Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 25 Issue 27

July 19, 2013

Volume 25, Issue 27

Pages 3617–3744

  1. Cover Picture

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      Flexible Electronics: Flexible Low-Voltage Organic Transistors with High Thermal Stability at 250 °C (Adv. Mater. 27/2013) (page 3617)

      Tomoyuki Yokota, Kazunori Kuribara, Takeyoshi Tokuhara, Ute Zschieschang, Hagen Klauk, Kazuo Takimiya, Yuji Sadamitsu, Masahiro Hamada, Tsuyoshi Sekitani and Takao Someya

      Version of Record online: 12 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370173

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      Organic thin-film transistors are developed that have a low operating voltage of below 2V and extraordinarily excellent thermal stability over 250 °C, which is far beyond the temperature of steam irons (typically 200 °C). It is expected that novel wearable electronic applications compatible with ironing will be possible by making full use of the mechanical softness and heat resistance of the new organic transistors. Further details can be found in the article by Takao Someya and co-workers on page 3639.

  2. Inside Front Cover

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      Crystallization: Effects of Stereoisomerism on the Crystallization Behavior and Optoelectrical Properties of Conjugated Molecules (Adv. Mater. 27/2013) (page 3618)

      Jianhua Liu, Yuan Zhang, Hung Phan, Alexander Sharenko, Preecha Moonsin, Bright Walker, Vinich Promarak and Thuc-Quyen Nguyen

      Version of Record online: 12 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370174

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      Three stereoisomers of a diketopyrrolopyrrolecontaining conjugated molecule are separated and identified to investigate the effects of stereoisomerism on the crystallization behavior and optoelectrical properties of the material. The investigation by Thuc-Quyen Nguyen and co-workers on page 3645 reveals useful hints to address two primary experimental challenges for complicated conjugated molecules, i.e., how to grow well-defined single crystals, and the polymorphism of crystal structures.

  3. Back Cover

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      Graphene Quantum Dots: Facile Synthetic Method for Pristine Graphene Quantum Dots and Graphene Oxide Quantum Dots: Origin of Blue and Green Luminescence (Adv. Mater. 27/2013) (page 3748)

      Fei Liu, Min-Ho Jang, Hyun Dong Ha, Je-Hyung Kim, Yong-Hoon Cho and Tae Seok Seo

      Version of Record online: 12 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370175

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      Pristine graphene quantum dots and graphene oxide quantum dots are synthesized by chemical exfoliation from graphite nanoparticles with high uniformity in terms of shape (circle), size (less than 4 nm), and thickness (monolayer). The origin of the blue and green photoluminescence of GQDs and GOQDs is attributed to intrinsic and extrinsic energy states, respectively. Further details can be found in the article by Tae Seok Seo, Yong-Hoon Cho, and co-workers on page 3657.

  4. Masthead

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      Masthead: (Adv. Mater. 27/2013)

      Version of Record online: 12 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370176

  5. Contents

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  6. Correction

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      Correction: Electric Control of the Giant Rashba Effect in Bulk GeTe (pages 3625–3626)

      Domenico Di Sante, Paolo Barone, Riccardo Bertacco and Silvia Picozzi

      Version of Record online: 12 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302797

      This article corrects:

      Electric Control of the Giant Rashba Effect in Bulk GeTe

      Vol. 25, Issue 4, 509–513, Version of Record online: 16 OCT 2012

  7. Progress Report

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    1. Recent Advances in Organic One-Dimensional Composite Materials: Design, Construction, and Photonic Elements for Information Processing (pages 3627–3638)

      Yongli Yan, Chuang Zhang, Jiannian Yao and Yong Sheng Zhao

      Version of Record online: 24 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201300325

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      Organic 1D crystalline composites, with the ability to tailor the componential regime and structural geometry, represent a landmark achievement in materials science. Centered on the collective properties that originate from the individual composition and their interactions in heterogeneous structures, this report illustrates organic material as an emerging basis of multi-functional photonic devices toward next generation optical information processing.

  8. Communications

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    8. Progress Report
    9. Communications
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    11. Communications
    1. Flexible Low-Voltage Organic Transistors with High Thermal Stability at 250 °C (pages 3639–3644)

      Tomoyuki Yokota, Kazunori Kuribara, Takeyoshi Tokuhara, Ute Zschieschang, Hagen Klauk, Kazuo Takimiya, Yuji Sadamitsu, Masahiro Hamada, Tsuyoshi Sekitani and Takao Someya

      Version of Record online: 25 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201300941

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      Low-operating-voltage flexible organic thin-film transistors with high thermal stability using DPh-DNTT and SAM gate dielectrics are reported. The mobility of the transistors are decreased by 23% after heating to 250 °C for 30 min. Furthermore, flexible organic pseudo-CMOS inverter circuits, which are functional after heating to 200 °C, are demonstrated.

    2. Effects of Stereoisomerism on the Crystallization Behavior and Optoelectrical Properties of Conjugated Molecules (pages 3645–3650)

      Jianhua Liu, Yuan Zhang, Hung Phan, Alexander Sharenko, Preecha Moonsin, Bright Walker, Vinich Promarak and Thuc-Quyen Nguyen

      Version of Record online: 11 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201300255

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      Three stereoisomers of DPP(TBFu)2 are separated and identified to investigate the effects of stereoisomerism on crystal structures and the optoelectrical properties. The crystal structures and FET mobility are sensitive to stereoisomers, in which the mesomer possesses the highest carrier mobility and the greatest crystallization tendency to dominate the crystallization in spin-cast films of the as-synthesized stereoisomeric mixture.

    3. Topotactic Phase Transformation of the Brownmillerite SrCoO2.5 to the Perovskite SrCoO3–δ (pages 3651–3656)

      H. Jeen, W. S. Choi, J. W. Freeland, H. Ohta, C. U. Jung and H. N. Lee

      Version of Record online: 12 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201300531

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      Pulsed laser epitaxy of brownmillerite SrCoO2.5 thin films and their phase transformation to the perovskite SrCoO3–δ are investigated. While the direct growth of the fully oxidized perovskite films is found to be an arduous task, filling some of oxygen vacancies into SrCoO2.5 by topotactic oxidation accompanies systematic evolution of electronic, magnetic, and thermoelectric properties, useful for many information and energy technologies.

    4. Facile Synthetic Method for Pristine Graphene Quantum Dots and Graphene Oxide Quantum Dots: Origin of Blue and Green Luminescence (pages 3657–3662)

      Fei Liu, Min-Ho Jang, Hyun Dong Ha, Je-Hyung Kim, Yong-Hoon Cho and Tae Seok Seo

      Version of Record online: 27 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201300233

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Pristine graphene quantum dots and graphene oxide quantum dots are synthesized by chemical exfoliation from the graphite nanoparticles with high uniformity in terms of shape (circle), size (less than 4 nm), and thickness (monolayer). The origin of the blue and green photoluminescence of GQDs and GOQDs is attributed to intrinsic and extrinsic energy states, respectively.

  9. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Correction
    8. Progress Report
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Communications
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      Spirocyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Based Organic Nanosheets for Eco-Friendly Aqueous Processed Thin-Film Non-Volatile Memory Devices (Adv. Mater. 27/2013) (page 3663)

      Zong-Qiong Lin, Jin Liang, Peng-Ju Sun, Feng Liu, Yee-Yan Tay, Ming-Dong Yi, Kun Peng, Xian-Hai Xia, Ling-Hai Xie, Xin-Hui Zhou, Jian-Feng Zhao and Wei Huang

      Version of Record online: 12 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370178

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      Organic molecular and nanoscale mosaic tiles, seen here in a luxurious house, are created by logic molecular design. Aqueousphase nanoinks enable the fabrication of high-quality thin films that fulfill the second requirement of green organic semiconductors (GOS) for organic devices such as organic memory, opening a door to sustainable organic electronics. Further details can be found in the article by Wei Huang and co-workers on page 3664.

  10. Communications

    1. Top of page
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    11. Communications
    1. Spirocyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Based Organic Nanosheets for Eco-Friendly Aqueous Processed Thin-Film Non-Volatile Memory Devices (pages 3664–3669)

      Zong-Qiong Lin, Jin Liang, Peng-Ju Sun, Feng Liu, Yee-Yan Tay, Ming-Dong Yi, Kun Peng, Xian-Hai Xia, Ling-Hai Xie, Xin-Hui Zhou, Jian-Feng Zhao and Wei Huang

      Version of Record online: 21 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301280

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      Supramolecular steric hindrance designs make pyrene-functionalized spiro[fluorene-9,7′-dibenzo[c,h]acridine]-5′-one (Py-SFDBAO) assemble into 2D nanostructures that facilitate aqueous phase large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform crystalline thin films. Thin-film diodes using aqueous nanosheets as active layers exhibit a non-volatile bistable electrical switching feature with ON/OFF ratios of 6.0 × 104 and photoswitching with conductive gains of 102–103. Organic nanosheets are potentially key components for eco-friendly aqueous dispersed organic nano-inks in the application of printed and flexible electronics.

    2. Tumor Redox Heterogeneity-Responsive Prodrug Nanocapsules for Cancer Chemotherapy (pages 3670–3676)

      Jinqiang Wang, Xuanrong Sun, Weiwei Mao, Weilin Sun, Jianbin Tang, Meihua Sui, Youqing Shen and Zhongwei Gu

      Version of Record online: 6 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201300929

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      A prodrug forms nanocapsules responsive to tumor GSH/ROS heterogeneity releasing the parent drug SN38 via thiolysis in the presence of GSH (glutathione) or via enhanced hydrolysis due to ROS (reactive oxygen species)-oxidation of the linker, giving rise to high in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo anticancer therapeutic activity. The nanocapsules are a suitable size for tumor targeting by means of the EPR effect and have a fixed SN38 loading content of 35 wt%, ideal for translational nanomedicine.

    3. Solvent-Assisted Directed Self-Assembly of Spherical Microdomain Block Copolymers to High Areal Density Arrays (pages 3677–3682)

      Weiyin Gu, Ji Xu, Jung-Keun Kim, Sung Woo Hong, Xinyu Wei, Xiaomin Yang, Kim Y. Lee, David S. Kuo, Shuaigang Xiao and Thomas P. Russell

      Version of Record online: 13 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201300899

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      The fabrication process for 5 Tb/in2 bit patterns using solvent-assisted directed self-assembly is investigated. The N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone solvent vapor-annealing method was used to achieve good long-range lateral ordering of low-molecular-weight polystyrene-block-polydimethylsiloxane with a lattice spacing of 11 nm on flat Si substrates, PS modified substrates and lithographically patterned substrates, respectively.

    4. A Series of New Medium-Bandgap Conjugated Polymers Based on Naphtho[1,2-c:5,6-c]bis(2-octyl-[1,2,3]triazole) for High-Performance Polymer Solar Cells (pages 3683–3688)

      Yang Dong, Xiaowen Hu, Chunhui Duan, Peng Liu, Shengjian Liu, Liuyuan Lan, Dongcheng Chen, Lei Ying, Shijian Su, Xiong Gong, Fei Huang and Yong Cao

      Version of Record online: 31 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301547

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      A series of novel conjugated copolymers based on naphtho[1,2-c:5,6-c]bis(2-octyl-[1,2,3]triazole) (TZNT) are synthesized. These copolymers exhibit medium bandgaps of ≈1.9 eV. One of them demonstrates a high performance of up to 6.10% power conversion efficiency in a bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar-cell device. The performance can be further enhanced to 7.11% when applied in an inverted device architecture, using PF3N-OX as an interfacial modifier.

    5. Connecting Molecular Structure and Exciton Diffusion Length in Rubrene Derivatives (pages 3689–3693)

      Tyler K. Mullenbach, Kathryn A. McGarry, Wade A. Luhman, Christopher J. Douglas and Russell J. Holmes

      Version of Record online: 10 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201300641

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      Connecting molecular structure and exciton diffusion length in rubrene derivatives demonstrates how the diffusion length of rubrene can be enhanced through targeted functionalization aiming to enhance self-Förster energy transfer. Functionalization adds steric bulk, forcing the molecules farther apart on average, and leading to increased photoluminescence efficiency. A diffusion length enhancement greater than 50% is realized over unsubstituted rubrene.

    6. Hybrid Nanocomposites of Gold Single-Crystal Platelets and Amyloid Fibrils with Tunable Fluorescence, Conductivity, and Sensing Properties (pages 3694–3700)

      Chaoxu Li, Sreenath Bolisetty and Raffaele Mezzenga

      Version of Record online: 27 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201300904

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      Gold single-crystal platelets with high aspect ratio are combined with amyloid fibrils to design a new class of hybrid nanocomposites. The films gather physical properties from both constituents, for example, plasmon resonance, fluorescence, and water-dependent conductivities ranging from insulating to metallic levels, yet mirroring gold within a broad range of composition, and can serve multiple purposes such as sensors, diagnostic, printed electronics, micromechanical, and biological devices.

    7. Enhanced Performance of Flexible ZnO Nanowire Based Room-Temperature Oxygen Sensors by Piezotronic Effect (pages 3701–3706)

      Simiao Niu, Youfan Hu, Xiaonan Wen, Yusheng Zhou, Fang Zhang, Long Lin, Sihong Wang and Zhong Lin Wang

      Version of Record online: 29 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301262

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      A flexible oxygen sensor based on individual ZnO nanowires is demonstrated with high sensitivity at room temperature and the influence of the piezotronic effect on the performance of this oxygen sensor is investigated. By applying a tensile strain, the already very high sensitivity due to the Schottky contact and pre-treatment of UV light is even further enhanced.

    8. Triplet Harvesting with 100% Efficiency by Way of Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence in Charge Transfer OLED Emitters (pages 3707–3714)

      Fernando B. Dias, Konstantinos N. Bourdakos, Vygintas Jankus, Kathryn C. Moss, Kiran T. Kamtekar, Vandana Bhalla, José Santos, Martin R. Bryce and Andrew P. Monkman

      Version of Record online: 24 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201300753

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      Triplet harvesting with 100% efficiency is obtained via thermal assisted delayed fluorescence (TADF). The key role played by intramolecular charge transfer (ICT), lone pair electrons, and molecular structure in achieving this high efficiency in a series of ICT molecules is elucidated. Results show the complex photophysics of efficient TADF materials and give clear guidelines for designing new emitters.

    9. Dry-Released Nanotubes and Nanoengines by Particle-Assisted Rolling (pages 3715–3721)

      Jinxing Li, Jing Zhang, Wei Gao, Gaoshan Huang, Zengfeng Di, Ran Liu, Joseph Wang and Yongfeng Mei

      Version of Record online: 24 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301208

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      Surface tension of self-assembled metal nanodroplets can be applied to overcome the deformation barriers of strain-engineered nanomembranes and produce extremely nanoscale tubes. Aggregated nanoparticles stress nanomembranes and subsequently integrate on the walls of rolled-up nanotubes, which can speed up the tubular engines owing to the enhanced electrocatalytic activity.

    10. Spinel/Layered Heterostructured Cathode Material for High-Capacity and High-Rate Li-Ion Batteries (pages 3722–3726)

      Feng Wu, Ning Li, Yuefeng Su, Haofang Shou, Liying Bao, Wen Yang, Linjing Zhang, Ran An and Shi Chen

      Version of Record online: 6 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201300598

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      Best of both worlds: A heterostructured material is synthesized that comprises a core of layered lithium-rich material and an outer layer of nanospinel material. This spinel/layered heterostructured material maximizes the inherent advantages of the 3D Li+ insertion/extraction framework of the spinel structure and the high Li+ storage capacity of the layered structure. The material exhibits super-high reversible capacities, outstanding rate capability and excellent cycling ability.

    11. CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite/Fullerene Planar-Heterojunction Hybrid Solar Cells (pages 3727–3732)

      Jun-Yuan Jeng, Yi-Fang Chiang, Mu-Huan Lee, Shin-Rung Peng, Tzung-Fang Guo, Peter Chen and Ten-Chin Wen

      Version of Record online: 17 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301327

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      All-solid-state donor/acceptor planar-heterojunction (PHJ) hybrid solar cells are constructed and their excellent performance measured. The deposition of a thin C60 fullerene or fullerene-derivative (acceptor) layer in vacuum on a CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite (donor) layer creates a hybrid PHJ that displays the photovoltaic effect. Such heterojunctions are shown to be suitable for the development of newly structured, hybrid, efficient solar cells.

    12. Low Power Upconverted Near-IR Light for Efficient Polymeric Nanoparticle Degradation and Cargo Release (pages 3733–3738)

      Mathieu L. Viger, Madeleine Grossman, Nadezda Fomina and Adah Almutairi

      Version of Record online: 31 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201300902

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      By encapsulating NaYF4:Tm.Yb upconverting nanocrystals in UV-degradable polymer capsules, it is possible to access efficient polymer photodegradation and remotely controlled release using near-IR laser light at an unprecedentedly low power.

    13. Reversible 2D/3D Coatings from Zipper-Assembly of Block Copolymer Micelles (pages 3739–3744)

      Prashant Tyagi, Irina Elena Raschip, André Deratani and Damien Quemener

      Version of Record online: 10 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201300631

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      A zipper-assembly of micelles into 2D/3D coatings is reported. Block copolymer micelles that incorporate a poly(n-octadecyl methacrylate) block are zipped and unzipped on demand onto a PMMA surface. The mechanism implies an interdigitation of molecular brushes enabling 15 nm micelles to be assembled into monolayers or multilayers.

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