Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 24 Issue 34

September 4, 2012

Volume 24, Issue 34

Pages 4589–4724

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Editorial
    9. Progress Reports
    10. Reviews
    11. Communications
    1. Field-Effect Transistors: Highly π-Extended Copolymers with Diketopyrrolopyrrole Moieties for High-Performance Field-Effect Transistors (Adv. Mater. 34/2012) (page 4589)

      Huajie Chen, Yunlong Guo, Gui Yu, Yan Zhao, Ji Zhang, Dong Gao, Hongtao Liu and Yunqi Liu

      Version of Record online: 27 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201290204

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      High-performance polymer semiconductors are highly desired in organic electronics. G. Yu, Y. Q. Liu, and co-workers develop two highly π-extended donor–acceptor copolymers based on diketopyrrolopyrrole and (E)-2-(2-(thiophen-2-yl) vinyl)thiophene units for applications in solutionprocessed polymer field-effect transistors. Stable high-performance transistors are fabricated and show an excellent hole mobility, above 8.0 cm2 V−1 s−1. The work on page 4618 demonstrates that polymer semiconductors are promising for application in flexible and low-cost organic circuits and displays

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Editorial
    9. Progress Reports
    10. Reviews
    11. Communications
    1. Hollow Microspheres: Formation of ZnMn2O4 Ball-in-Ball Hollow Microspheres as a High-Performance Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries (Adv. Mater. 34/2012) (page 4590)

      Genqiang Zhang, Le Yu, Hao Bin Wu, Harry E. Hoster and Xiong Wen (David) Lou

      Version of Record online: 27 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201290205

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      Hollow micro-/nanostructures are generating growing interest due to their applications in various areas including catalysis, drug delivery, and energy conversion and storage systems. On page 4609, X. W. Lou and co-workers show that novel ZnMn2O4 ball-in-ball hollow microspheres can be fabricated by a facile two-step method involving the solution synthesis of ZnMn-glycolate hollow microspheres and subsequent thermal annealing in air. When evaluated as an anode material for lithiumion batteries, the hollow microspheres show significantly enhanced electrochemical performance with high capacity, excellent cycling stability, and good rate capability.

  3. Masthead

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Editorial
    9. Progress Reports
    10. Reviews
    11. Communications
    1. Masthead: (Adv. Mater. 34/2012)

      Version of Record online: 27 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201290206

  4. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Editorial
    9. Progress Reports
    10. Reviews
    11. Communications
  5. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Editorial
    9. Progress Reports
    10. Reviews
    11. Communications
    1. Nanocomposite Microcontainers (pages 4597–4600)

      Christine M. Andres, Ińigo Larraza, Teresa Corrales and Nicholas A. Kotov

      Version of Record online: 25 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201201378

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      Versatile all-nanocomposite capped microcontainers are made using layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly. The microcontainers can act as inert packaging with slow/controlled release for virtually any type of encapsulating material based on clay nanocomposites 3D molded by PDMS templates and capped with another LBL film.

    2. Bioinspired Actuated Adhesive Patterns of Liquid Crystalline Elastomers (pages 4601–4604)

      Jiaxi Cui, Dirk-Michael Drotlef, Iñigo Larraza, Juan P. Fernández-Blázquez, Luciano F. Boesel, Christian Ohm, Markus Mezger, Rudolf Zentel and Aránzazu del Campo

      Version of Record online: 21 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200895

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      Gecko-inspired arrays of micropillars made of a liquid crystalline elastomer display thermoswitchable adhesive behavior as a consequence of elongation changes caused by reorientation of the mesogens at the nematic-isotropic (N-I) phase transition.

    3. Switching of the Natural Nanostructure in Bi2Te3 Materials by Ion Irradiation (pages 4605–4608)

      Zainul Aabdin, Nicola Peranio and Oliver Eibl

      Version of Record online: 21 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201201079

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      In Bi2Te3 materials the natural nanostructure (nns) with a wavelength of 10 nm can be reproducibly switched ON and OFF by Ar+ ion irradiation at 1.5 and 1 keV. Controlled formation of the nns in Bi2Te3 materials has potential for reducing its thermal conductivity and could increase the thermoelectric figure of merit.

    4. Formation of ZnMn2O4 Ball-in-Ball Hollow Microspheres as a High-Performance Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries (pages 4609–4613)

      Genqiang Zhang, Le Yu, Hao Bin Wu, Harry E. Hoster and Xiong Wen (David) Lou

      Version of Record online: 22 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201201779

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Novel ZnMn2O4 ball-in-ball hollow microspheres are fabricated by a facile two-step method involving the solution synthesis of ZnMn-glycolate hollow microspheres and subsequent thermal annealing in air. When evaluated as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, these ZnMn2O4 ball-in-ball hollow microspheres show significantly enhanced electrochemical performance with high capacity, excellent cycling stability and good rate capability.

    5. A Near-Frictionless and Extremely Elastic Hydrogenated Amorphous Carbon Film with Self-Assembled Dual Nanostructure (pages 4614–4617)

      Xiaoqiang Liu, Jun Yang, Junying Hao, Jianyun Zheng, Qiuyu Gong and Weimin Liu

      Version of Record online: 21 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200085

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      A highly crosslinking network combined with a fullerene-like structure is disclosed in a hydrogenated amorphous carbon film. The very soft carbon film exhibits super-low friction and excellent wear resistance even under a Hertzian contact pressure comparable to its hardness under vacuum, which is an extraordinary tribological behavior in the filed of solid lubrication films or coatings.

    6. Highly π-Extended Copolymers with Diketopyrrolopyrrole Moieties for High-Performance Field-Effect Transistors (pages 4618–4622)

      Huajie Chen, Yunlong Guo, Gui Yu, Yan Zhao, Ji Zhang, Dong Gao, Hongtao Liu and Yunqi Liu

      Version of Record online: 15 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201201318

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      Two donor–acceptor (D−A) copolymer PDVTs based on diketopyrrolopyrole and (E)-2-(2-(thiophen-2-yl)vinyl)thiophene (TVT) units are synthesized for solution-processed field-effect transistors (FETs). The highly π-extended TVT units strengthen the coplanarity of the polymer backbone. FETs based on PDVTs show high mobilities above 2.0 cm2 V−1 s−1 with a current on/off ratio of 105−107, high shelf storage, and operation stability.

    7. Designing Aligned Inorganic Nanotubes at the Electrode Interface: Towards Highly Efficient Photovoltaic Wires (pages 4623–4628)

      Tao Chen, Longbin Qiu, Hamid G. Kia, Zhibin Yang and Huisheng Peng

      Version of Record online: 21 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201201893

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      Aligned carbon and titanium dioxide nanotubes are designed at the electrode interface to improve the charge separation and transport. The resulting organic photovoltaic wire exhibits high power conversion efficiency. This flexible photovoltaic wire can be easily integrated into a textile by a conventional weaving technique.

  6. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Editorial
    9. Progress Reports
    10. Reviews
    11. Communications
    1. Special Section On Piezotronics: Preface to the Special Section on Piezotronics (Adv. Mater. 34/2012) (page 4629)

      Zhong Lin Wang

      Version of Record online: 27 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201290203

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      This special section – guest-edited by Prof. Z. L. Wang – reports on progress in piezotronics and piezo-phototronics. The new science introduced by piezotronic and piezophototronic effects has the potential to change the fundamental design and working mechanism of electronic and photonic devices, which is likely to inspire further fundamental research and practical applications. The frontispiece shows the elastic strain in zincblende quantum dot nanowire heterostructures. Analyzing and understanding the elastic and piezoelectric properties of epitaxially grown nanowire heterostructures is particularly important for applications in nanowire electronics, optoelectronics, and biochemical sensing, as reviewed by H. Q. Xu on page 4630.

  7. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Editorial
    9. Progress Reports
    10. Reviews
    11. Communications
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  8. Progress Reports

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Editorial
    9. Progress Reports
    10. Reviews
    11. Communications
    1. Progress in Piezotronics and Piezo-Phototronics (pages 4632–4646)

      Zhong Lin Wang

      Version of Record online: 14 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201104365

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      Piezotronics is about devices fabricated using the piezopotential as a “gate” voltage to tune/control charge carrier transport at a contact or junction. The piezo-phototronic effect is to use the piezopotential to control the carrier generation, transport, separation and/or recombination for improving the performance of optoelectronic devices, such as photon detectors, solar cells and LEDs. This manuscript reviews progress in these two new fields. A perspective is given about their potential applications in sensors, human-silicon technology interfacing, MEMS, nanorobotics, and energy sciences.

    2. Scanning Probe Study on the Piezotronic Effect in ZnO Nanomaterials and Nanodevices (pages 4647–4655)

      Yue Zhang, Xiaoqin Yan, Ya Yang, Yunhua Huang, Qingliang Liao and Junjie Qi

      Version of Record online: 5 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201104382

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      Longitudinal piezotronic Schottky diodes are successfully fabricated using a standard C-AFM with a PtIr-coated tip. Tuning the electronic transport characteristics of ZnO wire piezotronic Schottky diodes is realized by bending. By increasing the loading force, the threshold voltage, ideality factors, and the resistance of the ZnO nanowire increase due to the electron trapping effect induced by the piezoelectric electric field.

    3. A Review of Mechanical and Electromechanical Properties of Piezoelectric Nanowires (pages 4656–4675)

      Horacio D. Espinosa, Rodrigo A. Bernal and Majid Minary-Jolandan

      Version of Record online: 11 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201104810

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      Piezoelectric nanowires are the components of future nanoelectronic, sensing, actuation and nanogenerator systems. Herein, the state-of-the-art in experimental and computational studies of mechanical and electromechanical properties of piezoelectric nanowires is critically reviewed. The importance of coupling experiments, computational studies, and atomic structure characterization in obtaining unambiguous synthesis-structure-property relations is highlighted.

    4. The Piezotronic Effect of Zinc Oxide Nanowires Studied by In Situ TEM (pages 4676–4682)

      Shize Yang, Lifen Wang, Xuezeng Tian, Zhi Xu, Wenlong Wang, Xuedong Bai and Enge Wang

      Version of Record online: 10 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201104420

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      A mechanism for the piezotronic effect of zinc oxide nanowires is discussed. A piezoelectric field is built in zinc oxide nanowires due to immobile ionic charges at the surface when the nanowire is bent. In the bent nanowire, the piezo-induced electric field lowers the surface recombination barrier. This is the origin of the piezotronic effect of zinc oxide nanowires.

  9. Reviews

    1. Top of page
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    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Editorial
    9. Progress Reports
    10. Reviews
    11. Communications
    1. Band Structure Engineering at Heterojunction Interfaces via the Piezotronic Effect (pages 4683–4691)

      Jian Shi, Matthew B. Starr and Xudong Wang

      Version of Record online: 2 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201104386

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      A remnant piezoelectric potential shifts the electronic band structure at heterojunction interfaces formed between a piezoelectric semiconductor and another semiconductor or metal material, and thus tunes the electrical characteristics of the heterojunction.

    2. Elastic and Piezoelectric Properties of Zincblende and Wurtzite Crystalline Nanowire Heterostructures (pages 4692–4706)

      Fredrik Boxberg, Niels Søndergaard and H. Q. Xu

      Version of Record online: 18 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200370

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      The elastic and piezoelectric properties of zincblende and wurtzite crystalline InAs/InP nanowire heterostructures as shown in the schematics have been studied using electro-elastically coupled continuum elasticity theory. Elastic strains, piezoelectric potentials and piezoelectric fields generated in these nanowire heterostructures are presented and discussed. The results are expected to be particularly important for analyzing and understanding of the properties of epitaxially grown nanowire heterostructures and for applications in nanowire electronics, optoelectronics, and biochemical sensing.

  10. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Editorial
    9. Progress Reports
    10. Reviews
    11. Communications
    1. Strain-Gradient Effect on Energy Bands in Bent ZnO Microwires (pages 4707–4711)

      Xiaobing Han, Liangzhi Kou, Zhuhua Zhang, Ziyue Zhang, Xinli Zhu, Jun Xu, Zhimin Liao, Wanlin Guo and Dapeng Yu

      Version of Record online: 26 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201104372

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      The table of contents image ilustrates the strain-gradient effect on the optical-electronic properties in a bent ZnO microwire, with a much stronger red-shift on the outer tensile side than a blue-shift on the inner compressive side. The low temperature cathodoluminescence cross-sectional scanning spectra on the strain-neutral middle-plane are highlighted by thicker black lines, which clearly shows a strain-gradient induced red-shift.

    2. Theory of Piezo-Phototronics for Light-Emitting Diodes (pages 4712–4718)

      Yan Zhang and Zhong Lin Wang

      Version of Record online: 19 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201104263

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      Devices fabricated by using the inner-crystal piezopotential as a “gate” voltage to tune/control the carrier generation, transport, and recombination processes at the vicinity of a p–n junction are named piezo-phototronics. Here, the theory of the photon emission and carrier transport behavior in piezo-phototronic devices is investigated as a p–n junction light-emitting diode. Numerical calculations are given for predicting the photon emission and current–voltage characteristics of a general piezo-phototronic light-emitting diode.

    3. Piezo-Semiconductive Quasi-1D Nanodevices with or without Anti-Symmetry (pages 4719–4724)

      Rodolfo Araneo, Giampiero Lovat, Paolo Burghignoli and Christian Falconi

      Version of Record online: 30 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201104588

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      The piezopotential in floating, homogeneous, quasi-1D piezo-semiconductive nanostructures under axial stress is an anti-symmetric (i.e., odd) function of force. Here, after introducing piezo-nano-devices with floating electrodes for maximum piezo-potential, we show that breaking the anti-symmetric nature of the piezopotential-force relation, for instance by using conical nanowires, can lead to better nanogenerators, piezotronic and piezophototronic devices.

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