Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 24 Issue 24

June 26, 2012

Volume 24, Issue 24

Pages 3145–3284

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Progress Report
    8. Review
    9. Communications
    1. Metal Organic Frameworks: Patterning Techniques for Metal Organic Frameworks (Adv. Mater. 24/2012) (page 3145)

      Paolo Falcaro, Dario Buso, Anita J. Hill and Cara M. Doherty

      Article first published online: 19 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201290145

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      P. Falcaro, C. M. Doherty, and co-workers review the recent progress in positioning metal organic frameworks (MOFs). This research stream is considered an emerging and crucial field for the fabrication of a new generation of ultra-porous material-based devices. On page 3153, a critical review of different approaches is provided and new unexplored concepts suitable for MOFbased device fabrication are introduced.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Progress Report
    8. Review
    9. Communications
    1. Surfaces: Two-Dimensional Nanostructured Growth of Nanoclusters and Molecules on Insulating Surfaces (Adv. Mater. 24/2012) (page 3146)

      Clemens Barth, Marc Gingras, Adam S. Foster, Andris Gulans, Guy Félix, Teemu Hynninen, Romain Peresutti and Claude R. Henry

      Article first published online: 19 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201290146

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Calculations show that the nanostructured Suzuki surface of Cd2+-doped NaCl crystals can be used to confine the growth of palladium into 2D cluster arrangements and of functionalized brominated pentahelicenes into 2D films. C. Barth et al. discover on page 3228 that the growth takes place in the Suzuki regions that contain Cd impurities, whereas almost no adsorption occurs in the pure regions. The Suzuki surface is an ideal model surface for nanostructuring metal clusters and molecules in general. The artwork was prepared with Blender (www.blender.org).

  3. Back Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Progress Report
    8. Review
    9. Communications
    1. Sensors: An Extremely Simple Thermocouple Made of a Single Layer of Metal (Adv. Mater. 24/2012) (page 3285)

      Haixiao Liu, Weiqiang Sun and Shengyong Xu

      Article first published online: 19 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201290147

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      A novel thermocouple made of only a single metallic thin film is developed by S. Y. Xu and co-workers on page 3275. Its configuration challenges a long-lasting concept. By knitting a single-metal thermocouple (SMTC) into a matrix, one can easily make a SMTC array for 2D temperature mapping. As this extremely simple temperature sensor can also be applied to flexible substrates, it may inspire a new category of thermal sensors with versatile applications. This cover was designed by B. Xu and H. X. Liu.

  4. Masthead

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Progress Report
    8. Review
    9. Communications
    1. Masthead: (Adv. Mater. 24/2012)

      Article first published online: 19 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201290148

  5. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Progress Report
    8. Review
    9. Communications
    1. Contents: (Adv. Mater. 24/2012) (pages 3147–3152)

      Article first published online: 19 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201290144

  6. Progress Report

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Progress Report
    8. Review
    9. Communications
    1. Patterning Techniques for Metal Organic Frameworks (pages 3153–3168)

      Paolo Falcaro, Dario Buso, Anita J. Hill and Cara M. Doherty

      Article first published online: 29 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200485

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Patterning metal organic frameworks (MOFs) is an emerging research field. Nano- and micro-fabrication protocols applied to MOFs can offer new opportunities for device preparation based on ultra-porous materials. Herein the different methodologies are critically reviewed, the advances and limitations for each protocol are presented, and possible new fabrication routes to master MOF positioning and functionalization are proposed.

  7. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Progress Report
    8. Review
    9. Communications
    1. Organic Materials for Deep Blue Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (pages 3169–3190)

      Kyoung Soo Yook and Jun Yeob Lee

      Article first published online: 29 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200627

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Organic materials for deep blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes are reviewed to correlate molecular structure with photophysical properties of materials and device performances. In addition, a future strategy to enhance the quantum efficiency of deep blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes is suggested.

  8. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Progress Report
    8. Review
    9. Communications
    1. A Crown Ether Appended Super Gelator with Multiple Stimulus Responsiveness (pages 3191–3195)

      Shengyi Dong, Bo Zheng, Donghua Xu, Xuzhou Yan, Mingming Zhang and Feihe Huang

      Article first published online: 18 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200837

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      A crown ether appended super gelator is designed and synthesized. It can gel a variety of organic solvents and shows excellent gelation properties with both low critical gelation concentration and short gelation time. Due to the introduction of the crown ether moiety and a secondary ammonium unit, the supramolecular gels show reversible gel-sol transitions. The supramolecular gels can also be molded into shape-persistent and free-standing objects.

    2. High-Performance Membranes with Multi-permselectivity for CO2 Separation (pages 3196–3200)

      Shichun Li, Zhi Wang, Xingwei Yu, Jixiao Wang and Shichang Wang

      Article first published online: 18 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200638

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      Multi-permselective membranes with diffusivity-selectivity, solubility-selectivity, and reactivity-selectivity for CO2 separation are prepared by interfacial polymerization. The membranes are able to efficiently separate CO2 from various light gases (H2, CH4 and N2) due to the optimized membrane structure and the comprehensive utilization of distinctions between CO2 and light gases in size, condensability, and reactivity.

    3. Nanosheet-Constructed Porous TiO2–B for Advanced Lithium Ion Batteries (pages 3201–3204)

      Shaohua Liu, Haiping Jia, Lu Han, Jiulin Wang, Pengfei Gao, Dongdong Xu, Jun Yang and Shunai Che

      Article first published online: 18 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201201036

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      Hierarchical porous TiO2–B with thin nanosheets is successfully synthesized. TiO2–B polymorph ensures fast insertion of Li-ion due to its pseudocapacitive mechanism. The thin nanosheet walls with porous structure allow exposure to electrolytes for facile ionic transport and interfacial reaction. The joint advantages endow this material with high reversible capacity, excellent cycling performance, and superior rate capability.

    4. Air-Stable and High-Mobility n-Channel Organic Transistors Based on Small-Molecule/Polymer Semiconducting Blends (pages 3205–3211)

      Hongliang Zhong, Jeremy Smith, Stephan Rossbauer, Andrew J. P. White, Thomas D. Anthopoulos and Martin Heeney

      Article first published online: 18 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200859

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      Use of a carefully designed small-molecule organic semiconductor based on an oxidized diketopyrrolopyrrole core enables the fabrication by solution processing of electron-transporting (n-channel) blend-based organic thin-film transistors with high electron mobility (0.5 cm2/Vs) and high operating stability even when the devices are exposed to ambient air for prolonged periods of time.

    5. 3,3′-Bicarbazole-Based Host Materials for High-Efficiency Blue Phosphorescent OLEDs with Extremely Low Driving Voltage (pages 3212–3217)

      Hisahiro Sasabe, Naoki Toyota, Hiromi Nakanishi, Tasuku Ishizaka, Yong-Jin Pu and Junji Kido

      Article first published online: 29 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200848

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      Four types of functionalized 3,3′-bicarbazole derivatives are prepared and investigated as a host material for blue phosphorescent OLEDs. By using a 3,3′-bicarbazole derivative/FIrpic film as an emissive layer, high power efficiency of 46 lm W−1 (45 cd A−1, EQE 20%) with an extremely low driving voltage at 3.1 V is obtained at 100 cd m−2.

    6. One-Step Interfacial Synthesis and Assembly of Ultrathin Luminescent AuNPs/Silica Membranes (pages 3218–3222)

      Shengyang Yang, Chen Zhou, Jinbin Liu, Mengxiao Yu and Jie Zheng

      Article first published online: 18 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200795

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      A facile one-step strategy is explored to achieve uniform luminescent Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) in a two-dimensional ultrathin silica matrix based on simultaneous reaction and assembly at the liquid–liquid interface. The as-prepared AuNPs/silica nanocomposites can be further employed to fabricate micrometer-thick films with bifunctional luminescent and superhydrophobic properties. Such a versatile concept is ideal for the development of multifunctional devices.

    7. Transparent, Optical, Pressure-Sensitive Artificial Skin for Large-Area Stretchable Electronics (pages 3223–3227)

      Marc Ramuz, Benjamin C-K. Tee, Jeffrey B.-H. Tok and Zhenan Bao

      Article first published online: 29 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200523

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      Optical pressure sensors are highly responsive and are unaffected by surrounding parameters such as electronic noise, humidity, temperature, etc. A new type of optical pressure sensor is described that demonstrates the stretchability and transparency of a polydimethylsiloxane waveguide, while also serving as a substrate. The pressure sensors are both robust and easy to fabricate over a large area.

    8. Two-Dimensional Nanostructured Growth of Nanoclusters and Molecules on Insulating Surfaces (pages 3228–3232)

      Clemens Barth, Marc Gingras, Adam S. Foster, Andris Gulans, Guy Félix, Teemu Hynninen, Romain Peresutti and Claude R. Henry

      Article first published online: 11 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200501

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Noncontact atomic force microscopy (nc-AFM), Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and first principle calculations show that the nanostructured (001) Suzuki surface of Cd2+ doped NaCl can be used to confine the growth of palladium clusters and functionalized brominated pentahelicene molecules into only the Suzuki regions, which contain the impurities. The Suzuki surface is an ideal model surface for nanostructuring metal clusters and molecules.

    9. Lithium Storage in Li4Ti5O12 Spinel: The Full Static Picture from Electron Microscopy (pages 3233–3238)

      Xia Lu, Liang Zhao, Xiaoqing He, Ruijuan Xiao, Lin Gu, Yong-Sheng Hu, Hong Li, Zhaoxiang Wang, Xiaofeng Duan, Liquan Chen, Joachim Maier and Yuichi Ikuhara

      Article first published online: 16 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200450

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      The full static picture of Li storage in Li4Ti5O12 is derived using the latest spherical aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and first-principles calculations. The accommodation of the additional Li+ is directly visualized and the distribution of electrons introduced by lithium insertion deduced. Moreover, Li4Ti5O12 is found to transform into Li7Ti5O12 on lithiation by developing a dislocation-free coherent hetero-interface.

    10. Do Cement Nanotubes exist? (pages 3239–3245)

      H. Manzano, A. N. Enyashin, J. S. Dolado, A. Ayuela, J. Frenzel and G. Seifert

      Article first published online: 16 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201103704

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      Using atomistic simulations, this work indicates that cement nanotubes can exist. The chemically compatible nanotubes are constructed from the two main minerals in ordinary Portland cement pastes, namely calcium hydroxide and a calcium silicate hydrate called tobermorite. These results show that such nanotubes are stable and have outstanding mechanical properties, unique characteristics that make them ideally suitable for nanoscale reinforcements of cements.

    11. Towards Textile Energy Storage from Cotton T-Shirts (pages 3246–3252)

      Lihong Bao and Xiaodong Li

      Article first published online: 16 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200246

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      A simple chemical activation route is developed to convert insulating cotton T-shirt textiles into highly conductive and flexible activated carbon textiles (ACTs) for energy-storage applications. Such conversion gives these ACTs an ideal electrical double-layer capacitive behavior. The constructed asymmetric supercapacitors based on the ACTs and MnO2/ACT composite show superior electrochemical performances.

    12. Molecular Level Ordering in Poly(2-vinylpyridine) (pages 3253–3257)

      Mohammad Changez, Haeng-Deog Koh, Nam-Goo Kang, Jin-Gyu Kim, Youn-Joong Kim, Shashadhar Samal and Jae-Suk Lee

      Article first published online: 18 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201201342

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      The reaction between atactic poly(2-vinylpyridine) and 1,4-dibromobutane leads to formation of long-range 3D molecular ordering in polymer chains mainly because the side group (pyridine) of the polymer chain changes to a syndotactic configuration. This may enable the production of functional molecular devices that operate on a 3D atomic scale.

    13. Compensating Poly(3-hexylthiophene) Reveals Its Doping Density and Its Strong Exciton Quenching by Free Carriers (pages 3258–3262)

      Ziqi Liang and Brian A. Gregg

      Article first published online: 9 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201201157

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      Adding increasing quantities of an n-type compensating dopant, cobaltocene, to poly(3-hexylthiophene) reveals an almost perfect mirror symmetry between the conductivity and the luminescence intensity. The sharp minimum/maximum shows that the uncompensated p-type doping density is 1.2 × 1018 cm−3 and that excitons are strongly quenched by free charge carriers, not by bound charges.

    14. Nano-Engineering Lattice Dimensionality for a Soft Matter Organic Functional Material (pages 3263–3268)

      Stephanie J. Benight, Daniel B. Knorr Jr., Lewis E. Johnson, Philip A. Sullivan, David Lao, Jianing Sun, Lakshmi S. Kocherlakota, Arumugasamy Elangovan, Bruce H. Robinson, Rene M. Overney and Larry R. Dalton

      Article first published online: 18 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201104949

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      A high performing electro-optic (EO) chromophore with covalently attached coumarin-based pendant groups exhibits intermolecular correlation of coumarin units through molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Unique, orthogonal molecular orientations of the chromophore and coumarin units are also evident when investigated optically. Such molecular orientation translates to reduced lattice dimensionality of the bulk C1 soft matter material system, leading to increased acentric order and EO activity. Results are corroborated by nanorheological experimental methods.

    15. Scalable Fabrication of Strongly Textured Organic Semiconductor Micropatterns by Capillary Force Lithography (pages 3269–3274)

      Pil Sung Jo, Arturas Vailionis, Young Min Park and Alberto Salleo

      Article first published online: 18 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200524

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      Strongly textured organic semiconductor micropatterns made of the small molecule dioctylbenzothienobenzothiophene (C8-BTBT) are fabricated by using a method based on capillary force lithography (CFL). This technique provides the C8-BTBT solution with nucleation sites for directional growth, and can be used as a scalable way to produce high quality crystalline arrays in desired regions of a substrate for OFET applications.

    16. An Extremely Simple Thermocouple Made of a Single Layer of Metal (pages 3275–3279)

      Haixiao Liu, Weiqiang Sun and Shengyong Xu

      Article first published online: 18 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200644

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      A novel temperature sensor consisting of a single layer of metal (Ni, Pd, W, or Pt) is constructed. Its configuration challenges a long-established concept and may lead to development of a new category of devices. Reliable two-dimensional mapping of local temperatures is demonstrated using an array of these sensors. These single-metal thermocouples (SMTCs) can be readily applied on flexible substrates or at high temperatures.

    17. Microfibers Fabricated by Non-Covalent Assembly of Peptide and DNA for Viral Vector Encapsulation and Cancer Therapy (pages 3280–3284)

      Jingye Yang, Ghayathri Balasundaram, Seong-Loong Lo, Eugene Choo Shi Guang, Jun Min Xue, Jianxing Song, Andrew C.A. Wan, Jackie Y. Ying and Shu Wang

      Article first published online: 25 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201201145

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      Self-assembled amphiphilic peptide units and supercoiled, circular double-stranded plasmid DNA are used as building blocks to form peptide/DNA fibers for virus encapsulation. Since the fiber formation process takes place under ambient conditions and is aqueous-based without the use of denaturing organic solvents, the bioactivity of viruses is well preserved.

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