Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 24 Issue 25

July 3, 2012

Volume 24, Issue 25

Pages 3289–3431

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Review
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    1. Graphene Oxide: Graphene Oxide as an Optical Biosensing Platform (Adv. Mater. 25/2012) (page 3289)

      Eden Morales-Narváez and Arben Merkoçi

      Article first published online: 22 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201290151

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      As an oxygenated lattice of donor/acceptor molecules exposed in a planar surface, graphene oxide enables unprecedented optical biosensing strategies to detect DNA, cancer biomarkers, viruses, and more. It has excellent capabilities for direct wiring with biomolecules, heterogeneous chemical and electronic structures, the ability to be solution-processed, and the ability to be tuned as either an insulator, semiconductor or semi-metal. On page 3298, E. Morales-Narváez and A. Merkoçi discuss the rationale behind the use of graphene oxide in biosensing applications and review current approaches.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Review
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    1. White OLEDs: Management of Singlet and Triplet Excitons in a Single Emission Layer: A Simple Approach for a High-Efficiency Fluorescence/Phosphorescence Hybrid White Organic Light-Emitting Device (Adv. Mater. 25/2012) (page 3290)

      Jun Ye, Cai-Jun Zheng, Xue-Mei Ou, Xiao-Hong Zhang, Man-Keung Fung and Chun-Sing Lee

      Article first published online: 22 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201290152

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      A high-efficiency single-emission-layer (EML) hybrid white organic light-emitting device is fabricated based on an ideal sky blue fluorophor, DADBT, using a novel doping concentration regulation strategy. This strategy, outlined on page 3410 by X.-H. Zhang, C.-S. Lee, and co-workers, effectively separates and respectively utilizes the singlet and triplet excitons in the single-EML. The white device shows excellent electroluminescence performance with maximum total efficiencies of 26.6%, 53.5 cd A−1 and 67.2 lm W−1.

  3. Back Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Review
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    1. Drug Delivery: Near-Infrared Light-Responsive Intracellular Drug and siRNA Release Using Au Nanoensembles with Oligonucleotide-Capped Silica Shell (Adv. Mater. 25/2012) (page 3432)

      Yi-Ting Chang, Pei-Yi Liao, Hwo-Shuenn Sheu, Yu-Jui Tseng, Fong-Yu Cheng and Chen-Sheng Yeh

      Article first published online: 22 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201290153

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      NIR-responsive oligonucleotide-gated ensembles are developed on page 3309 by F.-Y. Cheng, C.-S. Yeh, and co-workers for intracellular drug delivery. Taking advantage of the NIR-absorbing character of gold nanorods, a CW NIR diode laser is employed to control cargo and drug release through the thermal dehybridization of duplex oligonucleotides. This design has great therapeutic potential, with capabilities for siRNA delivery into cells for translational regulation as well as for cytotoxcitity through anti-cancer drug delivery.

  4. Masthead

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Review
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    1. Masthead: (Adv. Mater. 25/2012)

      Article first published online: 22 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201290154

  5. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Review
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
  6. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Review
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    1. Graphene Oxide as an Optical Biosensing Platform (pages 3298–3308)

      Eden Morales-Narváez and Arben Merkoçi

      Article first published online: 25 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200373

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      As an innovative oxygenated lattice of energy transfer donor/acceptor molecules exposed in a planar surface, graphene oxide is opening the door to unprecedented biosensing strategies.

  7. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Review
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    1. Near-Infrared Light-Responsive Intracellular Drug and siRNA Release Using Au Nanoensembles with Oligonucleotide-Capped Silica Shell (pages 3309–3314)

      Yi-Ting Chang, Pei-Yi Liao, Hwo-Shuenn Sheu, Yu-Jui Tseng, Fong-Yu Cheng and Chen-Sheng Yeh

      Article first published online: 31 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200785

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      Taking advantage of the character of Au nanorods (NRs) to absorb NIR light, a NIR-responsive oligonucleotide-gated ensemble is developed to perform intracellular drug delivery. Using an oligonucleotide bio-gate enables siRNA release into cells for translational regulation as well as cytotoxicity in anti-cancer drug delivery.

    2. Tailoring of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Behavior on Plasma-Modified Polytetrafluoroethylene (pages 3315–3324)

      Huaiyu Wang, Dixon T. K. Kwok, Ming Xu, Haigang Shi, Zhengwei Wu, Wei Zhang and Paul K. Chu

      Article first published online: 25 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201104967

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      By altering the surface properties of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) substrates using a special PIII technique, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) proliferation and osteogenesis can be promoted in culture without osteogenic supplements. The structures are created intrinsically in the PTFE for no risk of materials delamination. Large-scale features and locally different functions can also be readily produced on the same substrate by this technique.

  8. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Review
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    1. Flexible Electronics: Highly Stretchable and Highly Conductive Metal Electrode by Very Long Metal Nanowire Percolation Network (Adv. Mater. 25/2012) (page 3325)

      Phillip Lee, Jinhwan Lee, Hyungman Lee, Junyeob Yeo, Sukjoon Hong, Koo Hyun Nam, Dongjin Lee, Seung Seob Lee and Seung Hwan Ko

      Article first published online: 22 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201290150

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      A highly stretchable metal electrode is developed via the solution-processing of very long (>100 μm) metallic nanowires and a subsequent percolation network formation via low-temperature nanowelding. On page 3326, S. S. Lee, S. H. Ko and co-workers demonstrate the electrode's high electrical conductivity (∼9 ohm sq−1) and mechanical compliance (strain > 460%). This method is expected to overcome the performance limitations of current stretchable electronics such as graphene, carbon nanotubes, and buckled nanoribbons.

  9. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Review
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    1. Highly Stretchable and Highly Conductive Metal Electrode by Very Long Metal Nanowire Percolation Network (pages 3326–3332)

      Phillip Lee, Jinhwan Lee, Hyungman Lee, Junyeob Yeo, Sukjoon Hong, Koo Hyun Nam, Dongjin Lee, Seung Seob Lee and Seung Hwan Ko

      Article first published online: 21 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200359

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      A highly stretchable metal electrode is developed via the solution-processing of very long (>100 μm) metallic nanowires and subsequent percolation network formation via low-temperature nanowelding. The stretchable metal electrode from very long metal nanowires demonstrated high electrical conductivity (∼9 ohm sq−1) and mechanical compliance (strain > 460%) at the same time. This method is expected to overcome the performance limitation of the current stretchable electronics such as graphene, carbon nanotubes, and buckled nanoribbons.

    2. Near-Surface Spectrally Stable Nitrogen Vacancy Centres Engineered in Single Crystal Diamond (pages 3333–3338)

      Alastair Stacey, David A. Simpson, Timothy J. Karle, Brant C. Gibson, Victor M. Acosta, Zhihong Huang, Kai Mei C. Fu, Charles Santori, Raymond G. Beausoleil, Liam P. McGuinness, Kumaravelu Ganesan, Snjezana Tomljenovic-Hanic, Andrew D. Greentree and Steven Prawer

      Article first published online: 25 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201201074

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      A method for engineering thin (<100 nm) layers of homoepitaxial diamond containing high quality, spectrally stable, isolated nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centres is reported. The photoluminescence excitation linewidth of the engineered NVs are as low as 140 MHz, at temperatures below 12 K, while the spin properties are at a level suitable for quantum memory and spin register applications. This methodology of NV fabrication is an important step toward scalable and practical diamond based photonic devices suitable for quantum information processing.

    3. Single Step Optical Fabrication of a DFB Laser Device in Fluorescent Azobenzene-Containing Materials (pages 3339–3343)

      Leonid M. Goldenberg, Victor Lisinetskii, Yuri Gritsai, Joachim Stumpe and Sigurd Schrader

      Article first published online: 31 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200698

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      Distributed feedback (DFB) lasers are produced directly in fluorescent azobenzene-containing materials using a single holographic optical step. Surface relief grating capable of producing images in fluorescence microscopy can be holographically formed in a number of materials.

    4. Carbon-Nanotube/Silver Networks in Nitrile Butadiene Rubber for Highly Conductive Flexible Adhesives (pages 3344–3349)

      Rujun Ma, Seoyoung Kwon, Qing Zheng, Hyeok Yong Kwon, Jae Il Kim, Hyouk Ryeol Choi and Seunghyun Baik

      Article first published online: 25 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201201273

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      An adhesive with high conductivity, flexibility, cyclability, oxidation resistance, and good adhesion is developed using microscale silver flakes, multiwalled carbon nanotubes decorated with nanoscale silver particles, and nitrile butadiene rubber. Light-emitting-diode chips are attached to the conductive, flexible adhesive pattern on a poly(ethylene terephthalate) substrate as a visual demonstration. The brightness is invariant during bending tests.

    5. Isothermally Reversible Fluorescence Switching of a Mechanochromic Perylene Bisimide Dye (pages 3350–3355)

      Norihiro Mizoshita, Takao Tani and Shinji Inagaki

      Article first published online: 29 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201201064

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      Isothermally rewritable fluorescence mechanochromism has been realized for a perylene bisimide dye with bulky and flexible substituents. Fluorescent patterns drawn by mechanical stimuli can be erased by thermal stimuli, treatment with solvent vapors, or spontaneous structural transition from orange-fluorescent to green-fluorescent states. The isothermal fluorescence switching of solid dye films is applicable to displays and sensory materials.

    6. Optical Fiber-Based Core–Shell Coaxially Structured Hybrid Cells for Self-Powered Nanosystems (pages 3356–3361)

      Caofeng Pan, Wenxi Guo, Lin Dong, Guang Zhu and Zhong Lin Wang

      Article first published online: 25 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201201315

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      An optical fiber-based 3D hybrid cell consisting of a coaxially structured dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) and a nanogenerator (NG) for simultaneously or independently harvesting solar and mechanical energy is demonstrated. The current output of the hybrid cell is dominated by the DSSC, and the voltage output is dominated by the NG; these can be utilized complementarily for different applications. The output of the hybrid cell is about 7.65 μA current and 3.3 V voltage, which is strong enough to power nanodevices and even commercial electronic components.

    7. Nanoporous Peptide Particles for Encapsulating and Releasing Neurotrophic Factors in an Animal Model of Neurodegeneration (pages 3362–3366)

      Justin Tan, Yajun Wang, Xiaopei Yip, Fergal Glynn, Robert K. Shepherd and Frank Caruso

      Article first published online: 21 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200634

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      Neurotrophin-BDNF can be effectively encapsulated in nanoporous poly(L-glutamic acid) particles prepared via mesoporous silica templating. The loaded BDNF can be released in a sustained manner with retained biological activity. Animal experiments demonstrate the released BDNF can efficiently rescue the auditory neurons (as indicated by the arrows) in the cochlea of guinea pigs with sensorineural hearing loss.

    8. High Resolution Optical Spectroscopy of Air-Induced Electrical Instabilities in n-type Polymer Semiconductors (pages 3367–3372)

      Riccardo Di Pietro and Henning Sirringhaus

      Article first published online: 18 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200829

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      We use high-resolution charge-accumulation optical spectroscopy to measure charge accumulation in the channel of an n-type organic field-effect transistor. We monitor the degradation of device performance in air, correlate the onset voltage shift with the reduction of charge accumulated in the polymer semiconductor, and explain the results in view of the redox reaction between the polymer, water and oxygen in the accumulation layer.

    9. Extremely Thin Bilayer Electrolyte for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) Fabricated by Chemical Solution Deposition (CSD) (pages 3373–3377)

      Eun-Ok Oh, Chin-Myung Whang, Yu-Ri Lee, Sun-Young Park, Dasari Hari Prasad, Kyung Joong Yoon, Ji-Won Son, Jong-Ho Lee and Hae-Weon Lee

      Article first published online: 31 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200505

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      An extremely thin bilayer electrolyte consisting of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and gadolinia-doped ceria (GDC) is successfully fabricated on a sintered NiO-YSZ substrate (see figure). Major processing flaws are effectively eliminated by applying local constraints to YSZ nanoparticles, and excellent open circuit voltage and cell performance are demonstrated in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) at intermediate operating temperatures.

    10. Efficient Synthesis of Sterically-Stabilized Nano-Objects via RAFT Dispersion Polymerization of Benzyl Methacrylate in Alcoholic Media (pages 3378–3382)

      Mona Semsarilar, Elizabeth R. Jones, Adam Blanazs and Steven P. Armes

      Article first published online: 18 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200925

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      Synthesis of diblock copolymer nano-objects: alcohol is a good idea! RAFT dispersion polymerization of benzyl methacrylate in alcohol using weak polyelectrolyte-based chain transfer agents allows the facile synthesis of sterically stabilized diblock copolymer nano-objects with very high monomer conversions. Such syntheses are usually problematic when conducted in water due to electrostatic repulsion between highly charged stabilizer chains, which impedes in situ self-assembly. Construction of a detailed phase diagram facilitates reproducible syntheses of well-defined diblock copolymer spheres, worms or vesicles, since it allows mixed phase regions to be avoided. Aqueous electrophoresis studies confirm that these nano-objects can acquire substantial surface charge when transferred to aqueous solution due to ionization (or protonation) of the polyacid (or polybase) stabilizer chains.

    11. Improving the Ordering and Photovoltaic Properties by Extending π–Conjugated Area of Electron-Donating Units in Polymers with D-A Structure (pages 3383–3389)

      Ye Huang, Xia Guo, Feng Liu, Lijun Huo, Yuning Chen, Thomas P. Russell, Charles C. Han, Yongfang Li and Jianhui Hou

      Article first published online: 31 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200995

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      A systematic molecular design process from PBDTTT-S to PBDTDTTT-S-T, a high-performance semiconducting polymer for organic photovoltaics, has been achieved by enhancing structural order, self-assembly and carrier mobility. Solar cells made from PBDTDTTT-S-T blended with PC70BM show a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.81%, which is 25% higher than that of the parent PBDTTT-S.

    12. Highly Dispersed Pd Catalyst Locked in Knitting Aryl Network Polymers for Suzuki–Miyaura Coupling Reactions of Aryl Chlorides in Aqueous Media (pages 3390–3395)

      Buyi Li, Zhenhong Guan, Wei Wang, Xinjia Yang, Jianglin Hu, Bien Tan and Tao Li

      Article first published online: 4 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200804

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      Highly dispersed palladium chloride catalysts locked in triphenylphosphine-functionalized knitting aryl network polymers (KAPs) are developed and exhibit excellent activity under mild conditions in the Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling reactions of aryl chlorides in aqueous media. This work highlights that the microporous polymers not only play the role of support materials, but also protect the Pd species from aggregation and precipitation, hence, positively effect the catalysis activity.

    13. Transparent Nanoscale Floating Gate Memory Using Self-Assembled Bismuth Nanocrystals in Bi2Mg2/3Nb4/3O7 (BMN) Pyrochlore Thin Films Grown at Room Temperature (pages 3396–3400)

      Hyun-June Jung, Soon-Gil Yoon, Soon-Ku Hong and Jeong-Yong Lee

      Article first published online: 25 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200707

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      Bismuth nanocrystals for a nanoscale floating gate memory device are self-assembled in Bi2Mg2/3Nb4/3O7 (BMN) dielectric films grown at room temperature by radio-frequency sputtering. The TEM cross-sectional image shows the “real” structure grown on a Si (001) substrate. The image magnified from the dotted box (red color) in the the cross-sectional image clearly shows bismuth nanoparticles at the interface between the Al2O3 and HfO2 layer (right image). Nanoparticles approximately 3 nm in size are regularly distributed at the interface.

    14. Clam's Shell Inspired High-Energy Inorganic Coatings with Underwater Low Adhesive Superoleophobicity (pages 3401–3405)

      Xueli Liu, Jie Zhou, Zhongxin Xue, Jun Gao, Jingxin Meng, Shutao Wang and Lei Jiang

      Article first published online: 31 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200797

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      Unique underwater low adhesive superoleophobicity is discovered on the pallium-covered region of a short clam's shell. This property originates from the shell's inorganic composition of CaCO3 and surface micro/nano-hierarchical structures. The oil-repellent shell provides an innovative strategy to develop novel underwater superoleophobic coatings using inorganic oxides such as copper oxide. This kind of coating is anticipated to be applied on engineering metals to protect aquatic equipment from oil contamination.

    15. Enhanced Photocatalytic Hydrogen Generation Using Polymorphic Macroporous TaON (pages 3406–3409)

      Min-Ying Tsang, Natalie E. Pridmore, Lisa J. Gillie, Yi-Hsin Chou, Rik Brydson and Richard E. Douthwaite

      Article first published online: 22 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201201193

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      Macroporous TaON (mac-TaON) is prepared using polymer sphere templating and controlled ammonolysis. In contrast to typical powder synthesis, which gives the β polymorph, mac-TaON is a mixture of β and γ polymorphs. mac-TaON shows twice the activity for photocatalytic hydrogen generation in comparison to mac-TaON when normalised for surface area.

    16. Management of Singlet and Triplet Excitons in a Single Emission Layer: A Simple Approach for a High-Efficiency Fluorescence/Phosphorescence Hybrid White Organic Light-Emitting Device (pages 3410–3414)

      Jun Ye, Cai-Jun Zheng, Xue-Mei Ou, Xiao-Hong Zhang, Man-Keung Fung and Chun-Sing Lee

      Article first published online: 5 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201201124

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A high-efficiency single-emission-layer (EML) hybrid white organic light emitting device is fabricated based on an ideal sky-blue fluorophor, DADBT, using a novel doping concentration regulation strategy, which effectively separates and respectively utilizes the singlet and triplet excitons in the single-EML. The white device shows excellent electroluminescence performance with maximum total efficiencies of 26.6%, 53.5 cd A−1 and 67.2 lm W−1.

    17. Solution-Processable Pyrite FeS2 Nanocrystals for the Fabrication of Heterojunction Photodiodes with Visible to NIR Photodetection (pages 3415–3420)

      Di-Yan Wang, You-Ting Jiang, Chih-Cheng Lin, Shao-Sian Li, Yaw-Tyng Wang, Chia-Chun Chen and Chun-Wei Chen

      Article first published online: 5 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200753

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      A heterojunction photodiode with NIR photoresponse using solution processable pyrite FeS2 nanocrystal ink is demonstrated which has the advantages of earth-abundance and non-toxicity. The device consists of a FeS2 nanocrystal (NC) thin film sandwiched with semiconducting metal oxides with a structure of ITO/ZnO/FeS2 NC/MoO3/Au, which exhibits an excellent photoresponse with a spectral response extended to NIR wavelengths of up to 1150 nm and a high photocurrent/dark current ratio of up to 8000 at -1 V under AM1.5 illumination (100 mW cm−2).

    18. ZnO Hollow Spheres with Double-Yolk Egg Structure for High-Performance Photocatalysts and Photodetectors (pages 3421–3425)

      Xi Wang, Meiyong Liao, Yeteng Zhong, Jian Yao Zheng, Wei Tian, Tianyou Zhai, Chunyi Zhi, Ying Ma, Jiannian Yao, Yoshio Bando and Dmitri Golberg

      Article first published online: 5 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201201139

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      Inspired by opening soft drink cans, a one-pot method to prepare ZnO hollow spheres with double-yolk egg (DEH) architectures is developed. The bubble-assisted Ostwald ripening is proposed for the formation of these novel structures. Uniqueness of DEHs morphology led to greatly enhanced photocatalytic activity and photodetector performance. The newly developed synthetic concept and the obtained novel morphologies should pave the way towards the design and fabrication of other similar materials with enhanced properties for microelectronics, optoelectronics, and other applications.

    19. Bio-Inspired Nacre-like Composite Films Based on Graphene with Superior Mechanical, Electrical, and Biocompatible Properties (pages 3426–3431)

      Yuan-Qing Li, Ting Yu, Tian-Yi Yang, Lian-Xi Zheng and Kin Liao

      Article first published online: 22 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200452

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      Bio-inspired multifunctional composite films based on reduced poly(vinyl alcohol)/graphene oxide (R-PVA/GO) layers are prepared by a facile solution casting method followed by a reduction procedure. The resulting films with nacre-like, bricks-and-mortar microstructure have excellent mechanical properties, electrical conductivity, and biocompatibility.

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