Advanced Materials

Cover image for Advanced Materials

April 18, 2013

Volume 25, Issue 15

Pages 2105–2245

  1. Cover Picture

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    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Progress Report
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
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    12. Communications
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      Thin Film Transistors: Dual Channel Operation Upon n-Channel Percolation in a Pentacene-C60 Ambipolar Organic Thin Film Transistor (Adv. Mater. 15/2013) (page 2105)

      Simon J. Noever, Stefan Fischer and Bert Nickel

      Version of Record online: 12 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370093

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      Bert Nickel and co-workers report on page 2147 an in-situ characterization of the evolution of a pentacene-fullerene ambipolar transistor. The experiment highlights the importance of film percolation for interface charging in organic heterojunctions. The cover picture visualizes the pentacene/C60 transistor geometry during fullerene deposition, including topological and structural information obtained via AFM and X-ray investigations. Image: Christoph Hohmann, Nanosystems Initiative Munich.

  2. Inside Front Cover

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    10. Communications
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      Semiconductor Nanowires: Evaporation-Induced Self-Alignment and Transfer of Semiconductor Nanowires by Wrinkled Elastomeric Templates (Adv. Mater. 15/2013) (page 2106)

      Seung Goo Lee, Haena Kim, Hyun Ho Choi, Hyojin Bong, Yeong Don Park, Wi Hyoung Lee and Kilwon Cho

      Version of Record online: 12 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370094

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      The evaporation-induced self-alignment of semiconductor nanowires is achieved using wrinkled elastomeric templates. The confined geometry of the wrinkled templates provides a unique environment for controlling a flow within the evaporating droplet, which, in turn, regulates the ordered and aligned deposition of nanowires, as reported by Kilwon Cho and co-workers on page 2162. The nanowire-deposited templates are transferred to target substrates by exploiting the reversible character of the wrinkled template.

  3. Back Cover

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      Biophotonics: Bio-Inspired Band-Gap Tunable Elastic Optical Multilayer Fibers (Adv. Mater. 15/2013) (page 2248)

      Mathias Kolle, Alfred Lethbridge, Moritz Kreysing, Jeremy J. Baumberg, Joanna Aizenberg and Peter Vukusic

      Version of Record online: 12 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370095

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      The back cover illustrates band-gap tunable bioinspired photonic fibers created by Peter Vukusic, Mathias Kolle, and co-workers on page 2239 that incorporate the structural key elements responsible for a tropical fruit's bright coloration. In the foreground a rendering of a gradually strained, colorchanging fiber is winding around another real fiber. The background features the cells in the fruit's skin.

  4. Masthead

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    1. Masthead: (Adv. Mater. 15/2013)

      Version of Record online: 12 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370096

  5. Contents

    1. Top of page
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    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Progress Report
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Communications
  6. Progress Report

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    8. Communications
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    12. Communications
    1. Chemical Degradation in Organic Light-Emitting Devices: Mechanisms and Implications for the Design of New Materials (pages 2114–2129)

      Susanna Schmidbauer, Andreas Hohenleutner and Burkhard König

      Version of Record online: 1 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201205022

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      This Progress Report reviews recent advances in the elucidation of chemical degradation mechanisms occurring in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Deterioration pathways and products of different types of materials are summarized and their commonalities highlighted. Specific structural features and moieties that can be detrimental to operational stability are identified.

  7. Communications

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    1. Graphene-Based Porous Silica Sheets Impregnated with Polyethyleneimine for Superior CO2 Capture (pages 2130–2134)

      Shubin Yang, Liang Zhan, Xiaoyue Xu, Yanli Wang, Licheng Ling and Xinliang Feng

      Version of Record online: 18 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201204427

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      It is demonstrated that graphene-based porous silica sheets can serve as an efficient carrier support for PEI via a simple nanocasting technology. The resulting materials possess thin nature, high PEI loading content and high thermal-conductivity. Such features are favorable for the efficient diffusion and adsorption of CO2 as well as the rapid thermal transfer during the CO2 capture process.

    2. Easy-to-Fabricate Conducting Polymer Microelectrode Arrays (pages 2135–2139)

      Michele Sessolo, Dion Khodagholy, Jonathan Rivnay, Fabien Maddalena, Melanie Gleyzes, Esther Steidl, Bruno Buisson and George G. Malliaras

      Version of Record online: 18 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201204322

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      A simple and versatile fabrication process is used to define conducting polymer microelectrode arrays (MEAs), patterning at the same time the recording electrodes as well as the insulating layer. Thanks to the low impedance of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) electrodes, these MEAs allow in vitro recording of action potentials from rat hippocampus slices.

  8. Frontispiece

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    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Progress Report
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Communications
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      Solvent-Induced Delamination of a Multifunctional Two Dimensional Coordination Polymer (Adv. Mater. 15/2013) (page 2140)

      Almudena Gallego, Cristina Hermosa, Oscar Castillo, Isadora Berlanga, Carlos J. Gómez-García, Eva Mateo-Martí, José I. Martínez, Fernando Flores, Cristina Gómez-Navarro, Julio Gómez-Herrero, Salome Delgado and Félix Zamora

      Version of Record online: 12 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370098

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      Unprecedented full delamination of a multifunctional 2D metal–organic framework (MOF) assisted only by solvent interaction is carried out on page 2141 by Félix Zamora, Salome Delgado, and co-workers. This observation is a direct consequence of the structure of the starting material, characterized by interlayer cavities that can be filled by the solvent molecules, producing delamination in a simple and reproducible way.

  9. Communications

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    1. Solvent-Induced Delamination of a Multifunctional Two Dimensional Coordination Polymer (pages 2141–2146)

      Almudena Gallego, Cristina Hermosa, Oscar Castillo, Isadora Berlanga, Carlos J. Gómez-García, Eva Mateo-Martí, José I. Martínez, Fernando Flores, Cristina Gómez-Navarro, Julio Gómez-Herrero, Salome Delgado and Félix Zamora

      Version of Record online: 23 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201204676

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      A coordination polymer is fully exfoliated by solvent-assisted interaction only. The soft-delamination process results from the structure of the starting material, which shows a layered structure with weak layer-to-layer interactions and cavities with the ability to locate several solvents in an unselective way. These results represent a significant step forward towards the production of structurally designed one-molecule thick 2D materials with tailored physico-chemical properties.

    2. Dual Channel Operation Upon n-Channel Percolation in a Pentacene-C60 Ambipolar Organic Thin Film Transistor (pages 2147–2151)

      Simon J. Noever, Stefan Fischer and Bert Nickel

      Version of Record online: 20 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201203964

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      Thickness resolved measurements of ambipolar thin-film transistor characteristics track the charging of an organic–organic heterojunction. Combined with structural investigation methods such as AFM and GIXS, this leads to a better understanding of the physics in state of the art devices such as organic solar cells, organic light emitting diodes and light emitting TFTs.

    3. Binding SnO2 Nanocrystals in Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Sheets as Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries (pages 2152–2157)

      Xiaosi Zhou, Li-Jun Wan and Yu-Guo Guo

      Version of Record online: 21 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201300071

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      Hybrid anode materials for Li-ion batteries are fabricated by binding SnO2 nanocrystals (NCs) in nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-RGO) sheets by means of an in situ hydrazine monohydrate vapor reduction method. The SnO2 NCs in the obtained SnO2NC@N-RGO hybrid material exhibit exceptionally high specific capacity and high rate capability. Bonds formed between graphene and SnO2 nanocrystals limit the aggregation of in situ formed Sn nanoparticles, leading to a stable hybrid anode material with long cycle life.

    4. Electrolyte-Gated SmCoO3 Thin-Film Transistors Exhibiting Thickness-Dependent Large Switching Ratio at Room Temperature (pages 2158–2161)

      Ping-Hua Xiang, Shutaro Asanuma, Hiroyuki Yamada, Hiroshi Sato, Isao H. Inoue, Hiroshi Akoh, Akihito Sawa, Masashi Kawasaki and Yoshihiro Iwasa

      Version of Record online: 5 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201204505

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      A Mott transistor that exhibits a large switching ratio of more than two orders at room temperature is demonstrated by using the electric double layer of an ionic liquid for gating on a strongly correlated electron system SmCoO3. From the thickness dependence of the on-state channel current, we estimate the screening length of the SmCoO3 to be ∼5 nm. The good carrier confinement within the Thomas-Fermi screening length demonstrates that the SmCoO3-channel electric double layer transistor is the first candidate for a two-dimensional Mott transistor.

    5. Evaporation-Induced Self-Alignment and Transfer of Semiconductor Nanowires by Wrinkled Elastomeric Templates (pages 2162–2166)

      Seung Goo Lee, Haena Kim, Hyun Ho Choi, Hyojin Bong, Yeong Don Park, Wi Hyoung Lee and Kilwon Cho

      Version of Record online: 27 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201203687

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      The evaporation-induced self-alignment of semiconductor nanowires is achieved using wrinkled elastomeric templates. The wrinkled templates, which have a surface topography that can be tuned via changes in the mechanical strain, are used as both a template to align the nanowires and as a stamp to transfer the aligned nanowires to target substrates.

    6. Large-Scale, Ultrapliable, and Free-Standing Nanomembranes (pages 2167–2173)

      Edward Kang, Jihee Ryoo, Gi Seok Jeong, Yoon Young Choi, Seung Min Jeong, Jongil Ju, Seok Chung, Shuichi Takayama and Sang-Hoon Lee

      Version of Record online: 19 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201204619

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      The creation and characterization of large-area ultrathin highly pliable free-standing PDMS membranes and their application to the study of cellular epithelia is described. The ultra-thin membranes permitted the straight forward calculation of cell monolayer moduli, derived from measured stress–strain curves. These measurements allowed the unprecedented detection of cellular-level injury in the epithelia caused by the rupture of cell–cell tight junctions in response to stretching.

    7. Highly Uniform, Bifunctional Core/Double-Shell-Structured β-NaYF4:Er3+, Yb3+ @ SiO2@TiO2 Hexagonal Sub-microprisms for High-Performance Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (pages 2174–2180)

      Liangliang Liang, Yumin Liu, Chenghao Bu, Kaimo Guo, Weiwei Sun, Niu Huang, Tao Peng, Bobby Sebo, Mengmei Pan, Wei Liu, Shishang Guo and Xing-Zhong Zhao

      Version of Record online: 18 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201204847

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      Highly uniform core/double-shell-structured β-NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+@SiO2@TiO2 hexagonal sub-microprisms are prepared and employed in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) internally. This work paves a facile way to enable the most-efficient upconversion material (β-NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+) to be used as scattering and upconversion centers in the photoelectrode of a DSC.

    8. An Electrically Reversible Switchable Surface to Control and Study Early Bacterial Adhesion Dynamics in Real-Time (pages 2181–2185)

      Alice Pranzetti, Sophie Mieszkin, Parvez Iqbal, Frankie J. Rawson, Maureen E. Callow, James A. Callow, Patrick Koelsch, Jon A. Preece and Paula M. Mendes

      Version of Record online: 21 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201204880

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      Bacterial adhesion can be controlled by applying electrical potentials to surfaces incorporating well-spaced negatively charged 11-mercaptoundecanoic acids. When combined with electrochemical surface plasmon resonance, these dynamic surfaces become powerful for monitoring and analysing the passage between reversible and non-reversible cell adhesion, opening new opportunities to advance our understanding of cell adhesion processes.

    9. A Liquid Crystalline Phase with Uniform Tilt, Local Polar Order and Capability of Symmetry Breaking (pages 2186–2191)

      Mohamed Alaasar, Marko Prehm, Mamatha Nagaraj, Jagdish K. Vij and Carsten Tschierske

      Version of Record online: 20 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201205180

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      A new liquid crystalline (LC) phase with uniform tilt, local polar order and capability of symmetry breaking is found for a bent-core mesogen combining a 4-cyanoresorcinol unit with two azobenzene wings. The combination of local polar order and long range synclinic tilt in this SmCsPR phase leads, under special conditions, to macroscopic domains with opposite chirality, though the molecules themselves are achiral.

  10. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Progress Report
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Communications
    1. You have free access to this content
      Retention of Power Conversion Efficiency – From Small Area to Large Area Polymer Solar Cells (Adv. Mater. 15/2013) (page 2192)

      Anshuman J. Das and K. S. Narayan

      Version of Record online: 12 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370099

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      Large area pixelated polymer solar cell design with active encapsulants for down-conversion and redirecting light is demonstrated by K. S. Narayan and Anshuman J. Das on page 2193. The large-area, vacuum-free fabrication is carried out using meltable alloys as cathodes and an architecture which permits channelizing the light back into the device utilizing appropriate fluorescent dye molecules embedded in the encapsulant.

  11. Communications

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    12. Communications
    1. Retention of Power Conversion Efficiency – From Small Area to Large Area Polymer Solar Cells (pages 2193–2199)

      Anshuman J. Das and K. S. Narayan

      Version of Record online: 28 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201204048

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      A light harvesting device geometry is implemented for polymer solar cells that retain efficiency when the device area is scaled up. Patterning devices and incorporating suitable fluorescent dye doped polymers in the spaces between the patterns leads to 12% efficiency enhancement. Vacuum free deposition of electrodes is carried out using meltable alloys giving rise to device efficiency of 6%. The fluorescent layer along with the electrode serves as an active encapsulant leading to improved device stability.

    2. Exfoliation of Hexagonal Boron Nitride by Molten Hydroxides (pages 2200–2204)

      Xianlei Li, Xiaopeng Hao, Mingwen Zhao, Yongzhong Wu, Jiaxiang Yang, Yupeng Tian and Guodong Qian

      Version of Record online: 22 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201204031

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      Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) nanosheets are prepared by a novel and effective method, in which sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide molten salts are used to exfoliate h-BN to obtain nanosheets. BN nanoscrolls are also obtained. The as-prepared products can be readily dispersed in a wide range of solvents, including water and ethanol, and form stable dispersions.

    3. Novel Efficient Blue Fluorophors with Small Singlet-Triplet Splitting: Hosts for Highly Efficient Fluorescence and Phosphorescence Hybrid WOLEDs with Simplified Structure (pages 2205–2211)

      Cai-Jun Zheng, Jing Wang, Jun Ye, Ming-Fai Lo, Xiao-Ke Liu, Man-Keung Fung, Xiao-Hong Zhang and Chun-Sing Lee

      Version of Record online: 18 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201204724

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      The exact hosts for F-P hybrid WOLEDs have been first demonstrated following a new design strategy for blue fluorophors with small singlet-triplet splitting. Two novel compounds DPMC and DAPSF exhibit efficient blue fluorescence, high triplet energies and good conductivities. These merits allow us to use new simplified device designs to achieve high efficiency, slow efficiency roll-off and stable emission color.

    4. Construction of Robust Enzyme Nanocapsules for Effective Organophosphate Decontamination, Detoxification, and Protection (pages 2212–2218)

      Wei Wei, Juanjuan Du, Jie Li, Ming Yan, Qi Zhu, Xin Jin, Xinyuan Zhu, Zuming Hu, Yi Tang and Yunfeng Lu

      Version of Record online: 25 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201205138

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      Nanocapsules of organophosphorous hydrolase with enhanced enzyme activity and stability are prepared via in situ polymerization, providing a novel class of nanoparticles for the decontamination and detoxification of organophosphates such as chemical warfare agents and pesticides. Using the nanocapsules as building blocks, bioactive nanocomposites are also fabricated, enabling their use for organophosphate protection.

    5. Ultralight and Highly Compressible Graphene Aerogels (pages 2219–2223)

      Han Hu, Zongbin Zhao, Wubo Wan, Yury Gogotsi and Jieshan Qiu

      Version of Record online: 18 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201204530

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      Chemically converted graphene aerogels with ultralight density and high compressibility are prepared by diamine-mediated functionalization and assembly, followed by microwave irradiation. The resulting graphene aerogels with density as low as 3 mg cm−3 show excellent resilience and can completely recover after more than 90% compression. The ultralight graphene aerogels possessing high elasticity are promising as compliant and energy-absorbing materials.

    6. Multichannel and Repeatable Self-Healing of Mechanical Enhanced Graphene-Thermoplastic Polyurethane Composites (pages 2224–2228)

      Lu Huang, Ningbo Yi, Yingpeng Wu, Yi Zhang, Qian Zhang, Yi Huang, Yanfeng Ma and Yongsheng Chen

      Version of Record online: 18 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201204768

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      A novel self-healing material, which was fabricated using few-layered graphene (FG) and thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) via a facile method, not only exhibits a mechanical enhanced property, but also can be repeatedly healed by various methods including infrared (IR) light, electricity and electromagnetic wave with healing efficiencies higher than 98%.

    7. High-Performance Organic Field-Effect Transistors Based on Single and Large-Area Aligned Crystalline Microribbons of 6,13-Dichloropentacene (pages 2229–2233)

      Mao Wang, Jie Li, Guangyao Zhao, Qinghe Wu, Yangguang Huang, Wenping Hu, Xike Gao, Hongxiang Li and Daoben Zhu

      Version of Record online: 18 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201204469

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      Single and large-area aligned crystalline microribbons of 6,13-dichloropentacene (DCP) are prepared. The ribbons display excellent charge transport properties with a mobility of up to 9.0 cm2 V−1 s−1 in ambient conditions, one of the highest values reported for organic semiconductors. The slipped π-π stacking with large intermolecular overlap is responsible for the high mobility of DCP ribbons.

    8. Nanoscale Poling of Polymer Films (pages 2234–2238)

      Riccardo Castagna, Alexander Milner, Joseph Zyss and Yehiam Prior

      Version of Record online: 20 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201204394

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      Spots of second harmonic generation (SHG) are produced from nanopatterned sub-micrometer areas of nonlinear polymer media. Information is written by using a biased-AFM tip, a highly nonlinear polymer (poly(methyl metha-acrylate)-co-Disperse Red 1), and a novel “floating-tip nanolithography” (FTN) technique. Dipoles are oriented and aligned at the nanoscale under the biased-AFM tip, resulting in SHG production. The information is storable over weeks.

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      Bio-Inspired Band-Gap Tunable Elastic Optical Multilayer Fibers (pages 2239–2245)

      Mathias Kolle, Alfred Lethbridge, Moritz Kreysing, Jeremy J. Baumberg, Joanna Aizenberg and Peter Vukusic

      Version of Record online: 27 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201203529

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      The concentrically-layered photonic structure found in the tropical fruit Margaritaria nobilis serves as inspiration for photonic fibers with mechanically tunable band-gap. The fibers show the spectral filtering capabilities of a planar Bragg stack while the microscopic curvature decreases the strong directional chromaticity associated with flat multilayers. Elongation of the elastic fibers results in a shift of the reflection of over 200 nm.

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