Advanced Materials

Cover image for Advanced Materials

Special Issue: Functional Molecules for Electronics/Optoelectronics

February 2, 2012

Volume 24, Issue 5

Pages 569–703

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Reviews
    8. Communications
    1. Special Issue: Functional Molecules for Electronics/Optoelectronics: (Adv. Mater. 5/2012) (page 569)

      Version of Record online: 26 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201290019

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      The front cover of this Special Issue on functional molecules for electronics/optoelectronics illustrates the “molecular toolbox” approach that has been impressively and very successfully used by Klaus Müllen and his co-workers over the years in the design of new chromophores, oligomers, den-drimers, and polymers of different dimensionality (1D, 2D, 3D). This Special Issue also celebrates Klaus Müllen's 65th Birthday.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Reviews
    8. Communications
    1. Patterning: Spatially Modulating Interfacial Properties of Transparent Conductive Oxides: Patterning Work Function with Phosphonic Acid Self-Assembled Monolayers (Adv. Mater. 5/2012) (page 570)

      Kristina M. Knesting, Peter J. Hotchkiss, Bradley A. MacLeod, Seth R. Marder and David S. Ginger

      Version of Record online: 26 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201290020

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      Kristina Knesting, Seth Marder, David Ginger and co-workers demonstrate on 642 the patterning of transparent conductive oxides with phosphonic acid monolayers. With their method the authors achieve high contrast and high resolution control over local work functions, injection barriers, and optoelectronic performance of organic electronics The inside cover shows tessellated optical microscopy images of 5-micrometer electroluminescent spots from a polymer light-emitting diode.

  3. Masthead

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Reviews
    8. Communications
    1. Masthead: (Adv. Mater. 5/2012)

      Version of Record online: 26 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201290021

  4. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Reviews
    8. Communications
  5. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Reviews
    8. Communications
    1. You have free access to this content
      Organic Electronics/Optics: For An Energetic Life (pages 576–579)

      Ullrich Scherf and He Tian

      Version of Record online: 26 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201104917

  6. Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Reviews
    8. Communications
    1. Stability of Polymer Solar Cells (pages 580–612)

      Mikkel Jørgensen, Kion Norrman, Suren A. Gevorgyan, Thomas Tromholt, Birgitta Andreasen and Frederik C. Krebs

      Version of Record online: 29 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201104187

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      Polymer and organic solar cells are reviewed with respect to the progress in stability and reporting operational stability. The research presented here points to a growing understanding of how to control the chemical and physical processes of these increasingly complex devices ultimately enabling wide-spread application.

    2. Perylene Imides for Organic Photovoltaics: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow (pages 613–636)

      Chen Li and Henrike Wonneberger

      Version of Record online: 9 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201104447

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      1st (yesterday), 2nd (today) and 3rd (tomorrow) generation perylene imides, their designated material properties, and photovoltaic performance in organic solar cells are presented and discussed in this review. This class of chromophores has developed alongside photovoltaics and with the promises that the latest generation of perylene imides holds, they will continue to play a major role in the future.

  7. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Reviews
    8. Communications
    1. A Convenient Preparation of Multi-Spectral Microparticles by Bacteria-Mediated Assemblies of Conjugated Polymer Nanoparticles for Cell Imaging and Barcoding (pages 637–641)

      Xuli Feng, Gaomai Yang, Libing Liu, Fengting Lv, Qiong Yang, Shu Wang and Daoben Zhu

      Version of Record online: 20 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201102026

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      A novel technique was developed for preparing encoded multicolour microparticles based on the self-assembly of bacteria and conjugated polymer nanoparticles (CPNs) by a very simple and time-saving manner. These bacteria–CPNs microparticles show multicolor emissions by tuning FRET efficiencies among CPNs under single excitation wavelength and can be successfully applied for cell imaging and optical barcoding.

    2. Spatially Modulating Interfacial Properties of Transparent Conductive Oxides: Patterning Work Function with Phosphonic Acid Self-Assembled Monolayers (pages 642–646)

      Kristina M. Knesting, Peter J. Hotchkiss, Bradley A. MacLeod, Seth R. Marder and David S. Ginger

      Version of Record online: 29 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201102321

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      The interface between an organic semiconductor and a transparent conducting oxide is crucial to the performance of organic optoelectronics. We use microcontact printing to pattern pentafluorobenzyl phosphonic acid self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on indium tin oxide (ITO). We obtain high-fidelity patterns with sharply defined edges and with large work function contrast (comparable to that obtained from phosphonic acid SAMs deposited from solution).

    3. High-Performance Ambipolar Diketopyrrolopyrrole-Thieno[3,2-b]thiophene Copolymer Field-Effect Transistors with Balanced Hole and Electron Mobilities (pages 647–652)

      Zhuoying Chen, Mi Jung Lee, Raja Shahid Ashraf, Yun Gu, Sebastian Albert-Seifried, Martin Meedom Nielsen, Bob Schroeder, Thomas D. Anthopoulos, Martin Heeney, Iain McCulloch and Henning Sirringhaus

      Version of Record online: 14 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201102786

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      Ambipolar OFETs with balanced hole and electron field-effect mobilities both exceeding 1 cm2 V−1 s−1 are achieved based on a single-solution-processed conjugated polymer, DPPT-TT, upon careful optimization of the device architecture, charge injection, and polymer processing. Such high-performance OFETs are promising for applications in ambipolar devices and integrated circuits, as well as model systems for fundamental studies.

    4. Comparison of the Conductance of Three Types of Porphyrin-Based Molecular Wires: β,meso,β-Fused Tapes, meso-Butadiyne-Linked and Twisted meso-meso Linked Oligomers (pages 653–657)

      Gita Sedghi, Louisa J. Esdaile, Harry L. Anderson, Santiago Martin, Donald Bethell, Simon J. Higgins and Richard J. Nichols

      Version of Record online: 15 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201103109

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      The length dependence of charge transport is evaluated in three families of porphyrin-based wires. Planar edge-fused tapes and alkyne-linked oligomers mediate efficient charge transport with exceptionally shallow distance dependence, whereas the conductances of the twisted singly linked chains decrease steeply with increasing oligomer length. The planar tapes are more conjugated than the alkyne-linked oligomers, but these two types of wires have similar conductance attenuation factors.

    5. Substrate-Induced Crystal Plastic Phase of a Discotic Liquid Crystal (pages 658–662)

      Gabin Gbabode, Nicolas Dumont, Florence Quist, Guillaume Schweicher, Armin Moser, Pascal Viville, Roberto Lazzaroni and Yves H. Geerts

      Version of Record online: 15 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201103739

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      A new phase of a known discotic liquid crystal is observed at the interface with a rigid substrate. The structure of the substrate-induced phase has been characterized by atomic force microscopy, specular X-ray diffraction, and small-angle and wide-angle grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. The substrate-induced phase, which has a thickness of ∼30 nm and a tetragonal symmetry, differs notably from the bulk phase. The occurrence of such phase casts a new light on alignment of discotic liquid crystals.

    6. The Mechanism of Burn-in Loss in a High Efficiency Polymer Solar Cell (pages 663–668)

      Craig H. Peters, I. T. Sachs-Quintana, William R. Mateker, Thomas Heumueller, Jonathan Rivnay, Rodigo Noriega, Zach M. Beiley, Eric T. Hoke, Alberto Salleo and Michael D. McGehee

      Version of Record online: 11 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201103010

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      Degradation in a high efficiency polymer solar cell is caused by the formation of states in the bandgap. These states increase the energetic disorder in the system. The power conversion efficiency loss does not occur when current is run through the device in the dark but occurs when the active layer is photo-excited.

    7. Solvent Additive Control of Morphology and Crystallization in Semiconducting Polymer Blends (pages 669–674)

      Xueliang Liu, Sven Huettner, Zhuxia Rong, Michael Sommer and Richard H. Friend

      Version of Record online: 23 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201103097

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      4-bromoanisole is used as a very versatile processing additive to control the phase separation and phase purity of organic photovoltaic devices. Polymer-polymer blends based on P3HT as donor and a wide range of acceptor materials (F8TBT, PCDTBT,…) are investigated. The additive promotes the aggregation of P3HT which improves the morphology for both initially mixed and demixed blends.

    8. Interrelation between Crystal Packing and Small-Molecule Organic Solar Cell Performance (pages 675–680)

      Roland Fitzner, Chris Elschner, Matthias Weil, Christian Uhrich, Christian Körner, Moritz Riede, Karl Leo, Martin Pfeiffer, Egon Reinold, Elena Mena-Osteritz and Peter Bäuerle

      Version of Record online: 5 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201104439

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      X-ray investigations on single crystals of a series of terminally dicyanovinyl-substituted quaterthiophenes and co-evaporated blend layers with C60 give insight into molecular packing behavior and morphology, which are crucial parameters in the field of organic electronics. Structural characteristics on various levels and length scales are correlated with the photovoltaic performance of bulk heterojunction small-molecule organic solar cells.

    9. Dye-Terminated, Hyperbranched Polytruxenes and Polytruxene-block-Polythiophene Multiblock Copolymers Made in an “AB2 + A” Approach (pages 681–686)

      Jan-Moritz Koenen, Stefan Jung, Abhijit Patra, Anke Helfer and Ullrich Scherf

      Version of Record online: 9 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201102993

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      Novel dye-terminated, hyperbranched polytruxenes and polytruxene-block-polythiophene multiblock copolymers have been synthesized in a simple “AB2 + A” approach. Photoexcitation into the higher energy polytruxene absorption band results in an efficient excitation energy transfer to the peripheral dye or polythiophene blocks.

    10. Surface Modification of Indium-Tin-Oxide Via Self-Assembly of a Donor-Acceptor Complex: A Density Functional Theory Study (pages 687–693)

      Hong Li, Paul Winget and Jean-Luc Bredas

      Version of Record online: 3 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201103009

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      The authors study at the density-functional theory level the modification of the electronic structure of the ITO surface upon self-assembly of a monolayer of t-butyl carbazole-substituted phosphonic acid molecules and subsequent p-doping. The results of the calculations point to the existence of two channels for charge transfer. These channels can enhance hole injection between ITO and a hole-transport overlayer through the chemically-modified interface.

    11. Molecular Crystal Lithography: A Facile and Low-Cost Approach to Fabricate Nanogap Electrodes (pages 694–698)

      Lang Jiang, Huanli Dong, Qing Meng, Jiahui Tan, Wei Jiang, Cuiying Xu, Zhaohui Wang and Wenping Hu

      Version of Record online: 31 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201103098

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      A novel cost-efficient and facile technique, molecular crystal lithography, to fabricate nanogap electrodes efficiently is reported. The gap width of the electrodes can be tuned from ∼9 nm to several micrometers. Organic field-effect transistors based on the nanogap electrodes all exhibit a high performance, indicating the effectiveness and practicability of molecular crystal lithography for mass production of nanogap electrodes.

    12. n-Doping of Organic Electronic Materials using Air-Stable Organometallics (pages 699–703)

      Song Guo, Sang Bok Kim, Swagat K. Mohapatra, Yabing Qi, Tissa Sajoto, Antoine Kahn, Seth R. Marder and Stephen Barlow

      Version of Record online: 7 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201103238

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      Air-stable dimers of sandwich compounds including rhodocene and (pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)(arene)ruthenium and iron derivatives can be used for n-doping electron-transport materials with electron affinities as small as 2.8 eV. A p-i-n homojunction diode based on copper phthalocyanine and using rhodocene dimer as n-dopant shows a rectification ratio of greater than 106 at 4 V.

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