Advanced Materials

Cover image for Advanced Materials

September 11, 2012

Volume 24, Issue 35

Pages 4729–4768, OP185–OP269

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    1. Solar Cells: A Solid-State Plasmonic Solar Cell via Metal Nanoparticle Self-Assembly (Adv. Mater. 35/2012) (page 4729)

      Philipp Reineck, George P. Lee, Delia Brick, Matthias Karg, Paul Mulvaney and Udo Bach

      Version of Record online: 4 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201290208

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      Incident light excites surface plasmon resonances in metal nanoparticles. Located at a TiO2/hole conductor interface, gold and silver nanoparticles induce sustainable photocurrents upon excitation. The image (by Inga Tegtmeier) depicts the excitation of silver nanoparticles with turquoise light and the electrons transferred to the transparent electrode. A simple fabrication method for this plasmonic solar cell, based on metal nanoparticle self-assembly, is described by U. Bach and co-workers on page 4750.

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    1. Biomedical Applications: A Novel Bioassay Platform Using Ferritin-Based Nanoprobe Hydrogel (Adv. Mater. 35/2012) (page 4730)

      Eun Jung Lee, Keum-Young Ahn, Jong-Hwan Lee, Jin-Seung Park, Jong-Am Song, Sang Jun Sim, Eun Bong Lee, Young Joo Cha and Jeewon Lee

      Version of Record online: 4 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201290209

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      On page 4739, J. Lee and co-workers report a novel bioassay platform that is based on ferritinbased nanoprobe (FBNP) hydrogel, a threedimensional gel matrix with high porosity, large surface area, and high water content. The FBNP hydrogel entraps a large number of stable FBNPs with precise loading control and the antigen probes on FBNPs are homogeneously oriented as well as uniformly spaced within the gel matrix. Finally, the FBNP hydrogel is successfully used for a multiplex diagnosis of AIDS and SS with high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility.

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    1. Masthead: (Adv. Mater. 35/2012)

      Version of Record online: 4 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201290210

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    1. Bioinspired Controlled Release of CCL22 Recruits Regulatory T Cells In Vivo (pages 4735–4738)

      Siddharth Jhunjhunwala, Giorgio Raimondi, Andrew J. Glowacki, Sherri J. Hall, Dan Maskarinec, Stephen H. Thorne, Angus W. Thomson and Steven R. Little

      Version of Record online: 23 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201202513

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      A rationally designed controlled-release system is developed to recruit suppressive immune cells to specific sites in vivo. Continuous and sustained release of the chemokine CCL22 is achieved by fabricating porous polymeric microspheres. Application of these porous particles in vivo, in mice, leads to local regulatory T cell recruitment as well as a delay in rejection responses against transplanted allogeneic cells.

    2. A Novel Bioassay Platform Using Ferritin-Based Nanoprobe Hydrogel (pages 4739–4744)

      Eun Jung Lee, Keum-Young Ahn, Jong-Hwan Lee, Jin-Seung Park, Jong-Am Song, Sang Jun Sim, Eun Bong Lee, Young Joo Cha and Jeewon Lee

      Version of Record online: 10 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200728

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      Ferritin-based nanoprobe (FBNP) hydrogel provides solutions to some of the traditional problems of bioassays. The schematic shows 3D and highly specific multiplex assays of markers for AIDS and Sjögren's syndrome using quantum-dot based reporters with different fluorescence emissions for the two syndromes. The advantages of using a hydrogel include that the stability of FBNPs is significantly enhanced within the hydrogel, FBNPs are distributed evenly throughout the hydrogel matrix, and the amount of FBNPs within the hydrogel can be well controlled.

    3. Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence of Metal–Organic Complex Nanowires: Reduced Graphene Oxide Enhancement and Biosensing Application (pages 4745–4749)

      Qing Li, Jian Yao Zheng, Yongli Yan, Yong Sheng Zhao and Jiannian Yao

      Version of Record online: 25 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201201931

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      A novel ECL biosensor is fabricated by immobilizing Ru(bpy)32+ nanowires (RuNWs) onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) surfaces with reduced graphene oxide (RGO)-Nafion composite film. The sensor exhibits high sensitivity and long-term stability, and shows a wide linear response range and low detection limit for biomolecular analytes. The large electroactive area of the nanowires and the enhancement effect of the RGO play critical roles in the high detection performance of the biosensor.

    4. A Solid-State Plasmonic Solar Cell via Metal Nanoparticle Self-Assembly (pages 4750–4755)

      Philipp Reineck, George P. Lee, Delia Brick, Matthias Karg, Paul Mulvaney and Udo Bach

      Version of Record online: 28 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200994

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      Sustainable plasmonic photocurrents are generated by gold and silver nanoparticles, located at a TiO2/hole conductor interface. The spectral photocurrent response closely follows the surface plasmon absorption bands of the metal particles. A simple nanoparticle self-assembly method for the solar cell fabrication is presented. Three mechanisms for plasmon-induced charge separation are proposed.

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      Remotely Controllable Liquid Marbles (pages 4756–4760)

      Lianbin Zhang, Dongkyu Cha and Peng Wang

      Version of Record online: 26 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201201885

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      Liquid droplets encapsulated by self-organized hydrophobic particles at the liquid/air interface – liquid marbles – are prepared by encapsulating water droplets with novel core/shell-structured responsive magnetic particles, consisting of a responsive block copolymer–grafted mesoporous silica shell and magnetite core (see figure; P2VP-b-PDMS: poly(2-vinylpyridine-b-dimethylsiloxane)). Desirable properties of the liquid marbles include that they rupture upon ultraviolet illumination and can be remotely manipulated by an external magnetic field.

    6. Direct Growth of TiO2 Nanosheet Arrays on Carbon Fibers for Highly Efficient Photocatalytic Degradation of Methyl Orange (pages 4761–4764)

      Wenxi Guo, Fang Zhang, Changjian Lin and Zhong Lin Wang

      Version of Record online: 23 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201201075

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      Anatase TiO2 sheets with exposed high-energy (001) facets are grown on carbon fibers (CFs) by a facile hydrothermal synthetic route. The percentage of reactive facets in the TiO2 nanosheets (NSs) is calculated to vary between about 40% and 92%, depending on the synthesis conditions. In comparison with TiO2 NSs grown on a planar substrate, the TiO2 NS/CF hybrid structure exhibits a 3.38-fold improvement in photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange under UV-light irradiation.

    7. Narrow Diameter Distributions of Metallic Arc Discharge Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes via Dual-Iteration Density Gradient Ultracentrifugation (pages 4765–4768)

      Timothy P. Tyler, Tejas A. Shastry, Benjamin J. Leever and Mark C. Hersam

      Version of Record online: 25 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201201728

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      Dual-iteration density gradient ultracentrifugation isolates nearly single diameters of monodisperse metallic arc discharge SWCNTs. Subsequently fabricated conductive thin films possess distinct colors due to well-defined transmittance windows flanked by sharp optical transitions. Measurements of uniform sheet resistances and work functions confirm the largely invariant electronic properties between metallic arc discharge SWCNT films of differing diameters.

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    1. Microcavities: Highly Unidirectional Emission and Ultralow-Threshold Lasing from On-Chip Ultrahigh-Q Microcavities (Adv. Mater. 35/2012) (page OP185)

      Xue-Feng Jiang, Yun-Feng Xiao, Chang-Ling Zou, Lina He, Chun-Hua Dong, Bei-Bei Li, Yan Li, Fang-Wen Sun, Lan Yang and Qihuang Gong

      Version of Record online: 4 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201290211

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      Ultra-high-Q optical whispering gallery microcavities are promising platforms for fundamental studies and applied photonics. A new type of on-chip microcavity is experimentally realized, which features both highly unidirectional emission and ultra-high-Q factors exceeding 100 million in near infrared. By doping erbium into the microcavity, lasing emission in 1550 nm band is observed under a convenient freespace optical pumping, with the threshold as low as 2 μW. More details can be found in the article by Q. Gong, Y.-F. Xiao, and co-workers on page OP260.

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    1. Chemical Sensors: Hydrogen Peroxide Vapor Sensing with Organic Core/Sheath Nanowire Optical Waveguides (Adv. Mater. 35/2012) (page OP186)

      Jian Yao Zheng, Yongli Yan, Xiaopeng Wang, Wen Shi, Huimin Ma, Yong Sheng Zhao and Jiannian Yao

      Version of Record online: 4 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201290212

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      A core/sheath structure is fabricated by decorating single-crystal organic nanowires with H2O2-reactive peroxalate ester, as reported by J. Yao, Y. S. Zhao, and co-workers on page OP194. The shell of the nanocable is highly sensitive and selective to the H2O2 molecules, demonstrated by the generation of chemiluminescence on exposure to H2O2 vapors. The cable-like optical waveguide sensing platform can rapidly and selectively monitor H2O2 vapors through the amplified optical variation across the wire waveguiding, showing that a single nanocable is very promising for developing optical probes to detect individual responses on-chip.

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    1. Nanostructures: Distributing the Optical Near-Field for Efficient Field-Enhancements in Nanostructures (Adv. Mater. 35/2012) (page OP272)

      V. K. Valev, B. De Clercq, C. G. Biris, X. Zheng, S. Vandendriessche, M. Hojeij, D. Denkova, Y. Jeyaram, N. C. Panoiu, Y. Ekinci, A. V. Silhanek, V. Volskiy, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, M. Ameloot, V. V. Moshchalkov and T. Verbiest

      Version of Record online: 4 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201290213

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      Circularly polarized light can impart a sense of rotation on the electron density in ring-shaped gold nanostructures. V. K. Valev and co-workers show on p. OP208 that the near-field enhancement becomes more homogeneous on the surface of the nanostructures, thereby increasing the opportunity for interaction with molecules. This type of nanostructured samples can find applications in chemical processes where the interaction between molecules and local field enhancements is important.

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    1. Masthead: (Adv. Mater. 35/2012)

      Version of Record online: 4 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201290214

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  12. Communications: Advanced Optical Materials

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      Hydrogen Peroxide Vapor Sensing with Organic Core/Sheath Nanowire Optical Waveguides (pages OP194–OP199)

      Jian Yao Zheng, Yongli Yan, Xiaopeng Wang, Wen Shi, Huimin Ma, Yong Sheng Zhao and Jiannian Yao

      Version of Record online: 3 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200867

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      By decorating single crystal organic nanowires with H2O2-reactive peroxalate ester, a core/sheath structure for the rapid and selective detection of H2O2 vapors is demonstrated via the optical waveguide of a single wire. Such a compact sensing configuration may act as the “nano-alarm-lamp” for the H2O2 vapors and be attractive for on-chip optical detection in complex chemical or biological environments.

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      Unraveling the Evolution and Nature of the Plasmons in (Au Core)–(Ag Shell) Nanorods (pages OP200–OP207)

      Ruibin Jiang, Huanjun Chen, Lei Shao, Qian Li and Jianfang Wang

      Version of Record online: 20 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201201896

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      Evolution of the sizes and plasmonic properties of (Au core)−(Ag shell) nanorods is studied. Four plasmon bands are observed on the core−shell nanorods and their properties are investigated. The lowest-energy one belongs to the longitudinal dipolar plasmon mode, the second-lowest-energy one belongs to the transverse dipolar plasmon mode, and the two highest-energy ones are ascribed to octupolar plasmon modes.

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      Distributing the Optical Near-Field for Efficient Field-Enhancements in Nanostructures (pages OP208–OP215)

      V. K. Valev, B. De Clercq, C. G. Biris, X. Zheng, S. Vandendriessche, M. Hojeij, D. Denkova, Y. Jeyaram, N. C. Panoiu, Y. Ekinci, A. V. Silhanek, V. Volskiy, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, M. Ameloot, V. V. Moshchalkov and T. Verbiest

      Version of Record online: 3 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201201151

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      Circularly polarized light imparts a sense of rotation on the electron density in ring-shaped gold nanostructures. As a consequence, the near-field enhancement becomes homogeneous on the surface of the nanostructures, thereby increasing the opportunity for interaction with molecules. This type of nanostructured samples can find a broad range of applications in chemical processes where the interaction between molecules and local field enhancements play an important role.

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      Low-Threshold Nanolasers Based on Slab-Nanocrystals of H-Aggregated Organic Semiconductors (pages OP216–OP220)

      Zhenzhen Xu, Qing Liao, Qiang Shi, Haoli Zhang, Jiannian Yao and Hongbing Fu

      Version of Record online: 16 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201201579

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      Low-threshold nanolasers based on slab nanocrystals (SNCs) of highly emissive H-aggregated organic semiconductors are reported. A lasing threshold as low as 100 nJ cm−2 is achieved in a high-quality (cavity quality factor ≈ 1000) Fabry–Pérot cavity constituted by the two lateral-faces of SNCs at the wavelength scale. Moreover, the laser light generated in the ultrasmall radial cavity of SNCs can propagate along its length up to hundreds of micrometers, making them attractive building blocks for miniaturized photonic circuits.

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      Electrically Tunable Organic Distributed Feedback Lasers Embedding Nonlinear Optical Molecules (pages OP221–OP225)

      Andrea Camposeo, Pompilio Del Carro, Luana Persano and Dario Pisignano

      Version of Record online: 18 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201201453

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      The emission of polymer distributed feedback lasers is tuned by integrating nonlinear optical organics. The nonlinearity allows reversible tuning of the amplified spontaneous emission of a conjugated polymer by 30 nm, and the lasing wavelength by 17 nm, with a lasing tunability coefficient of 0.17 nm/V.

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      Broadband Terahertz Plasmonic Response of Touching InSb Disks (pages OP226–OP230)

      S. M. Hanham, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, J. H. Teng, S. S. Ang, K. P. Lim, S. F. Yoon, C. Y. Ngo, N. Klein, J. B. Pendry and S. A. Maier

      Version of Record online: 16 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201202003

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      The plasmonic behavior of dimers of touching semiconductor disks is studied experimentally in the difficult-to-realize regime where the disks are only marginally overlapping. Previous theoretical studies have shown that this geometry exhibits a highly efficient broadband response that may be very promising for light harvesting and sensing applications. By taking advantage of the plasmonic character of InSb in the terahertz regime, we experimentally confirm this broadband response and describe the associated strong field enhancement and sub-micrometer field confinement between the disks.

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      Nearly Temperature-Independent Threshold for Amplified Spontaneous Emission in Colloidal CdSe/CdS Quantum Dot-in-Rods (pages OP231–OP235)

      Iwan Moreels, Gabriele Rainò, Raquel Gomes, Zeger Hens, Thilo Stöferle and Rainer F. Mahrt

      Version of Record online: 16 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201202067

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      By careful engineering of the core and shell dimensions in CdSe/CdS colloidal hetero-nanocrystals, amplified spontaneous emission can be triggered from either the core, shell, or both states simultaneously. The ASE threshold is almost constant over a temperature interval of 5–325 K. This feature is unique to quantum dots and highlights their potential as a gain material, suitable for lasing at elevated temperatures.

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      Large Enhancement of Upconversion Luminescence of NaYF4:Yb3+/Er3+ Nanocrystal by 3D Plasmonic Nano-Antennas (pages OP236–OP241)

      Weihua Zhang, Fei Ding and Stephen Y. Chou

      Version of Record online: 3 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200220

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      Plasmon-enhanced upconversion luminescence of NaYF4: Yb3+/Er3+ co-doped nanocrystals is investigated using a 3D plasmonic antenna architecture: a disk-coupled dots-on-pillar antenna array (D2PA). By tuning and optimizing the resonance frequency of the D2PA structure for upconversion luminescence, a 310-fold luminescence enhancement and an 8-fold reduction of the luminescence decay time are observed.

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      Optically Directed Mesoscale Assembly and Patterning of Electrically Conductive Organic–Inorganic Hybrid Structures (pages OP242–OP246)

      John T. Bahns, Subramanian K. R. S. Sankaranarayanan, Noel C. Giebink, Hui Xiong and Stephen K. Gray

      Version of Record online: 20 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201104749

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      Directed colloidal synthesis of conductive organic–inorganic hybrid mesoscale structures is reported. The technique is simple but allows hierarchical assembly and 2D patterning of materials. A focused laser spot is used to direct the colloidal assembly of nanoparticles into electrically conductive organic–inorganic hybrid mesoscale filaments with arbitrary permanent patterns on a glass surface.

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      Large-Area Low-Cost Plasmonic Nanostructures in the NIR for Fano Resonant Sensing (pages OP247–OP252)

      Jun Zhao, Chunjie Zhang, Paul V. Braun and Harald Giessen

      Version of Record online: 16 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201202109

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      Large-area low-cost plasmonic nanostructures with high-quality Fano resonances have been fabricated for the first time. Hole-mask colloidal nanolithography is utilized and the degree of asymmetry of double split-ring resonators is varied to optimize the modulation depth of the Fano resonances for refractive index sensing. In situ optical spectroscopy during thermal annealing monitors the spectral change to control improvement of sample quality. Liquids with different refractive indices yield experimental sensitivities of up to 520 nm/RIU and figures of merit of 2.9.

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      Improving Surface Plasmon Detection in Gold Nanostructures Using a Multi-Polarization Spectral Integration Method (pages OP253–OP259)

      Kuang-Li Lee, Min-Jian Chih, Xu Shi, Kosei Ueno, Hiroaki Misawa and Pei-Kuen Wei

      Version of Record online: 16 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201202194

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      A multi-polarization spectral integration method to increase the refractive index detection limit of gold nanostructures is presented. For a dual-period nanogrid structure, the proposed method increased signal-to-noise ratio and refractive index detection limit about 8 times larger than the simple intensity method. The nanogrid achieves a detection limit of 1.92 × 10−6 refractive index unit when the intensity stability is 0.2%.

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      Highly Unidirectional Emission and Ultralow-Threshold Lasing from On-Chip Ultrahigh-Q Microcavities (pages OP260–OP264)

      Xue-Feng Jiang, Yun-Feng Xiao, Chang-Ling Zou, Lina He, Chun-Hua Dong, Bei-Bei Li, Yan Li, Fang-Wen Sun, Lan Yang and Qihuang Gong

      Version of Record online: 13 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201201229

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      Ultrahigh-Q optical whispering gallery microcavities are promising platforms for fundamental studies and applied photonics. A new type of on-chip microcavity is experimentally realized, which supports both highly unidirectional emission and ultra-high-Q factors exceeding 100 million in near infrared. By doping erbium, the unidirectional-emission lasing is observed in 1550 nm band with the threshold as low as 2 μW.

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      Electrochromic Bragg Mirror: ECBM (pages OP265–OP269)

      Engelbert Redel, Jacek Mlynarski, Jonathon Moir, Abdinoor Jelle, Chen Huai, Srebri Petrov, Michael G. Helander, Frank C. Peiris, Georg von Freymann and Geoffrey A. Ozin

      Version of Record online: 13 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201202484

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      The colloidal assembly of a nanoporous electrochromic 1D Bragg mirror comprising NiO and WO3 nanoparticle multilayers enables the convolution of electrically tunable electronic crystals and photonic crystals into a single device, providing thereby a distinctive means of creating and manipulating color.

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