Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 24 Issue 41

November 2, 2012

Volume 24, Issue 41

Pages 5517–5641

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Correction
    8. Progress Report
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Communications
    1. Organic Field-Effect Transistors: Direct Structural Mapping of Organic Field-Effect Transistors Reveals Bottlenecks to Carrier Transport (Adv. Mater. 41/2012) (page 5517)

      Ruipeng Li, Jeremy W. Ward, Detlef-M. Smilgies, Marcia M. Payne, John E. Anthony, Oana D. Jurchescu and Aram Amassian

      Article first published online: 26 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201290254

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Organic thin film transistors are commonly solution-processed on pre-patterned substrates which can strongly and negatively influence the solidification and crystallization behaviors of the semiconductor causing a reduction in carrier mobility. On page 5553, Aram Amassian and co-workers demonstrate an X-ray microbeam technique capable of mapping the microstructural variations of the organic semiconductor within the channel of real devices; the insight is used to reduce bottlenecks to charge transport.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Correction
    8. Progress Report
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Communications
    1. Organic Semiconductors: Solution-Crystallized Organic Semiconductors with High Carrier Mobility and Air Stability (Adv. Mater. 41/2012) (page 5518)

      Shaohua Dong, Hongtao Zhang, Liu Yang, Meilin Bai, Yuan Yao, Hongliang Chen, Lin Gan, Tieying Yang, Hong Jiang, Shimin Hou, Lijun Wan and Xuefeng Guo

      Article first published online: 26 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201290255

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      On page 5576, Xuefeng Guo and co-workers combine molecular engineering and chemical self-assembly with materials fabrication to achieve air-stable solution-processable oligothiophene-based field-effect transistors with a mobility of up to 6.2 cm2 V−1 s−1, which ranks the highest among oliogthiophene-based semiconducting materials.

  3. Back Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Correction
    8. Progress Report
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Communications
    1. Carbon Nanocages: Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanocages as Efficient Metal-Free Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction (Adv. Mater. 41/2012) (page 5646)

      Sheng Chen, Jiyu Bi, Yu Zhao, Lijun Yang, Chen Zhang, Yanwen Ma, Qiang Wu, Xizhang Wang and Zheng Hu

      Article first published online: 26 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201290256

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      N-doped carbon nanocages (NCNCs) with large specific surface area up to 1393 m2 g−1 are produced for the first time, which demonstrate excellent ORR performances with high activity. Without the interference of any ORR-active metal impurities in NCNCs, the experimental results confirm the origin of ORR activity from the N-doped carbon species. Further details can be found in the article by Zheng Hu, Xizhang Wang, and co-workers on page 5593.

  4. Masthead

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Correction
    8. Progress Report
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Communications
    1. Masthead: (Adv. Mater. 41/2012)

      Article first published online: 26 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201290257

  5. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Correction
    8. Progress Report
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Communications
    1. Contents: (Adv. Mater. 41/2012) (pages 5519–5524)

      Article first published online: 26 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201290250

  6. Correction

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Correction
    8. Progress Report
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Communications
    1. You have free access to this content
      Correction: Graphene-Confined Sn Nanosheets with Enhanced Lithium Storage Capability (page 5525)

      Bin Luo, Bin Wang, Xianglong Li, Yuying Jia, Minghui Liang and Linjie Zhi

      Article first published online: 26 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201290251

      This article corrects:

      Graphene-Confined Sn Nanosheets with Enhanced Lithium Storage Capability

      Vol. 24, Issue 26, 3538–3543, Article first published online: 8 JUN 2012

  7. Progress Report

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Correction
    8. Progress Report
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Communications
    1. Fabrication of Transistors on Flexible Substrates: from Mass-Printing to High-Resolution Alternative Lithography Strategies (pages 5526–5541)

      Pieter F. Moonen, Iryna Yakimets and Jurriaan Huskens

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201202949

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      In this Progress Report, the development of conventional, mass-printing strategies into high-resolution, alternative-lithographic patterning techniques is reviewed with the focus on large-area patterning of thin-film transistors on low-cost flexible substrates. Conventional and alternative, high-resolution soft and nanoimprint lithography-based techniques are covered, their benefits, requirements and limitations are discussed, and recent developments and electronic device applications, mainly in the direction of displays, on flexible foils are give.

  8. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Correction
    8. Progress Report
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Communications
    1. Tissue Engineering: Controlling Spatial Organization of Multiple Cell Types in Defined 3D Geometries (Adv. Mater. 41/2012) (page 5542)

      Halil Tekin, Jefferson G. Sanchez, Christian Landeros, Karen Dubbin, Robert Langer and Ali Khademhosseini

      Article first published online: 26 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201290252

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      Dynamic microwells are fabricated to control spatial organization of multiple cell types in defined geometries. These microwells exhibit temperature-dependent shape-changing characteristics at different temperatures, which are exploited to pattern multiple cell types at different temperatures. Different cell types are spatially distributed in circular and square microwells. The technique presented by Ali Khademhosseini, Robert Langer, and co-workers on page 5543 could be useful to recapitulate various native tissue microenvironments for applications in tissue engineering, cancer biology, developmental biology, and drug discovery.

  9. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Correction
    8. Progress Report
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Communications
    1. Controlling Spatial Organization of Multiple Cell Types in Defined 3D Geometries (pages 5543–5547)

      Halil Tekin, Jefferson G. Sanchez, Christian Landeros, Karen Dubbin, Robert Langer and Ali Khademhosseini

      Article first published online: 3 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201201805

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      A simple method to control spatial organizations of multiple cell types in predefined geometries by using poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-based dynamic microwells is described. Dynamic microwells are used to pattern two different cell types in a spatially controlled manner by exploiting their shape changing properties at two different temperatures. Both spatial organization of two different cell types and control of pattern geometry are achieved with circular and square dynamic microwells.

    2. The Intrinsic Mechanical Properties of Rubrene Single Crystals (pages 5548–5552)

      Marcos A. Reyes-Martinez, Ashwin Ramasubramaniam, Alejandro L. Briseno and Alfred J. Crosby

      Article first published online: 31 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201201749

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      The intrinsic mechanical properties of rubrene single crystals are investigated. The in-plane elastic constants are obtained by inducing the wrinkling instability in crystals laminated on elastomeric substrates. The results demonstrate a dependence of wrinkling wavelength on crystallographic direction. The observed elastic anisotropy suggests a non-linear coupling between mechanical and electrical properties.

    3. Direct Structural Mapping of Organic Field-Effect Transistors Reveals Bottlenecks to Carrier Transport (pages 5553–5558)

      Ruipeng Li, Jeremy W. Ward, Detlef-M. Smilgies, Marcia M. Payne, John E. Anthony, Oana D. Jurchescu and Aram Amassian

      Article first published online: 10 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201201856

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      X-ray microbeam scattering is used to map the microstructure of the organic semiconductor along the channel length of solution-processed bottom-contact OFET devices. Contact-induced nucleation is known to influence the crystallization behavior within the channel. We find that microstructural inhomogeneities in the center of the channel act as a bottleneck to charge transport. This problem can be overcome by controlling crystallization of the preferable texture, thus favoring more efficient charge transport throughout the channel.

    4. Stimuli-Responsive Y-Shaped Polymer Brushes Based on Junction-Point-Reactive Block Copolymers (pages 5559–5563)

      Christoph Tonhauser, Ali A. Golriz, Christian Moers, Rebecca Klein, Hans-Jürgen Butt and Holger Frey

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201202105

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      A general concept for the preparation of junction-point-reactive, amphiphilic Y-shaped block copolymer brushes for ultrathin polymer films is demonstrated, combining anionic polymerization techniques. The polymer films (1–3 nm) exhibit reversible, stimuli-responsive wetting behavior upon application of different external stimuli (temperature and solvent). Contact angle measurements confirm the reversible hydrophobization with shifts up to 23°.

  10. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Correction
    8. Progress Report
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Communications
    1. Graphene: Position- and Morphology-Controlled ZnO Nanostructures Grown on Graphene Layers (Adv. Mater. 41/2012) (page 5564)

      Yong-Jin Kim, Hyobin Yoo, Chul-Ho Lee, Jun Beom Park, Hyeonjun Baek, Miyoung Kim and Gyu-Chul Yi

      Article first published online: 26 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201290253

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      On page 5565, Gyu-Chul Yi and co-workers grow position- and morphology-controlled ZnO nanowalls in prescribed positions on graphene layers. The nanowalls are grown to produce a variety of shapes from simple circles to text at the microscale. The selective growth of high quality ZnO nanowalls is investigated by electron microscopy and optical spectroscopy. The hybrid nanostructure can be exploited to fabricate various nanodevices including microarrays of nanotube LEDs.

  11. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Correction
    8. Progress Report
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Communications
    1. Position- and Morphology-Controlled ZnO Nanostructures Grown on Graphene Layers (pages 5565–5569)

      Yong-Jin Kim, Hyobin Yoo, Chul-Ho Lee, Jun Beom Park, Hyeonjun Baek, Miyoung Kim and Gyu-Chul Yi

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201201966

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      Position- and morphology-controlled ZnO nanostructures are grown on an oxygen plasma-treated selective area of graphene layers using metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy. The structural and optical characteristics examined by electron microscopy, cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence techniques indicate that high-quality nanostructures are prepared on graphene layers. This approach to grow the controlled ZnO nanostructures selectively on graphene layers enables us to fabricate various nanodevices including GaN/ZnO coaxial nanotube LED microarrays.

    2. Highly Transparent BaAl4O7 Polycrystalline Ceramic Obtained by Full Crystallization from Glass (pages 5570–5575)

      Mathieu Allix, Salaheddine Alahrache, Franck Fayon, Matthew Suchomel, Florence Porcher, Thierry Cardinal and Guy Matzen

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201202282

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      Fully dense, transparent polycrystalline ceramics are simply obtained by direct and complete crystallization from glass. This is demonstrated for the previously unreported composition, BaAl4O7, which exhibits two orthorhombic polymorphs with micrometer grain size, both optically transparent in the visible range. This innovative synthetic route to transparent polycrystalline ceramics should facilitate the discovery of new cost-effective chemical methods for transparent ceramic applications.

    3. Solution-Crystallized Organic Semiconductors with High Carrier Mobility and Air Stability (pages 5576–5580)

      Shaohua Dong, Hongtao Zhang, Liu Yang, Meilin Bai, Yuan Yao, Hongliang Chen, Lin Gan, Tieying Yang, Hong Jiang, Shimin Hou, Lijun Wan and Xuefeng Guo

      Article first published online: 12 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201202099

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Molecular engineering and chemical self-assembly are combined with materials fabrication to achieve air-stable solution-processable oligothiophene-based field-effect transistors with mobilities up to 6.2 cm2 V−1 s−1, which ranks as the highest among oliogthiophene-based semiconducting materials.

    4. Achieving Surface Quantum Oscillations in Topological Insulator Thin Films of Bi2Se3 (pages 5581–5585)

      A. A. Taskin, Satoshi Sasaki, Kouji Segawa and Yoichi Ando

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201201827

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      High-quality thin films of topological insulator Bi2Se3 grown on sapphire substrates present a long phase coherence length and allow direct observations of surface quantum oscillations. The key to achieving high mobility of surface electrons is to raise the main deposition temperature to 300−320 °C, which necessitates a two-step deposition procedure with the initial epilayer deposited at 110−130 °C.

    5. In Vitro and In Vivo Near-Infrared Photothermal Therapy of Cancer Using Polypyrrole Organic Nanoparticles (pages 5586–5592)

      Kai Yang, Huan Xu, Liang Cheng, Chunyang Sun, Jun Wang and Zhuang Liu

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201202625

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      Poly(vinyl alcohol)-coated polypyrole, a conductive polymer that forms nanoparticles in the aqueous phase, is used as a near-infrared light-absorbing agent for photothermal therapy of cancer, obtaining excellent cancer ablation therapeutic effects in both cellular and animal experiments.

      Corrected by:

      Correction: Correction: In Vitro and In Vivo Near-Infrared Photothermal Therapy of Cancer Using Polypyrrole Organic Nanoparticles

      Vol. 25, Issue 7, 945, Article first published online: 14 FEB 2013

    6. Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanocages as Efficient Metal-Free Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction (pages 5593–5597)

      Sheng Chen, Jiyu Bi, Yu Zhao, Lijun Yang, Chen Zhang, Yanwen Ma, Qiang Wu, Xizhang Wang and Zheng Hu

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201202424

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Metal-free ORR Electrocatalysts: N-doped carbon nanocages (NCNCs) with large specific surface areas of up to 1393 m2 g−1, which demonstrate excellent ORR performance with high activity, are produced for the first time. Without the interference of any ORR-active metal impurities in NCNCs, the experimental results confirm that the ORR activity originates from the N-doped carbon species.

    7. Fabrication and Characterization of Beaded SiC Quantum Rings with Anomalous Red Spectral Shift (pages 5598–5603)

      Shikuan Yang, Brian Kiraly, William Yi Wang, Shunli Shang, Bingqiang Cao, Haibo Zeng, Yanhui Zhao, Weizhou Li, Zi-Kui Liu, Weiping Cai and Tony Jun Huang

      Article first published online: 22 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201202286

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      Beaded SiC quantum rings can be prepared by introducing a carbonization reaction at the laser-induced Si plasma and ethanol interface (referred to as reactive laser ablation). An anomalous red spectral shift is observed when the diameter of SiC nanocrystals within the SiC quantum rings is smaller than 3 nm. Experimental results and theoretical calculations indicate that the observed anomalous red spectral shift is ascribed to the contributions from surface structures (e.g., surface composition, surface reconstruction, and exposed crystal planes).

    8. Fluorescent Actuator Based on Microporous Conjugated Polymer with Intramolecular Stack Structure (pages 5604–5609)

      Wang-Eun Lee, Young-Jae Jin, Lee-Soon Park and Giseop Kwak

      Article first published online: 10 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201201967

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      Fluorescent bilayer film, consisting of an active layer of a microporous conjugated polymer with intramolecular stack structure, is successfully fabricated. This bilayer film shows the simultaneous occurrence in actuation and fluorescence change in response to external chemical stimuli. Highly reversible uncurling-curling movement, accompanied with changes in fluorescence color and intensity, is achieved upon sequential exposure to alcohol and water.

    9. Crumpled Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Nanosheets with Ultrahigh Pore Volume for High-Performance Supercapacitor (pages 5610–5616)

      Zhenhai Wen, Xinchen Wang, Shun Mao, Zheng Bo, Haejune Kim, Shumao Cui, Ganhua Lu, Xinliang Feng and Junhong Chen

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201201920

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      A reliable route for preparing highly crumpled nitrogen-doped graphene nanosheets (C-NGNSs) with ultrahigh pore volume was developed. The unique electrochemical properties of C-NGNSs make them a promising electrode for supercapacitors with high capacity, excellent rate capability, and long-term stability.

    10. Polymerizing Nonfluorescent Monomers without Incorporating any Fluorescent Agent Produces Strong Fluorescent Polymers (pages 5617–5624)

      Jun-Jie Yan, Zhong-Kai Wang, Xiang-Song Lin, Chun-Yan Hong, Hao-Jun Liang, Cai-Yuan Pan and Ye-Zi You

      Article first published online: 24 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201202201

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      Conventional polymers of nonfluorescent monomers show strong fluorescence without incorporating any fluorescent agent. The intensity of photoluminescence of these polymers is similar to that emitted by conventional fluorophore-containing polymers. This finding offers a simple yet versatile platform to prepare polymers of strong fluorescence without using fluorescent molecules.

    11. Highly Selective Chemical Sensing in a Luminescent Nanoporous Magnet (pages 5625–5629)

      Jesús Ferrando-Soria, Hossein Khajavi, Pablo Serra-Crespo, Jorge Gascon, Freek Kapteijn, Miguel Julve, Francesc Lloret, Jorge Pasán, Catalina Ruiz-Pérez, Yves Journaux and Emilio Pardo

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201201846

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      On the road to chemical sensors: A novel 2D oxamato-based manganese(II)-copper(II) mixed-metal–organic framework (M'MOF) exhibiting non-linear fluorescence and long-range magnetic ordering is reported. This new luminescent nanoporous magnet features highly selective solvent- and gas sorption-induced optical switching behavior, opening the door to potential application for sensing of small molecules.

    12. Amorphous Carbon under 80 kV Electron Irradiation: A Means to Make or Break Graphene (pages 5630–5635)

      Felix Börrnert, Stanislav M. Avdoshenko, Alicja Bachmatiuk, Imad Ibrahim, Bernd Büchner, Gianaurelio Cuniberti and Mark H. Rümmeli

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201202173

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      Amorphous carbon irradiated by electrons at acceleration voltages of 80 kV is studied in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Amorphous carbon deposited on graphene or h-BN membranes forms graphene layers parallel to the support due to van der Waals interactions. One can use deposited amorphous carbon to engineer graphene either for its catalyst-free fabrication or its destruction.

    13. Conjugated Polymers in Cages: Templating Poly(3-hexylthiophene) Nanocrystals by Inert Gel Matrices (pages 5636–5641)

      Edmondo M. Benetti, Valerio Causin and Michele Maggini

      Article first published online: 23 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201202288

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      Polymer gels template the assembly of rrP3HT into micro/nanostructures in which the order and size of molecular domains can be controlled by the crosslinking degree of the templating gel.

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