovoltage of ultrathin hematite films by suppressing electron back injection. Absorbed photon-to-current efficiencies (APCE) as high as 40%, which are one of the highest ever reported with hematite photoanodes, are obtained at 400 nm at +1.43 V vs. RHE.

    3. Hierarchical Formation of Supramolecular Transient Networks in Water: A Modular Injectable Delivery System (pages 2703–2709)

      Patricia Y. W. Dankers, Thomas M. Hermans, Travis W. Baughman, Yuko Kamikawa, Roxanne E. Kieltyka, Maartje M. C. Bastings, Henk M. Janssen, Nico A. J. M. Sommerdijk, Antje Larsen, Marja J. A. van Luyn, Anton W. Bosman, Eliane R. Popa, George Fytas and E. W. Meijer

      Version of Record online: 23 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201104072

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      A modular one-component supramolecular transient network in water, based on poly(ethylene glycol) and end-capped with four-fold hydrogen bonding units, is reported. Due to its nonlinear structural formation, this system allows active proteins to be added to the hydrogel during formation. Once implanted in vivo it releases the protein by erosion of both the protein and polymer via dissolution.

    4. Tailored 3D Mechanical Metamaterials Made by Dip-in Direct-Laser-Writing Optical Lithography (pages 2710–2714)

      Tiemo Bückmann, Nicolas Stenger, Muamer Kadic, Johannes Kaschke, Andreas Frölich, Tobias Kennerknecht, Christoph Eberl, Michael Thiel and Martin Wegener

      Version of Record online: 12 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200584

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      Dip-in direct-laser-writing (DLW) optical lithography allows fabricating complex three-dimensional microstructures without the height restrictions of regular DLW. Bow-tie elements assembled into mechanical metamaterials with positive/zero/negative Poisson's ratio and with sufficient overall size for direct mechanical characterization aim at demonstrating the new possibilities with respect to rationally designed effective materials.

    5. Understanding Charge Transfer at PbS-Decorated Graphene Surfaces toward a Tunable Photosensor (pages 2715–2720)

      Dayong Zhang, Lin Gan, Yang Cao, Qing Wang, Limin Qi and Xuefeng Guo

      Version of Record online: 16 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201104597

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      An intrinsic mechanism of photoinduced hole transfer reactions occurring at the grapheme-PbS interface is described with the purpose of building a tunable photosensor with a responsivity of more than 103 A W−1. It is remarkable that rational utilization of this finding also realizes symmetric, opposing photoswitching effects, which are effectively mirror images, in a single pristine graphene device. These results highlight the vital importance of interface modification as a powerful tool for creating future ultrasensitive optoelectronic devices.

  9. Frontispiece

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    1. Micromechanical Resonators: AlN/3C–SiC Composite Plate Enabling High-Frequency and High-Q Micromechanical Resonators (Adv. Mater. 20/2012) (page 2721)

      Chih-Ming Lin, Yung-Yu Chen, Valery V. Felmetsger, Debbie G. Senesky and Albert P. Pisano

      Version of Record online: 15 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201290115

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      An AlN/3C–SiC composite is used to realize high-frequency and high-Q acoustic wave resonators by exploiting the third-order quasi-symmetric (QS3) Lamb wavemode, as described by C.-M. Lin, Y.-Y. Chen, and co-workers on page 2722. The epitaxial 3C–SiC layer enhances the electromechanical coupling of the QS3 mode and boosts the Q due to the intrinsic low acoustic loss of SiC crystals. This AlN/3C–SiC composite plate structure enables production of high-performance micromechanical acoustic wave resonators for frequency control and sensing applications.

  10. Communications

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    1. AlN/3C–SiC Composite Plate Enabling High-Frequency and High-Q Micromechanical Resonators (pages 2722–2727)

      Chih-Ming Lin, Yung-Yu Chen, Valery V. Felmetsger, Debbie G. Senesky and Albert P. Pisano

      Version of Record online: 12 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201104842

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      An AlN/3C–SiC composite layer enables the third-order quasi-symmetric (QS3) Lamb wave mode with a high quality factor (Q) characteristic and an ultra-high phase velocity up to 32395 ms−1. A Lamb wave resonator utilizing the QS3 mode exhibits a low motional impedance of 91 Ω and a high Q of 5510 at a series resonance frequency (fs) of 2.92 GHz, resulting in the highest fs·Q product of 1.61 × 1013 Hz among the suspended piezoelectric thin film resonators reported to date.

    2. Highly Efficient Single-Layer Polymer Ambipolar Light-Emitting Field-Effect Transistors (pages 2728–2734)

      Michael C. Gwinner, Dinesh Kabra, Matthew Roberts, Thomas J. K. Brenner, Bodo H. Wallikewitz, Christopher R. McNeill, Richard H. Friend and Henning Sirringhaus

      Version of Record online: 18 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201104602

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      Single-layer polymer light-emitting field-effect transistors (LEFETs) that yield EQEs of >8% and luminance efficiencies >28 cd A−1 are demonstrated. These values are the highest reported for LEFETs and amongst the highest values for fluorescent OLEDs. Due to the electrostatics of the ambipolar LEFET channel, LEFETs provide an inherent advantage over OLEDs in terms of minimizing exciton-polaron quenching.

    3. Multifunctional Nanoparticle-Loaded Spherical and Wormlike Micelles Formed by Interfacial Instabilities (pages 2735–2741)

      Jinhye Bae, Jimmy Lawrence, Caroline Miesch, Alexander Ribbe, Weikun Li, Todd Emrick, Jintao Zhu and Ryan C. Hayward

      Version of Record online: 18 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200570

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      Hybrid spherical and wormlike amphiphilic block copolymer micelles are formed through evaporation-induced interfacial instabilities of emulsion droplets, allowing the incorporation of pre-synthesized hydrophobic inorganic nanoparticles within the micelle cores, as well as co-encapsulation of different nanoparticles. This encapsulation behavior is largely insensitive to particle surface chemistry, shape, and size, thus providing a versatile route to fabricate multifunctional micelles.

    4. Doped Quantum Dots for White-Light-Emitting Diodes Without Reabsorption of Multiphase Phosphors (pages 2742–2747)

      Xiebing Wang, Xiaosong Yan, Wanwan Li and Kang Sun

      Version of Record online: 23 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201104861

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      A white-light-emitting diode (white LED) with good color rendering index is fabricated based on a blue LED combined with high-fluorescence CdS:Cu/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) and YAG:Ce phosphors. The reabsorption problem is overcome by the excellent optical properties and enlarged Stokes shift of the QDs with low absorption of light of wavelengths longer than 470 nm.

    5. Double Action: Toward Phosphorescence Ratiometric Sensing of Chromium Ion (pages 2748–2754)

      Yejee Han, Youngmin You, Yong-Min Lee and Wonwoo Nam

      Version of Record online: 20 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201104467

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      The phosphorescence double ratiometric sensor detects Cr(III) ions by taking advantage of reversible coordination binding and the biomimetic oxidation reaction.

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    1. Assays: Electrospun TiO2 Nanofiber-Based Cell Capture Assay for Detecting Circulating Tumor Cells from Colorectal and Gastric Cancer Patients (Adv. Mater. 20/2012) (page 2755)

      Nangang Zhang, Yuliang Deng, Qidong Tai, Boran Cheng, Libo Zhao, Qinglin Shen, Rongxiang He, Longye Hong, Wei Liu, Shishang Guo, Kan Liu, Hisan-Rong Tseng, Bin Xiong and Xing-Zhong Zhao

      Version of Record online: 15 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201290116

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      A nanostructured platform combining an electrospun TiO2 nanofiber-deposited substrate and a cell-capture agent is created by S. S. Guo, K. Liu, H.-R. Tseng, B. Xiong, X.-Z. Zhao, and co-workers. The platform, described on page 2756, realizes the capture of significant amounts of circulating tumor cells. The enhanced local topographic interactions between the horizontally packed TiO2 nanofiber-deposited substrates and the extracellular matrix scaffolds, in addition to anti-EpCAM/EpCAM biological recognition, contributes to the significantly enhanced capture efficiency as compared to flat surfaces.

  12. Communications

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    1. Electrospun TiO2 Nanofiber-Based Cell Capture Assay for Detecting Circulating Tumor Cells from Colorectal and Gastric Cancer Patients (pages 2756–2760)

      Nangang Zhang, Yuliang Deng, Qidong Tai, Boran Cheng, Libo Zhao, Qinglin Shen, Rongxiang He, Longye Hong, Wei Liu, Shishang Guo, Kan Liu, Hisan-Rong Tseng, Bin Xiong and Xing-Zhong Zhao

      Version of Record online: 23 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200155

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      A nanostructured platform that combines electrospun TiO2 nanofibers (TiNFs)-deposited substrate and cell-capture agent realizes significant capture of circulating tumor cells (CTCs). The enhanced local topographic interactions between the horizontally packed TiNFs deposited substrates and extracellular matrix scaffolds, in addition to anti-EpCAM/EpCAM biological recognition, contributes to the significantly enhanced capture efficiency compared to flat surfaces.

    2. Crystalline Inverted Membranes Grown on Surfaces by Electrospray Ion Beam Deposition in Vacuum (pages 2761–2767)

      Stephan Rauschenbach, Gordon Rinke, Nikola Malinowski, R. Thomas Weitz, Robert Dinnebier, Nicha Thontasen, Zhitao Deng, Theresa Lutz, Pedro Martins de Almeida Rollo, Giovanni Costantini, Ludger Harnau and Klaus Kern

      Version of Record online: 20 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201104790

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      Crystalline inverted membranes of the nonvolatile surfactant sodium dodecylsulfate are found on solid surfaces after electrospray ion beam deposition (ES-IBD) of large SDS clusters in vacuum. This demonstrates the equivalence of ES-IBD to conventional molecular beam epitaxy.

    3. Co-Evaporated Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells with >6.0% Efficiency (pages 2768–2773)

      Guo Chen, Hisahiro Sasabe, Zhongqiang Wang, Xiao-Feng Wang, Ziruo Hong, Yang Yang and Junji Kido

      Version of Record online: 18 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200234

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      High power conversion efficiencies of over 6.0% are achieved with a squaraine compound from co-deposited photovoltaic cells with a simple device structure, in which the efficiency is insensitive to blending ratios and thicknesses of photoactive layers. It demonstrates the huge potential of low molecular weight materials in photovoltaic cells via vacuum processes.

    4. High-Efficiency Inverted Polymer Solar Cells with Transparent and Work-Function Tunable MoO3-Al Composite Film as Cathode Buffer Layer (pages 2774–2779)

      Jian Liu, Shuyan Shao, Gang Fang, Bin Meng, Zhiyuan Xie and Lixiang Wang

      Version of Record online: 17 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200238

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      High-efficiency inverted polymer solar cells based on PCDTBT:PC70BM blend with the MoO3-Al composite film as the cathode buffer layer and the MoO3/Al as the anode have been demonstrated. A VOC of 0.88 V, a JSC of 10.88 mA cm−2, a FF of 70.7% and a PCE of 6.77% are achieved. The MoO3-Al composite films are highly transparent with adjustable work functions which can be fine tuned based on the Al content in the composite, thus allowing us to optimize the interfacial property at cathode buffer layer/BHJ interfaces to reduce recombination loss and to improve the photovoltaic performance. This new approach has simplified the device fabrication and will render economizing in large scale applications.

    5. Small Molecular Nanowire Arrays Assisted by Superhydrophobic Pillar-Structured Surfaces with High Adhesion (pages 2780–2785)

      Bin Su, Shutao Wang, Yuchen Wu, Xiao Chen, Yanlin Song and Lei Jiang

      Version of Record online: 17 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200294

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      Elaborately programmed fluorescent calcein nanowire arrays can be prepared with the aid of superhydrophobic pillar-structured surfaces with high adhesion. Each nanowire can be precisely positioned by well designed tip-structured micropillars, indicating an advance in the methodologies of controlling small molecular 1D organic nanostructures. The as-prepared fluorescent nanowire arrays can serve as a ferrous salt sensing device.

  13. Research News

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    1. Functional Fibers with Unique Wettability Inspired by Spider Silks (pages 2786–2791)

      Hao Bai, Jie Ju, Yongmei Zheng and Lei Jiang

      Version of Record online: 10 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200289

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      Spider silk has recently begun to attract attention because of its intriguing wettability, as is commonly known from the shiny water droplets on a spider's web. Learning from the special surface structural features of spider silk and its spinning mechanism provides us with inspiration for fabricating functional fibers with unique wettability, which may have applications in many fields such as water collection, smart catalysis, filtration, and sensing.

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