Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 24 Issue 46

December 4, 2012

Volume 24, Issue 46

Pages 6115–6247

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Review
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Communications
    1. Carbon Nanotubes: High Performance Ambipolar Field-Effect Transistor of Random Network Carbon Nanotubes (Adv. Mater. 46/2012) (page 6115)

      Satria Zulkarnaen Bisri, Jia Gao, Vladimir Derenskyi, Widianta Gomulya, Igor Iezhokin, Pavlo Gordiichuk, Andreas Herrmann and Maria Antonietta Loi

      Version of Record online: 29 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201290292

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      Selective purification of carbon nanotubes using conjugated polymers is utilized on page 6147 by Maria Antonietta Loi, Satria Zulkarnaen Bisri, and co-workers to fabricate high-performance ambipolar transistors. A device of drop-casted random-network nanotubes demonstrates high carrier mobilities and high on/off ratios for holes and electron accumulations. Together with the optical measurement results, the performance of the transistor indicates the purity of the nanotube dispersion with minimum residual polymer.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Review
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Communications
    1. Organic Semiconductors: Dry Lithography of Large-Area, Thin-Film Organic Semiconductors Using Frozen CO2 Resists (Adv. Mater. 46/2012) (page 6116)

      Matthias E. Bahlke, Hiroshi A. Mendoza, Daniel T. Ashall, Allen S. Yin and Marc A. Baldo

      Version of Record online: 29 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201290293

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      Frozen carbon dioxide can be used as a phase-change resist to perform dry lithography of organic thin films, as shown by Matthias E. Bahlke and co-workers on page 6136. The resist sublimes closest to the surface, separating the still-solid resist that in turn lifts off undesired organic material. This new technique will help address the incompatibility of organic semiconductors with traditional photolithography.

  3. Back Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Review
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Communications
    1. Photocatalysis: Iodine-Doped-Poly(3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene)-Modified Si Nanowire 1D Core-Shell Arrays as an Efficient Photocatalyst for Solar Hydrogen Generation (Adv. Mater. 46/2012) (page 6250)

      Tian Yang, Hui Wang, Xue-Mei Ou, Chun-Sing Lee and Xiao-Hong Zhang

      Version of Record online: 29 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201290294

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      Xiao-Hong Zhang and co-workers demonstrate on page 6199 a new one-dimensional core–shell strategy in the development of a stable visible-light photoanode for a hydrogen-generation photoelectrochemical cell. This Si/iodine-doped PEDOT one-dimensional nanocable array shows an encouraging solar-to-chemical energy conversion efficiency of 3.0%, and a H2 evolution rate of 112.39 μmol cm−2 h−1 under 100 mW cm−2 illumination. Coating with iodine-doped poly(3,4-eth-ylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT:I) enhances the photocatalytic efficiency and stability of SiNW arrays. This proposed PEC cell model shows a promising structure for H2 production using solar energy.

  4. Masthead

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Review
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Communications
    1. Masthead: (Adv. Mater. 46/2012)

      Version of Record online: 29 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201290295

  5. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Review
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Communications
  6. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Review
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Communications
    1. Thermoelectric Materials: Band Engineering of Thermoelectric Materials (Adv. Mater. 46/2012) (page 6124)

      Yanzhong Pei, Heng Wang and G. J. Snyder

      Version of Record online: 29 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201290290

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      Thermoelectric generators have been used for powering spacecrafts since the 1950s. Low material efficiency limits its application on a large scale. On page 6125, G. J. Snyder, Yanzhong Pei, and Heng Wang review strategies of engineering the electronic band structure, such as effective mass, degeneracy and band gap, which increase the material efficiency. These purely electronic strategies are independent of the approaches for low thermal conductivity, and may lead to revolutionary applications of thermoelectrics. The authors thank Nicholas A. Heinz for his help on the design of the cover image.

  7. Review

    1. Top of page
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    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Review
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Communications
    1. Band Engineering of Thermoelectric Materials (pages 6125–6135)

      Yanzhong Pei, Heng Wang and G. J. Snyder

      Version of Record online: 17 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201202919

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      Band structure engineering approaches for high-performance thermoelectric materials have been demonstrated in lead chalcogenides, shedding light on effective strategies to increase the performance of thermoelectrics. These approaches for enhancing electrical properties are in principle independent of other mechanisms to achieve low lattice thermal conductivity, and enable a combination of effects for revolutionary applications of thermoelectrics.

  8. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Review
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Communications
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Dry Lithography of Large-Area, Thin-Film Organic Semiconductors Using Frozen CO2 Resists (pages 6136–6140)

      Matthias E. Bahlke, Hiroshi A. Mendoza, Daniel T. Ashall, Allen S. Yin and Marc A. Baldo

      Version of Record online: 11 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201202446

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      To address the incompatibility of organic semiconductors with traditional photolithography, an inert, frozen CO2 resist is demonstrated that forms an in situ shadow mask. Contact with a room-temperature micro-featured stamp is used to pattern the resist. After thin film deposition, the remaining CO2 is sublimed to lift off unwanted material. Pixel densities of 325 pixels-per-inch are shown.

    2. Current-Confinement Structure and Extremely High Current Density in Organic Light-Emitting Transistors (pages 6141–6146)

      Kosuke Sawabe, Masaki Imakawa, Masaki Nakano, Takeshi Yamao, Shu Hotta, Yoshihiro Iwasa and Taishi Takenobu

      Version of Record online: 10 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201202252

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      Extremely high current densities are realized in single-crystal ambipolar light-emitting transistors using an electron-injection buffer layer and a current-confinement structure via laser etching. Moreover, a linear increase in the luminance was observed at current densities of up to 1 kA cm−2, which is an efficiency-preservation improvement of three orders of magnitude over conventional organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) at high current densities.

    3. High Performance Ambipolar Field-Effect Transistor of Random Network Carbon Nanotubes (pages 6147–6152)

      Satria Zulkarnaen Bisri, Jia Gao, Vladimir Derenskyi, Widianta Gomulya, Igor Iezhokin, Pavlo Gordiichuk, Andreas Herrmann and Maria Antonietta Loi

      Version of Record online: 24 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201202699

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      Ambipolar field-effect transistors of random network carbon nanotubes are fabricated from an enriched dispersion utilizing a conjugated polymer as the selective purifying medium. The devices exhibit high mobility values for both holes and electrons (3 cm2/V·s) with a high on/off ratio (106). The performance demonstrates the effectiveness of this process to purify semiconducting nanotubes and to remove the residual polymer.

    4. Simultaneous Control of Carriers and Localized Spins with Light in Organic Materials (pages 6153–6157)

      Toshio Naito, Tomoaki Karasudani, Keishi Ohara, Takahiro Takano, Yukihiro Takahashi, Tamotsu Inabe, Ko Furukawa and Toshikazu Nakamura

      Version of Record online: 11 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201203153

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      An organic insulating crystal reversibly becomes a magnetic conductor under UV irradiation. The rapid and qualitative change in the physical properties is wavelength selective and explained by charge transfer between donor and photochemically active acceptor molecules. The photochemical redox reaction in the crystal produces a partially filled band and localized spins simultaneously.

    5. Large-Scale Colloidal Synthesis of Non-Stoichiometric Cu2ZnSnSe4 Nanocrystals for Thermoelectric Applications (pages 6158–6163)

      Feng-Jia Fan, Yi-Xiu Wang, Xiao-Jing Liu, Liang Wu and Shu-Hong Yu

      Version of Record online: 10 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201202860

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      Over 10 g of non-stoichiometric Cu2ZnSnSe4 colloidal nanocrystals for thermoelectric applications are prepared after one single reaction. The obtained pellet made from the colloidal nanocrystals shows a peak ZT value of 0.44 at 450 °C, which is similar to those of state-of-the-art Cu2ZnSnSe4-based bulk materials at the same temperature.

    6. High-Hole-Mobility Field-Effect Transistors Based on Co-Benzobisthiadiazole-Quaterthiophene (pages 6164–6168)

      Jian Fan, Jonathan D. Yuen, Weibin Cui, Jason Seifter, Ali Reza Mohebbi, Mingfeng Wang, Huiqiong Zhou, Alan Heeger and Fred Wudl

      Version of Record online: 10 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201202195

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      High-mobility organic thin film transistors based on a benzobisthiadiazole-containing polymer are presented together with their morphological and optical properties. A very tight packing pattern of “edge-on” orientated polymer chains is observed in their thin films after annealing, and the hole mobility of this polymer is up to 2.5 cm2 V−1 s−1.

    7. Triplet Exciton Dissociation in Singlet Exciton Fission Photovoltaics (pages 6169–6174)

      Priya J. Jadhav, Patrick R. Brown, Nicholas Thompson, Benjamin Wunsch, Aseema Mohanty, Shane R. Yost, Eric Hontz, Troy Van Voorhis, Moungi G. Bawendi, Vladimir Bulović and Marc A. Baldo

      Version of Record online: 12 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201202397

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      Triplet exciton dissociation in singlet exciton fission devices with three classes of acceptors are characterized: fullerenes, perylene diimides, and PbS and PbSe colloidal nanocrystals. Using photocurrent spectroscopy and a magnetic field probe it is found that colloidal PbSe nanocrystals are the most promising acceptors, capable of efficient triplet exciton dissociation and long wavelength absorption.

    8. Bacteria-Responsive Multifunctional Nanogel for Targeted Antibiotic Delivery (pages 6175–6180)

      Meng-Hua Xiong, Ya-Juan Li, Yan Bao, Xian-Zhu Yang, Bing Hu and Jun Wang

      Version of Record online: 10 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201202847

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      Bacteria-Responsive Multifunctional Nanogel: We developed a bacteria-responsive multifunctional nanogel for targeted antibiotic delivery, in which bacterial enzymes are utilized to trigger antibiotic release by degrading the polyphosphoester core. The mannosylated nanogel preferentially delivers drugs to macrophages and leads to drug accumulation at bacterial infection sites through macrophage transport. This nanogel provides macrophage targeting and lesion site-activatable drug release properties, which enhances bacterial growth inhibition.

    9. N-Type Colloidal-Quantum-Dot Solids for Photovoltaics (pages 6181–6185)

      David Zhitomirsky, Melissa Furukawa, Jiang Tang, Philipp Stadler, Sjoerd Hoogland, Oleksandr Voznyy, Huan Liu and Edward H. Sargent

      Version of Record online: 12 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201202825

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      N-type PbS colloidal-quantum-dot (CQD) films are fabricated using a controlled halide chemical treatment, applied in an inert processing ambient environment. The new materials exhibit a mobility of 0.1 cm2 V−1 s−1. The halogen ions serve both as a passivating agent and n-dope the films via substitution at surface chalcogen sites. The majority electron concentration across the range 1016 to 1018 cm−3 is varied systematically.

    10. Aerosol-Assisted Molten Salt Synthesis of NaInS2 Nanoplates for Use as a New Photoanode Material (pages 6186–6191)

      Amanda K. P. Mann, Susanne Wicker and Sara E. Skrabalak

      Version of Record online: 7 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201202299

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      NaInS2, a H2-evolving photocatalyst, is synthesized as single-crystalline hexagonal plates by coupling a molten salt synthesis with ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) for the first time. USP NaInS2 films are used as a new photoanode material and have an initial photocurrent of ≈37 μA/cm2 upon illumination and activities 25 times greater than films made from a standard non-aerosol NaInS2 sample.

  9. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Review
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Communications
    1. Malachite Green Derivative–Functionalized Single Nanochannel: Light-and-pH Dual-Driven Ionic Gating (Adv. Mater. 46/2012) (page 6192)

      Liping Wen, Qian Liu, Jie Ma, Ye Tian, Cuihong Li, Zhishan Bo and Lei Jiang

      Version of Record online: 29 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201290291

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      An efficient and reversible ionic gating that can be activated by pH and light is demonstrated on page 6193 by Lei Jiang, Zhishan Bo, and co-workers, by modifying a malachite green derivative on the interior surface of an ion track-etched conical nanochannel. The switches between the OFF-state and the ON-state are dependent on the surface charge transition caused by the malachite green derivative, making it suitable for confined spaces. Such a dual-driven ionic gating could find applications in electronics, actuators, and biosensors.

  10. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Review
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Communications
    1. Malachite Green Derivative–Functionalized Single Nanochannel: Light-and-pH Dual-Driven Ionic Gating (pages 6193–6198)

      Liping Wen, Qian Liu, Jie Ma, Ye Tian, Cuihong Li, Zhishan Bo and Lei Jiang

      Version of Record online: 27 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201202673

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      A highly efficient and perfectly reversible ionic gate that can be activated by pH or UV light is demonstrated. Switching between the OFF state and the ON state is mainly dependent on the surface charge transition brought about by a malachite green derivative attached to the interior surface of an ion track-etched conical nanochannel, which makes it suitable for confined spaces. Applications in electronics, actuators, and biosensors can be foreseen.

    2. Iodine-Doped-Poly(3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene)-Modified Si Nanowire 1D Core-Shell Arrays as an Efficient Photocatalyst for Solar Hydrogen Generation (pages 6199–6203)

      Tian Yang, Hui Wang, Xue-Mei Ou, Chun-Sing Lee and Xiao-Hong Zhang

      Version of Record online: 7 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201202524

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      A new 1D core-shell strategy is demonstrated for a hydrogen-generation photo-electrochemical cell (PEC). This Si/iodine-doped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) 1D nanocable array shows an encouraging solar-to-chemical energy-conversion efficiency. Coating with iodine-doped PEDOT can effectively enhance the photocatalytic efficiency and stability of SiNW arrays. The PEC model proposed shows a potentially promising structure for H2 production using solar energy.

    3. Photoinduced Local Heating in Silica Photonic Crystals for Fast and Reversible Switching (pages 6204–6209)

      Francisco Gallego-Gómez, Alvaro Blanco and Cefe López

      Version of Record online: 14 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201202828

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      Fast and reversible photonic-bandgap tunability is achieved in silica artificial opals by local heating. The effect is fully reversible as heat rapidly dissipates through the non-irradiated structure without active cooling and water is readsorbed. The performance is strongly enhanced by decreasing the photoirradiated opal volume, allowing bandgap shifts of 12 nm and response times of 20 ms.

    4. Tailoring of Molecular Planarity to Reduce Charge Injection Barrier for High-Performance Small-Molecule-Based Ternary Memory Device with Low Threshold Voltage (pages 6210–6215)

      Shifeng Miao, Hua Li, Qingfeng Xu, Youyong Li, Shunjun Ji, Najun Li, Lihua Wang, Junwei Zheng and Jianmei Lu

      Version of Record online: 13 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201202319

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      By introducing a coplanar fluorenone into the center of an azo molecule, the turn-on voltages of the ternary memory devices are significantly decreased to lower than –2 V due to the improved crystallinity and the reduced charge injection barrier. The resulting low-power consumption devices will have great potential applications in high-performance chips for future portable nanoelectronic devices.

    5. Optically and Electrically Controlled Circularly Polarized Emission from Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Materials Doped with Semiconductor Quantum Dots (pages 6216–6222)

      Alexey Bobrovsky, Konstantin Mochalov, Vladimir Oleinikov, Alyona Sukhanova, Anatol Prudnikau, Mikhail Artemyev, Valery Shibaev and Igor Nabiev

      Version of Record online: 13 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201202227

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      Novel types of electro- and photoactive quantum dot-doped cholesteric materials have been engineered. UV-irradiation or electric field application allows one to control the degree of circular polarization and intensity of fluorescence emission by prepared quantum dot-doped liquid crystal films.

    6. A Synergistically Enhanced T1T2 Dual-Modal Contrast Agent (pages 6223–6228)

      Zijian Zhou, Dengtong Huang, Jianfeng Bao, Qiaoli Chen, Gang Liu, Zhong Chen, Xiaoyuan Chen and Jinhao Gao

      Version of Record online: 13 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201203169

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      Monodisperse Gd2O3-embedded iron oxide (GdIO) nanoparticles can simultaneously enhance the local magnetic field intensities of each other under an external magnetic field and result in synergistic enhancement of T1 and T2 effects. GdIO nanoparticles have the unique property to be both T1 and T2 contrast agents and can potentially lead to higher accuracy in cancer diagnosis, particularly liver tumors.

    7. Centimeter-Sized Dried Foam Films of Graphene: Preparation, Mechanical and Electronic Properties (pages 6229–6233)

      Wufeng Chen and Lifeng Yan

      Version of Record online: 10 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201203222

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      A simple method to fabricate centimeter-sized thin films of graphene oxide (GO) is developed via drying the relative liquid film supported by a rigid frame. After reduction, centimeter-sized thin reduced GO films are obtained, and the maximum transparency is 75.8% while the minimum sheet resistance is 920 Ω □−1.

    8. One-Pot Radical Polymerization of One Inimer to Form One-Dimensional Polymeric Nanomaterials (pages 6234–6239)

      Pengju Ma, Hui Nie, Qingqing Zhou, Yuesheng Li and Hewen Liu

      Version of Record online: 7 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201203230

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      A one-pot polymerization strategy is put forward for producing 1D polymeric nanomaterials directly from a single inimer. An inimer bearing an NMP initiating site is polymerized in the presence of a RAFT CTA to form a pearl-necklace structure constituted of hyperbranched polymer “pearls”. The obtained 1D nanorods show high regularity evidenced by the long-range order in small angle XRD patterns and the formation of liquid crystalline phases.

    9. Multiphase Designer Droplets for Liquid-Liquid Extraction (pages 6240–6243)

      Ville Jokinen, Risto Kostiainen and Tiina Sikanen

      Version of Record online: 7 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201202715

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      Multiphase liquid droplets consisting of three connected but immiscible liquid phases are demonstrated. The droplets have designer geometries stabilized by surface energy patterns; aqueous phases prefer contact with hydrophilic surface while organic phases prefer contact with hydrophobic areas. The multiphase droplets are applied for liquid-liquid-liquid extraction.

    10. Magnetizing DNA and Proteins Using Responsive Surfactants (pages 6244–6247)

      Paul Brown, Asad M. Khan, James P. K. Armstrong, Adam W. Perriman, Craig P. Butts and Julian Eastoe

      Version of Record online: 4 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201202685

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      DNA chains and their movement in solvent may now be controlled simply by surfactant binding and the switching “on” and “off” of a magnetic field adding a new paradigm to the study and control, condensation and manipulation of DNA (and other biomolecules). Such control is essential for biotechnological applications such as transfection and the regulation of gene suppression, as well as in materials science concerning soft molecular self-assemblies.

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