Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 25 Issue 11

March 20, 2013

Volume 25, Issue 11

Pages 1513–1652

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
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    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Progress Report
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Communications
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      Organic Electronics: Hydrogen-Bonded Semiconducting Pigments for Air-Stable Field-Effect Transistors (Adv. Mater. 11/2013) (page 1513)

      Eric Daniel Głowacki, Mihai Irimia-Vladu, Martin Kaltenbrunner, Jacek Ga̧siorowski, Matthew S. White, Uwe Monkowius, Giuseppe Romanazzi, Gian Paolo Suranna, Piero Mastrorilli, Tsuyoshi Sekitani, Siegfried Bauer, Takao Someya, Luisa Torsi and Niyazi Serdar Sariciftci

      Version of Record online: 11 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370068

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      Perhaps the same materials used in printer inks and hair dyes can be employed in future electronic technologies? The front cover illustrates the use of hydrogen-bonded pigments, well-established printing inks, in organic electronic circuits. On page 1563, Eric Daniel Głowacki and co-workers present a new perspective for the design of stable organic semiconducting molecules based on intermolecular π-stacking reinforced by hydrogen-bonding bridges. Image design: Georg Wieser, WIEsuell-3D Animation & Multimedia, Austria.

  2. Inside Front Cover

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    5. Masthead
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    9. Communications
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    11. Communications
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      Cell Capture: Capture and Stimulated Release of Circulating Tumor Cells on Polymer-Grafted Silicon Nanostructures (Adv. Mater. 11/2013) (page 1514)

      Shuang Hou, Haichao Zhao, Libo Zhao, Qinglin Shen, Kevin S. Wei, Daniel Y. Suh, Aiko Nakao, Mitch A. Garcia, Min Song, Tom Lee, Bin Xiong, Shyh-Chyang Luo, Hsian-Rong Tseng and Hsiao-hua Yu

      Version of Record online: 11 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370069

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      Combining silicon nanostructures and thermoresponsive polymer brushes, a new nanoscale Velcrolike device is created by Hsiao-hua Yu, Hsian-Rong Tseng, Shyh-Chyang Luo, and co-workers on page 1547. At body temperature, these polymer brushes stick to the tumor cells and capture them with enhanced efficiencies (lower part of the image). When cooled, they release these cells with great viability (upper part of the image), allowing scientists to examine these cells.

  3. Back Cover

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    9. Communications
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    11. Communications
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      Light Harvesting: Photon Upconversion in Hetero-nanostructured Photoanodes for Enhanced Near-Infrared Light Harvesting (Adv. Mater. 11/2013) (page 1656)

      Liap Tat Su, Siva Krishna Karuturi, Jingshan Luo, Lijun Liu, Xinfeng Liu, Jun Guo, Tze Chien Sum, Renren Deng, Hong Jin Fan, Xiaogang Liu and Alfred Iing Yoong Tok

      Version of Record online: 11 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370070

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      A hetero-nanostructured photoanode with enhanced near-infrared light harvesting is developed for photoelectrochemical cells by Alfred Iing Yoong Tok, Xiaogang Liu and co-workers on page 1603. The photoanode comprises upconversion nanoparticles on the surface of titanium oxide inverse opal. A nanoshell of titanium oxide is deposited on the nanoparticles, followed by CdSe quantum dots. Upon near infrared excitation, upconversion nanoparticles emit visible light that excites quantum dots for charge separation. Electrons are injected into titanium oxide with minimal carrier losses. This heteronanostructure is envisioned to be applicable to thin film, liquid-junction, and organic solar cells where near-infrared light can be harvested for improved photon-to-electricity conversion efficiency.

  4. Masthead

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      Masthead: (Adv. Mater. 11/2013)

      Version of Record online: 11 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370071

  5. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Progress Report
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
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    11. Communications
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  6. Progress Report

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    6. Contents
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    9. Communications
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    11. Communications
    1. Classification of Lattice Defects in the Kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 and Cu2ZnSnSe4 Earth-Abundant Solar Cell Absorbers (pages 1522–1539)

      Shiyou Chen, Aron Walsh, Xin-Gao Gong and Su-Huai Wei

      Version of Record online: 11 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201203146

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      The physics of lattice defects in kesterite structured Cu2ZnSnS4 and Cu2ZnSnSe4 and chalcopyrite structured CuInSe2 and CuGaSe2 crystals is investigated and compared based on the first-principles calculations. The influence of shallow acceptor defects, deep donor defects and charge-compensated defect clusters on the non-stoichiometry, hole carrier concentration and solar cell efficiency of these materials is revealed.

  7. Frontispiece

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    9. Communications
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    11. Communications
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      Electronically Programmable, Reversible Shape Change in Two- and Three-Dimensional Hydrogel Structures (Adv. Mater. 11/2013) (page 1540)

      Cunjiang Yu, Zheng Duan, Peixi Yuan, Yuhang Li, Yewang Su, Xun Zhang, Yuping Pan, Lenore L. Dai, Ralph G. Nuzzo, Yonggang Huang, Hanqing Jiang and John A. Rogers

      Version of Record online: 11 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370073

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      Adaptive soft materials that can autonomously or programmably change their shapes are of significant recent interest due to their broad applications. On page 1541 John A. Rogers, Hanqing Jiang , and co-workers combine compliant electrode arrays in open-mesh constructs with hydrogels to yield a class of soft actuator, capable of complex, programmable changes in shape.

  8. Communications

    1. Top of page
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    5. Masthead
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    7. Progress Report
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Communications
    1. Electronically Programmable, Reversible Shape Change in Two- and Three-Dimensional Hydrogel Structures (pages 1541–1546)

      Cunjiang Yu, Zheng Duan, Peixi Yuan, Yuhang Li, Yewang Su, Xun Zhang, Yuping Pan, Lenore L. Dai, Ralph G. Nuzzo, Yonggang Huang, Hanqing Jiang and John A. Rogers

      Version of Record online: 19 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201204180

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      Combining compliant electrode arrays in open-mesh constructs with hydrogels yields a class of soft actuator, capable of complex, programmable changes in shape. The results include materials strategies, integration approaches, and mechanical/thermal analysis of heater meshes embedded in thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAM) hydrogels with forms ranging from 2D sheets to 3D hemispherical shells.

    2. Capture and Stimulated Release of Circulating Tumor Cells on Polymer-Grafted Silicon Nanostructures (pages 1547–1551)

      Shuang Hou, Haichao Zhao, Libo Zhao, Qinglin Shen, Kevin S. Wei, Daniel Y. Suh, Aiko Nakao, Mitch A. Garcia, Min Song, Tom Lee, Bin Xiong, Shyh-Chyang Luo, Hsian-Rong Tseng and Hsiao-hua Yu

      Version of Record online: 17 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201203185

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      A platform for capture and release of circulating tumor cells is demonstrated by utilizing polymer grafted silicon nanowires. In this platform, integration of ligand-receptor recognition, nanostructure amplification, and thermal responsive polymers enables a highly efficient and selective capture of cancer cells. Subsequently, these captured cells are released upon a physical stimulation with outstanding cell viability.

    3. Can Polymorphism be Used to form Branched Metal Nanostructures? (pages 1552–1556)

      Alec P. LaGrow, Soshan Cheong, John Watt, Bridget Ingham, Michael F. Toney, David A. Jefferson and Richard D. Tilley

      Version of Record online: 20 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201204366

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      Branched metal nanostructures are of great technological importance because of their unique size- and shape-dependent properties. A kinetically controlled synthesis that uses polymorphism to produce branched nickel nanoparticles is presented. These nanoparticles consist of a face-centred cubic (fcc) core and extended arms of alternating fcc and hexagonal close-packed (hcp) nickel phases.

    4. Anisotropic Topological Surface States on High-Index Bi2Se3 Films (pages 1557–1562)

      Zhongjie Xu, Xin Guo, Mengyu Yao, Hongtao He, Lin Miao, Lu Jiao, Hongchao Liu, Jiannong Wang, Dong Qian, Jinfeng Jia, Wingkin Ho and Maohai Xie

      Version of Record online: 22 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201202936

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      A high-index topological insulator thin film, Bi2Se3(221), is grown on a faceted InP(001) substrate by molecular-beam epitaxy (see model in figure (a)). Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurement reveals the Dirac cone structure of the surface states on such a surface (figure (b)). The Fermi surface is elliptical (figure (c)), suggesting an anisotropy along different crystallographic directions. Transport studies also reveal a strong anisotropy in Hall conductance.

    5. Hydrogen-Bonded Semiconducting Pigments for Air-Stable Field-Effect Transistors (pages 1563–1569)

      Eric Daniel Głowacki, Mihai Irimia-Vladu, Martin Kaltenbrunner, Jacek Gsiorowski, Matthew S. White, Uwe Monkowius, Giuseppe Romanazzi, Gian Paolo Suranna, Piero Mastrorilli, Tsuyoshi Sekitani, Siegfried Bauer, Takao Someya, Luisa Torsi and Niyazi Serdar Sariciftci

      Version of Record online: 13 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201204039

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      Extensive intramolecular π-conjugation is considered to be requisite in the design of organic semiconductors. Here, two inkjet pigments, epindolidione and quinacridone, that break this design rule are explored. These molecules afford intermolecular π-stacking reinforced by hydrogen-bonding bridges. Air-stable organic field effect transistors are reported that support mobilities up to 1.5 cm2/Vs with T80 lifetimes comparable with the most stable reported organic semiconducting materials.

  9. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Progress Report
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Communications
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      Lithium-Ion Batteries: Mussel-Inspired Adhesive Binders for High-Performance Silicon Nanoparticle Anodes in Lithium-Ion Batteries (Adv. Mater. 11/2013) (page 1570)

      Myung-Hyun Ryou, Jangbae Kim, Inhwa Lee, Sunjin Kim, You Kyeong Jeong, Seonki Hong, Ji Hyun Ryu, Taek-Soo Kim, Jung-Ki Park, Haeshin Lee and Jang Wook Choi

      Version of Record online: 11 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370074

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      Mussels provide a clever idea for lithium battery technology! Jang Wook Choi, Haeshin Lee, and co-workers were inspired by the unusual wet-adhesion capability of mussels. On page 1571, the researchers conjugate mussel-inspired catechol groups to various polymer backbones and use them as binders for silicon lithium battery anodes. The mussel-inspired binders increase the capacity and lifetime of silicon anodes significantly

  10. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Progress Report
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Communications
    1. Mussel-Inspired Adhesive Binders for High-Performance Silicon Nanoparticle Anodes in Lithium-Ion Batteries (pages 1571–1576)

      Myung-Hyun Ryou, Jangbae Kim, Inhwa Lee, Sunjin Kim, You Kyeong Jeong, Seonki Hong, Ji Hyun Ryu, Taek-Soo Kim, Jung-Ki Park, Haeshin Lee and Jang Wook Choi

      Version of Record online: 27 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201203981

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      Conjugation of mussel-inspired catechol groups to various polymer backbones results in materials suitable as silicon anode binders. The unique wetness-resistant adhesion provided by the catechol groups allows the silicon nanoparticle electrodes to maintain their structure throughout the repeated volume expansion and shrinkage during lithiation cycling, thus facilitating substantially improved specific capacities and cycle lives of lithium-ion batteries.

    2. Enhancing the Thermoelectric Power Factor by Using Invisible Dopants (pages 1577–1582)

      Mona Zebarjadi, Bolin Liao, Keivan Esfarjani, Mildred Dresselhaus and Gang Chen

      Version of Record online: 17 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201204802

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      Nanoparticle dopants that are invisible to conduction electrons and have sharp dips in their electron scattering rate versus electron energy close to the Fermi level. Replacement of such dopants with traditional impurities results in simultaneous enhancement of the Seebeck coefficient and the electron mobility and therefore a large enhancement in the thermoelectric power factor can be achieved.

    3. Vapor-Phase Microprinting of Multicolor Phosphorescent Organic Light Emitting Device Arrays (pages 1583–1588)

      Gregory J. McGraw and Stephen R. Forrest

      Version of Record online: 20 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201204410

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      Multicolor electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting diode (OLED) pixel patterning by organic vapor jet printing (OVJP) is demonstrated, showing that this technique is capable of rapidly generating high-definition full-color displays. The resolution limits, and means to achieve them are described using a combination of simulation and experimental approaches.

    4. Self-Healing Stretchable Wires for Reconfigurable Circuit Wiring and 3D Microfluidics (pages 1589–1592)

      Etienne Palleau, Stephen Reece, Sharvil C. Desai, Michael E. Smith and Michael D. Dickey

      Version of Record online: 18 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201203921

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      This article describes the fabrication of self-healing stretchable wires formed by embedding liquid metal wires in microchannels composed of self-healing polymer. These stretchable wires can be completely severed with scissors and rapidly self-heal both mechanically and electrically at ambient conditions. By cutting the channels strategically, the pieces can be re-assembled in a different order to form complex microfluidic networks in 2D or 3D space.

    5. Conjugated Oligoelectrolytes Increase Power Generation in E. coli Microbial Fuel Cells (pages 1593–1597)

      Huijie Hou, Xiaofen Chen, Alexander W. Thomas, Chelsea Catania, Nathan D. Kirchhofer, Logan E. Garner, Arum Han and Guillermo C. Bazan

      Version of Record online: 23 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201204271

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      A series of conjugated oligoelectrolytes with structural variations is used to stain E. coli. By taking advantage of a high-throughput screening platform that incorporates gold anodes, it is found that MFCs with COE-modified E. coli generate significantly higher power densities, relative to unmodified E. coli. These findings highlight the potential of using water-soluble molecules inspired by the work on organic semiconductors to improve electrode/microbe interfaces.

    6. Purification of High-Complexity Peptide Microarrays by Spatially Resolved Array Transfer to Gold-Coated Membranes (pages 1598–1602)

      Christopher Schirwitz, Felix F. Loeffler, Thomas Felgenhauer, Volker Stadler, Alexander Nesterov-Mueller, Reiner Dahint, Frank Breitling and F. Ralf Bischoff

      Version of Record online: 14 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201203853

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      A method for the one-step purification of high-complexity peptide microarrays is presented. The entire peptide library is transferred from the synthesis support to a gold coated polyvinylidenfluoride (PVDF) membrane, whereby only full-length peptides covalently couple to the receptor membrane via an N-terminally added cysteine. Highly resolved peptide transfer and purification of up to 10 000 features per cm2 is demonstrated.

    7. Photon Upconversion in Hetero-nanostructured Photoanodes for Enhanced Near-Infrared Light Harvesting (pages 1603–1607)

      Liap Tat Su, Siva Krishna Karuturi, Jingshan Luo, Lijun Liu, Xinfeng Liu, Jun Guo, Tze Chien Sum, Renren Deng, Hong Jin Fan, Xiaogang Liu and Alfred Iing Yoong Tok

      Version of Record online: 3 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201204353

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      A hetero-nanostructured photoanode with enhanced near-infrared light harvesting is developed for photo-electrochemical cells. By spatially coating upconversion nanoparticles and quantum dot photosensitizers onto TiO2 inverse opal, this architecture allows direct irradiation of upconversion nanoparticles to emit visible light that excites quantum dots for charge separation. Electrons are injected into TiO2 with minimal carrier losses due to continuous electron conducting interface.

    8. Ultrasound Assisted Design of Sulfur/Carbon Cathodes with Partially Fluorinated Ether Electrolytes for Highly Efficient Li/S Batteries (pages 1608–1615)

      Wei Weng, Vilas G. Pol and Khalil Amine

      Version of Record online: 20 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201204051

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      A one-step, eco-friendly ultrasound-assisted process is established for the rapid synthesis of sulfur-carbon composite cathode materials, avoiding the widely used, energy inefficient “melt-down” process for Li-S batteries. It is demonstrated that, without inserting sulfur into pores of carbon, the coulombic efficiency of SC/Li cell in the new DOL/D2 electrolyte is greater than 96% for 100 cycles, which is far superior to the reported numerous electrolyte formulations.

    9. Engineering the Assemblies of Biomaterial Nanocarriers for Delivery of Multiple Theranostic Agents with Enhanced Antitumor Efficacy (pages 1616–1622)

      Hai Wang, Yan Wu, Ruifang Zhao and Guangjun Nie

      Version of Record online: 22 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201204750

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      The rapid development of nanotechnology holds great promise for revolutionizing the current landscape of tumor drug delivery. However, one of the biggest challenges is developing a simple nanocarrier platform to co-deliver various therapeutic agents. Here, a strategy for fabricating nanocarriers with many desirable features is demonstrated. The resulting nanoparticles achieve both high antitumor efficacy and effective inhibition of tumor metastasis with minimal side effects.

    10. Nanostructural Anisotropy Underlies Anisotropic Electrical Bistability (pages 1623–1628)

      Pramod P. Pillai, Krzysztof Pacławski, Jiwon Kim and Bartosz A. Grzybowski

      Version of Record online: 20 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201202915

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      Regular arrays of nanorods having asymmetric cross-sections are fabricated by a combination of electrodeposition and glancing-angle deposition (GLAD). When these nanorods are embedded in a polymer matrix, they give rise to composite materials in which the structural anisotropy at the nanoscale translates into functional anisotropy in the form of direction-dependent electrical bistability. The degree of this directional bistability depends on and can be controlled by the spacing between the nearby nanorods.

    11. Effect of Interfacial Properties on Polymer–Nanocrystal Thermoelectric Transport (pages 1629–1633)

      Nelson E. Coates, Shannon K. Yee, Bryan McCulloch, Kevin C. See, Arun Majumdar, Rachel A. Segalman and Jeffrey J. Urban

      Version of Record online: 28 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201203915

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      The electrical behavior of a conducting-polymer/inorganic-nanowire composite is explained with a model in which carrier transport occurs predominantly through a highly conductive volume of polymer that exists at the polymer-nanowire interface. This result highlights the importance of controlling nanoscale interfaces for thermoelectric materials, and provides a general route for improving carrier transport in organic/inorganic composites.

    12. Self-Healing Polymer Coatings Based on Crosslinked Metallosupramolecular Copolymers (pages 1634–1638)

      Stefan Bode, Linda Zedler, Felix H. Schacher, Benjamin Dietzek, Michael Schmitt, Jürgen Popp, Martin D. Hager and Ulrich S. Schubert

      Version of Record online: 27 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201203865

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      Self-healing coating based on metallopolymers are prepared and fully characterized. Iron bisterpyridine complexes are incorporated into a polymer network based on methacrylates, resulting in self-healing properties of these materials. Moreover, the influence of the comonomers on the thermal properties is studied in detail.

    13. Room-Temperature Ferromagnetism in ZnO-Encapsulated 1.9 nm FePt3 Nanoparticle–Composite Thin Films with Giant Interfacial Anisotropy (pages 1639–1645)

      Lei Shen, Tiejun Zhou, Rui Qi Wee, Kiat Min Cher, Hnin Yu Yu Ko, Rui Niu, Hao Gong, Zhimin Yuan, Bo Liu and Yuan Ping Feng

      Version of Record online: 18 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201204135

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      As synthesized 1.9-nm FePt3 nanoparticles are superparamagnetic at room temperature. Coating those nanoparticles with ZnO renders them permanently ferromagnetic with coercivity field of 650 Oe at room temperature. First-principles calculations indicate that giant interfacial anisotropy, induced by the strong spin-orbit interaction of enhanced orbit momentum of Fe, overcomes the superparamagnetic limit, leading to exceptional room-temperature permanent ferromagnetism. The findings are important for the understanding of the origin of permanent ferromagnetism at ultrasmall size and critical for ultrahigh density recording and information processing.

    14. High-Efficiency Polymer Solar Cells Enhanced by Solvent Treatment (pages 1646–1652)

      Huiqiong Zhou, Yuan Zhang, Jason Seifter, Samuel D. Collins, Chan Luo, Guillermo C. Bazan, Thuc-Quyen Nguyen and Alan J. Heeger

      Version of Record online: 28 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201204306

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      A significant enhancement of efficiency in thieno[3,4-b]-thiophene/benzodithiophene:[6,6]-phenyl C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PTB7:PC70BM) solar cells can be achieved by methanol treatment. The effects of methanol treatment are shown in an improvement of built-in voltage, a decrease in series resistance, an enhanced charge-transport property, an accelerated and enlarged charge extraction, and a reduced charge recombination, which induce a simultaneous enhancement in open-circuit voltage (Voc), short-circuit current (Jsc), and fill factor (FF) in the devices.

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