Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 25 Issue 2

January 11, 2013

Volume 25, Issue 2

Pages 153–288

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Correspondences
    8. Review
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    1. You have free access to this content
      Composite Materials: Robotic Tentacles with Three-Dimensional Mobility Based on Flexible Elastomers (Adv. Mater. 2/2013) (page 153)

      Ramses V. Martinez, Jamie L. Branch, Carina R. Fish, Lihua Jin, Robert F. Shepherd, Rui M. D. Nunes, Zhigang Suo and George M. Whitesides

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370008

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      The front cover image illustrates a soft robotic tentacle with a textured surface fabricated by composing flexible elastomers using soft lithographic molding. These soft tentacles can manipulate delicate objects and house functional components that extend their capabilities (for example, a video camera). More details can be found in the article by George M. Whitesides and co-workers on page 205.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Correspondences
    8. Review
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    1. You have free access to this content
      Gene Delivery: Plasmid-Templated Shape Control of Condensed DNA–Block Copolymer Nanoparticles (Adv. Mater. 2/2013) (page 154)

      Xuan Jiang, Wei Qu, Deng Pan, Yong Ren, John-Michael Williford, Honggang Cui, Erik Luijten and Hai-Quan Mao

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370009

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      Micellar nanoparticles are created by Hai-Quan Mao, Erik Luijten, and co-workers on page 227 through complexation of plasmid DNA (green) and block copolymers (blue/brown). Variation of solvent polarity allows systematic control over the micelle shape (modeling images are shown in the foreground of the image and transmission electron microscopy images in the background) without changing their chemical composition, paving the way for targeted gene delivery.

  3. Back Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Correspondences
    8. Review
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    1. You have free access to this content
      Graphene: Controlled Synthesis of Large-Scale, Uniform, Vertically Standing Graphene for High-Performance Field Emitters (Adv. Mater. 2/2013) (page 292)

      Lili Jiang, Tianzhong Yang, Fei Liu, Jing Dong, Zhaohui Yao, Chengmin Shen, Shaozhi Deng, Ningsheng Xu, Yunqi Liu and Hong-Jun Gao

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370010

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      Large-scale, uniform, vertically standing graphene film with atomically thin edges (shown in the magnifying glass in the back cover image) is controllably synthesized using methane in a microwave-plasma chemical vapor deposition system. This film shows excellent field-emission properties, as demonstrated by Hong-Jun Gao, Yunqi Liu, and co-workers on page 250. In the lower part of the image, a plane emitter based on this vertically standing graphene film is demonstrated. The small blue spheres between the two plates represent the emitted electrons.

  4. Masthead

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Correspondences
    8. Review
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    1. Masthead: (Adv. Mater. 2/2013)

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370011

  5. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Correspondences
    8. Review
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
  6. Correspondences

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Correspondences
    8. Review
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    1. Response to “Comment on Real-Time Observation on Dynamic Growth/Dissolution of Conductive Filaments in Oxide-Electrolyte-Based ReRAM” (pages 165–167)

      Qi Liu, Sun Jun, Hangbing Lv, Shibing Long, Ling Li, Kuibo Yin, Neng Wan, Yingtao Li, Litao Sun and Ming Liu

      Article first published online: 19 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201203771

  7. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Correspondences
    8. Review
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    1. New Horizons for Diagnostics and Therapeutic Applications of Graphene and Graphene Oxide (pages 168–186)

      Lingyan Feng, Li Wu and Xiaogang Qu

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201203229

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      Graphene has received worldwide attention owing to its extraordinary physical and chemical properties. Recently, great efforts have been devoted to explore potential applications of graphene and its oxide in life sciences. Here, we will introduce recent advances and new horizons in this area, and focus on progress on NIR photothermal therapy for cancer and Alzheimer's disease (AD), human telomerase detection, stem cell proliferation and differentiation on graphene substrate, diagnosis of cancer cell and related biomarkers, drug/nucleotide/peptide delivery and cell imaging.

  8. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Correspondences
    8. Review
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    1. You have free access to this content
      Graphene: Ultrastrong Fibers Assembled from Giant Graphene Oxide Sheets (Adv. Mater. 2/2013) (page 187)

      Zhen Xu, Haiyan Sun, Xiaoli Zhao and Chao Gao

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370013

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      Road to Graphene Fiber: Continuous, ultrastrong graphene fibers are wetspun from giant graphene oxide liquid crystals, as reported by Chao Gao and co-workers on page 188. The giant size and regular alignment of graphene sheets give the fibers high mechanical strength (up to 0.5 GPa) and good electrical conductivity. Such graphene fibers promise wide applications in functional textiles, flexible and wearable sensors, and supercapacitor devices.

  9. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Correspondences
    8. Review
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    1. Ultrastrong Fibers Assembled from Giant Graphene Oxide Sheets (pages 188–193)

      Zhen Xu, Haiyan Sun, Xiaoli Zhao and Chao Gao

      Article first published online: 9 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201203448

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      Continuous, ultrastrong graphene fibers are achieved by wet-spinning of giant graphene oxide liquid crystals, followed by wet-drawing and ion-cross-linking. The giant size and regular alignment of graphene sheets render the fibers with high mechanical strength and good conductivity. Such graphene fibers promise wide applications in functional textiles, flexible and wearable sensors, and supercapacitor devices.

    2. Routing of Deep-Subwavelength Optical Beams and Images without Reflection and Diffraction Using Infinitely Anisotropic Metamaterials (pages 194–198)

      Peter B. Catrysse and Shanhui Fan

      Article first published online: 26 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201203528

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      Interfaces between media with infinite anisotropy, defined by infinite permittivity or permeability in one direction, offer new opportunities for controlling and manipulating light at the nanoscale. Reflectionless, diffraction-free routing of deep-subwavelength optical beams and images using interfaces between infinitely anisotropic media are demonstrated. It is shown how to achieve extremely large anisotropy using metamaterial designs that can be implemented with existing materials.

    3. Large-Area Fabrication of Periodic Sub-15 nm-Width Single-Layer Graphene Nanorings (pages 199–204)

      Yusin Pak, Huisu Jeong, Kwang-Ho Lee, Hui Song, Taehyeon Kwon, Jungsu Park, Woojin Park, Mun-Seok Jeong, Takhee Lee, Sunae Seo and Gun-Young Jung

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201202626

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      A periodically aligned array of graphene nanorings (GRNRs) with a sub-15 nm linewidth at a pitch of 450 nm is fabricated with a large area, 9 cm2, through conventional nanoimprint lithography coupled with sophisticated metal deposition and plasma-etching processes. The existence of the single-layer GRNRs is verified by various techniques.

    4. Robotic Tentacles with Three-Dimensional Mobility Based on Flexible Elastomers (pages 205–212)

      Ramses V. Martinez, Jamie L. Branch, Carina R. Fish, Lihua Jin, Robert F. Shepherd, Rui M. D. Nunes, Zhigang Suo and George M. Whitesides

      Article first published online: 7 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201203002

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      Soft robotic tentacles that move in three dimensions upon pressurization are fabricated by composing flexible elastomers with different tensile strengths using soft lithographic molding. These actuators are able to grip complex shapes and manipulate delicate objects. Embedding functional components into these actuators (for example, a needle for delivering fluid, a video camera, and a suction cup) extends their capabilities.

    5. Nanoscale Block Copolymer Ordering Induced by Visible Interferometric Micropatterning: A Route towards Large Scale Block Copolymer 2D Crystals (pages 213–217)

      Karim Aissou, Jonah Shaver, Guillaume Fleury, Gilles Pécastaings, Cyril Brochon, Christophe Navarro, Stéphane Grauby, Jean-Michel Rampnoux, Stefan Dilhaire and Georges Hadziioannou

      Article first published online: 22 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201203254

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      We have overcome the cost and time consumption limitations of common lithography techniques used to control the self-assembly of block copolymers into highly ordered 2D arrays through the use of a guiding pattern created from a polymeric sub-layer. The guiding pattern is a sinusoidal surface-relief grating interferometrically inscribed onto an azobenzene containing copolymer sub-layer leading to a defect-free single grain of block copolymer domains.

    6. Spontaneous Structural Distortion and Quasi-One-Dimensional Quantum Confinement in a Single-Phase Compound (pages 218–222)

      Zhongchang Wang, Lin Gu, Mitsuhiro Saito, Susumu Tsukimoto, Masaru Tsukada, Frank Lichtenberg, Yuichi Ikuhara and Johannes Georg Bednorz

      Article first published online: 29 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201203134

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      Oxide heterointerfaces often trigger unusual electronic properties that are absent in respective bulks. Here, direct evidence is offered for spontaneously assembled local structural distortions in a single-phase bulk, which confine electrons to within an atomic layer with notable orbital reconstruction and coupling, close the forbidden band, induce a ferromagnetic ordering, and give rise to a strongly anisotropic, spin-polarized quasi-one-dimensional electron gas.

    7. Patterned Assembly of Quantum Dots onto Surfaces Modified with Click Microcontact Printing (pages 223–226)

      Jeremiah J. Gassensmith, Petra M. Erne, Walter F. Paxton, Marco Frasconi, Martin D. Donakowski and J. Fraser Stoddart

      Article first published online: 19 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201202606

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      The self-assembly of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) onto a patterned silica surface generated from surface microcontact click printing is presented. The mechanically robust self-assembly process produces patterns of QDs which remain steadfast, even as subsequent reactions are performed on the substrate, demonstrating the utility and ease of this self-assembly process.

    8. Plasmid-Templated Shape Control of Condensed DNA–Block Copolymer Nanoparticles (pages 227–232)

      Xuan Jiang, Wei Qu, Deng Pan, Yong Ren, John-Michael Williford, Honggang Cui, Erik Luijten and Hai-Quan Mao

      Article first published online: 11 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201202932

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      DNA-containing micellar nanoparticles with distinctly different and highly uniform morphologies are prepared via condensation of plasmid DNA with a block copolymer of polyethylene glycol and a polycation in solvents of different polarity. Molecular dynamics simulations explain the underlying mechanism.

    9. Fabrication of Flexible, All-Reduced Graphene Oxide Non-Volatile Memory Devices (pages 233–238)

      Juqing Liu, Zongyou Yin, Xiehong Cao, Fei Zhao, Lianhui Wang, Wei Huang and Hua Zhang

      Article first published online: 26 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201203349

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      A flexible, all reduced graphene oxide non-volatile memory device, with lightly reduced GO as an active layer and highly reduced GO as both top and bottom electrodes, is fabricated by a full-solution process and its performance is characterized. It provides a convenient method to construct other all-carbon devices.

    10. Thermoelectric Characterization of Bismuth Telluride Nanowires, Synthesized Via Catalytic Growth and Post-Annealing (pages 239–244)

      Bacel Hamdou, Johannes Kimling, August Dorn, Eckhard Pippel, Raimar Rostek, Peter Woias and Kornelius Nielsch

      Article first published online: 2 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201202474

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      Bi2Te3 nanowires are of significant interest for two fields: nanostructured thermoelectrics and topological insulators. The vapor-liquid-solid method is employed in combination with annealing in a Te atmosphere, to obtain single-crystalline Bi2Te3 nanowires with reproducible electronic transport properties (electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient) that are close to those of intrinsic bulk Bi2Te3.

    11. Amplification of the Stereochemistry of Biomolecular Adsorbates by Deracemization of Chiral Domains in Bent-Core Liquid Crystals (pages 245–249)

      Guksik Lee, Rebecca J. Carlton, Fumito Araoka, Nicholas L. Abbott and Hideo Takezoe

      Article first published online: 26 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201203302

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      Assemblies of chiral phospholipids that form spontaneously at interfaces between aqueous phases and bent-core liquid crystals can deracemize mixtures of chiral domains that otherwise form in the liquid crystal phase. An enantiomeric excess of chiral domains is induced by adsorption of either L- or D-phospholipid with the same sense of optical rotation.

    12. Controlled Synthesis of Large-Scale, Uniform, Vertically Standing Graphene for High-Performance Field Emitters (pages 250–255)

      Lili Jiang, Tianzhong Yang, Fei Liu, Jing Dong, Zhaohui Yao, Chengmin Shen, Shaozhi Deng, Ningsheng Xu, Yunqi Liu and Hong-Jun Gao

      Article first published online: 8 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201203902

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      Large-scale, uniform, vertically standing graphene with atomically thin edges are controllably synthesized on copper foil using a microwave-plasma chemical vapor deposition system. A growth mechanism for this system is proposed. This film shows excellent field-emission properties, with low turn-on field of 1.3 V μm−1, low threshold field of 3.0 V μm−1 and a large field-enhancement factor more than 10 000.

    13. High-Efficiency Panchromatic Hybrid Schottky Solar Cells (pages 256–260)

      Joun Lee, Syed Mubeen, Gerardo Hernandez-Sosa, Yanming Sun, Francesca M. Toma, Galen D. Stucky and Martin Moskovits

      Article first published online: 23 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201202451

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      Nanostructured Schottky inorganic-organic solar cells provide overall power conversion efficiencies exceeding 3%, with extremely large short-circuit photocurrents. The device EQE faithfully tracks the absorptance of the CdSe nanorods, and the IQE is approximately constant over the entire visible spectrum as opposed to a p-n junction hybrid solar cell fabricated with a highly absorbing organic polymer.

    14. Two-Dimensional CdSe Nanosheets and their Interaction with Stabilizing Ligands (pages 261–266)

      Xiao-Dong Wen, Roald Hoffmann and N. W. Ashcroft

      Article first published online: 11 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201203184

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      Single layer two-dimensional CdSe nanosheets are explored theoretically, highlighting the role of the coordinating (and stabilizing) ligands. Four isomeric CdSe single sheets bonded to H atoms are studied (CdSeH2), as are four similar sheets with NH3 coordinated to the Cd atoms. These are quite corrugated, unlike the pristine sheets, and have a different stability order from their graphane analogs.

    15. H-TiO2@MnO2//H-TiO2@C Core–Shell Nanowires for High Performance and Flexible Asymmetric Supercapacitors (pages 267–272)

      Xihong Lu, Minghao Yu, Gongming Wang, Teng Zhai, Shilei Xie, Yichuan Ling, Yexiang Tong and Yat Li

      Article first published online: 19 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201203410

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      A flexible solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor device with H-TiO2@MnO2 core–shell NWs as the positive electrode and H-TiO2@C core–shell NWs as the negative electrode is developed. This device operates in a 1.8 V voltage window and is able to deliver a high specific capacitance of 139.6 F g−1 and maximum volumetric energy density of 0.30 mWh cm−3 with excellent cycling performance and good flexibility.

    16. Temperature Controlled Water/Oil Wettability of a Surface Fabricated by a Block Copolymer: Application as a Dual Water/Oil On–Off Switch (pages 273–277)

      Baolong Xue, Longcheng Gao, Yongping Hou, Zhiwen Liu and Lei Jiang

      Article first published online: 17 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201202799

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      A temperature controlled dual water/oil on–off switch is achieved by using a PMMA-b-PNIPAAm block-copolymer coated mesh, determined by the conformational change of the PNIPAAm chain around the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) and also the cooperation between PNIPAAm and PMMA. Water can permeate through the BCP-coated mesh, and oil cannot below the LCST, whereas oil can and water cannot above the LCST.

    17. Utilising Spontaneous Self-organization of Particles to Prepare Asymmetric, Hierarchical Membranes Comprising Microsieve-Like Parts (pages 278–283)

      Doreen Wachner, Dawid Marczewski and Werner A. Goedel

      Article first published online: 11 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201201812

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      Mixtures of suitable small particles, large particles and an “oil”, spontaneously form mixed layers on a water surface. In these layers the small particles adhere to the upper interface while the large particles adhere to the lower interface. Solidification of the “oil” by photopolymerization, followed by removal of the particles yields asymmetric, hierarchical membranes with microsieve-like parts.

    18. An Indium-Free Low Work Function Window Electrode for Organic Photovoltaics Which Improves with In-Situ Oxidation (pages 284–288)

      Oliver S. Hutter, Helena M. Stec and Ross A. Hatton

      Article first published online: 26 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201203280

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      A low-cost window electrode for organic photovoltaics that simultaneously removes the requirement for conducting oxide and conventional low work function electrodes and functions as a sink for oxygen/water in the heart of the device. Remarkably the functionality of this electrode, which is based on a 7.8 nm nanostructured Cu:Al film, improves upon in situ oxidation as demonstrated in bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaics.

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