Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 25 Issue 32

August 27, 2013

Volume 25, Issue 32

Pages 4377–4526

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Progress Report
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
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      Nanowires: Metal-Dielectric-CNT Nanowires for Femtomolar Chemical Detection by Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (Adv. Mater. 32/2013) (page 4377)

      Ali Ozhan Altun, Seul Ki Youn, Nuri Yazdani, Tiziana Bond and Hyung Gyu Park

      Version of Record online: 19 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370199

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      Irradiation of a dark red laser (λ = 785 nm) on a canopy gold-hafnia-carbon nanotubes (CNTs), supported by vertically aligned hafnia-CNTs without gold, can induce local plasmonic enhancement of the electromagnetic field at the CNT junctions by a “kissing nanowire” effect. This is demonstrated by work by Hyung Gyu Park, Tiziana Bond and co-workers on page 4431. Eliminating the quenching of surface plasmons through the CNT by the insertion of a dielectric barrier (hafnia), molecules such as 1,2bis-(4-pyridyl)-ethylene located in these hot spots can be detected at femtomolar-level concentrations by surface enhanced Raman scattering

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Progress Report
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
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      Scaffolds: 3D Structural Patterns in Scalable, Elastomeric Scaffolds Guide Engineered Tissue Architecture (Adv. Mater. 32/2013) (page 4378)

      Martin E. Kolewe, Hyoungshin Park, Caprice Gray, Xiaofeng Ye, Robert Langer and Lisa E. Freed

      Version of Record online: 19 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370200

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      Microfabricated biodegradable scaffolds with 3D structural patterns are created by semi-automated layer-by-layer assembly of elastomeric polymer sheets with through-pores, as described by Lisa E. Freed and co-workers on page 4459. The 3D pore network architecture defined by the relative alignment of layers directed cell and muscle-like fiber orientation in skeletal and cardiac muscle. In this picture, heart cell bundles weave through a pore network created in a multi-layer poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) scaffold.

  3. Back Cover

    1. Top of page
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    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Progress Report
    8. Communications
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    10. Communications
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      Biomimetics: A Biomimetic Composite from Solution Self-Assembly of Chitin Nanofibers in a Silk Fibroin Matrix (Adv. Mater. 32/2013) (page 4528)

      Jungho Jin, Pegah Hassanzadeh, Giovanni Perotto, Wei Sun, Mark A. Brenckle, David Kaplan, Fiorenzo G. Omenetto and Marco Rolandi

      Version of Record online: 19 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370201

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      Marco Rolandi, Fiorenzo G. Omenetto, and co-workers describe a transparent nanofiber biocomposite, self-assembled from a solution of squid pen chitin and silk fibroin from Bombyx mori cocoon, on page 4482. The microstructure and the mechanical properties are easily tuned by the ratio of the components. Chitin and silk are naturally abundant and biocompatible, applications in naturally derived plastics and biomedical devices may be envisaged.

  4. Masthead

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      Masthead: (Adv. Mater. 32/2013)

      Version of Record online: 19 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370202

  5. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Progress Report
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    1. You have free access to this content
  6. Progress Report

    1. Top of page
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    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Progress Report
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    1. Smart Drug Delivery Nanocarriers with Self-Assembled DNA Nanostructures (pages 4386–4396)

      Jiang Li, Chunhai Fan, Hao Pei, Jiye Shi and Qing Huang

      Version of Record online: 13 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201300875

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      Self-assembled DNA nanostructures have emerged as a type of highly promising drug delivery carriers due to their superior advantages over many inorganic and organic carriers. Here, the history and recent advances in this direction are reviewed. Key examples of drug delivery with various DNA nanostructures aimed at therapeutic applications are demonstrated.

  7. Communications

    1. Top of page
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    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Progress Report
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    1. Broadband Optical Non-linearity Induced by Charge-Transfer Excitons in Type-II CdSe/ZnTe Nanocrystals (pages 4397–4402)

      Yunlong Liu, Chunfeng Zhang, Huichao Zhang, Rui Wang, Zheng Hua, Xiaoyong Wang, Jiayu Zhang and Min Xiao

      Version of Record online: 14 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301559

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      Benefiting from excitonic charge-transfer states, an efficient non-linear optical response is observed in type-II nanocrystals by four-wave mixing when the incident photon energy lies below the bandgaps of constituent semiconductors. The non-linear optical properties in nanocrystals can be manipulated by the band alignment of the core–shell components, which serves as a promising platform to design broadband non-linear optical devices.

    2. A High-Performing Solution-Processed Small Molecule:Perylene Diimide Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cell (pages 4403–4406)

      Alexander Sharenko, Christopher M. Proctor, Thomas S. van der Poll, Zachary B. Henson, Thuc-Quyen Nguyen and Guillermo C. Bazan

      Version of Record online: 21 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301167

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      By combining the molecular donor p-DTS(FBTTh2)2 with a readily produced perylene diimide acceptor we are able to achieve a power conversion efficiency of 3.0%, making this one of the most efficient non-fullerene organic solar cells to date. The reduced power conversion efficiency of the present system compared to the use of phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester as an electron acceptor is shown to primarily be related to a significant reduction in the internal quantum efficiency. These results indicate the potential of small-molecule:non-fullerene bulk-heterojunction organic photovoltaics.

  8. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Progress Report
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    1. You have free access to this content
      Unexpected Dominance of Vertical Dislocations in High-Misfit Ge/Si(001) Films and Their Elimination by Deep Substrate Patterning (Adv. Mater. 32/2013) (page 4407)

      Anna Marzegalli, Fabio Isa, Heiko Groiss, Elisabeth Müller, Claudiu V. Falub, Alfonso G. Taboada, Philippe Niedermann, Giovanni Isella, Friedrich Schäffler, Francesco Montalenti, Hans von Känel and Leo Miglio

      Version of Record online: 19 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370204

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      An innovative strategy in dislocation analysis is described by Anna Marzegalli et al. on page 4408 demonstrating that vertical dislocations dominate in thick Ge layers on silicon substrates.

  9. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Progress Report
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    1. Unexpected Dominance of Vertical Dislocations in High-Misfit Ge/Si(001) Films and Their Elimination by Deep Substrate Patterning (pages 4408–4412)

      Anna Marzegalli, Fabio Isa, Heiko Groiss, Elisabeth Müller, Claudiu V. Falub, Alfonso G. Taboada, Philippe Niedermann, Giovanni Isella, Friedrich Schäffler, Francesco Montalenti, Hans von Känel and Leo Miglio

      Version of Record online: 21 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201300550

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      An innovative strategy in dislocation analysis, based on comparison between continuous and tessellated film, demonstrates that vertical dislocations, extending straight up to the surface, easily dominate in thick Ge layers on Si(001) substrates. The complete elimination of dislocations is achieved by growing self-aligned and self-limited Ge microcrystals with fully faceted growth fronts, as demonstrated by AFM extensive etch-pit counts.

    2. Solid-State Synthesis of ZnO Nanostructures for Quasi-Solid Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with High Efficiencies up to 6.46% (pages 4413–4419)

      Yantao Shi, Kai Wang, Yi Du, Hong Zhang, Junfu Gu, Chao Zhu, Lin Wang, Wei Guo, Anders Hagfeldt, Ning Wang and Tingli Ma

      Version of Record online: 21 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301852

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      Solid-state synthesis of ZnO nanostructured building blocks is presented in this work for the fabrication of high efficiency quasi-solid dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The sponge-like photoanode has high optical density and better connections. Baking the photoanode at low temperature, photoconversion efficiencies of up to 6.46% are yielded by the quasi-solid DSSCs. Furthermore, we demonstrate better stability of our ZnO quasi-solid DSSCs.

    3. Highly Efficient Color-Stable Deep-Blue Multilayer PLEDs: Preventing PEDOT:PSS-Induced Interface Degradation (pages 4420–4424)

      Sebastian Nau, Niels Schulte, Stefanie Winkler, Johannes Frisch, Antje Vollmer, Norbert Koch, Stefan Sax and Emil J. W. List

      Version of Record online: 17 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201300832

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      Highly efficient and stable blue light emission is observed in novel copolymers that are produced from specially designed building blocks. A PEDOT:PSS-induced chemical degradation of the polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) is identified at the interface, and it is found to be accompanied by a shift in the emission color. A method to prevent this highly undesirable interaction is presented.

    4. Doping of Fullerenes via Anion-Induced Electron Transfer and Its Implication for Surfactant Facilitated High Performance Polymer Solar Cells (pages 4425–4430)

      Chang-Zhi Li, Chu-Chen Chueh, Feizhi Ding, Hin-Lap Yip, Po-Wei Liang, Xiaosong Li and Alex K.-Y. Jen

      Version of Record online: 17 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201300580

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      Simple and solution-processible tetrabutyl-ammonium salts (TBAX) can dope fullerene and its derivatives to achieve conductive thin films (σ as high as 0.56 S/m). The electron transfer between the anions of TBAXs and n-type semiconductors induces doping without encountering any harsh activation. These provide valid support for the surfactant interfacial doping of fullerene in polymer solar cells for enhanced device performance.

    5. Metal-Dielectric-CNT Nanowires for Femtomolar Chemical Detection by Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (pages 4431–4436)

      Ali Ozhan Altun, Seul Ki Youn, Nuri Yazdani, Tiziana Bond and Hyung Gyu Park

      Version of Record online: 21 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201300571

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      A highly sensitive substrate for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is formed by arrays of gold-coated metallic carbon nanotubes having a nanoinsert of high-k dielectric (hafnia) as an energy coupling barrier. Repeated femtomolar detection of 1,2 bis-(4-pyridyl)-ethylene in solution demonstrates the critical contribution of this plasmonic energy coupling barrier to the enhanced chemical sensitivity.

    6. Anti-Solvent Derived Non-Stacked Reduced Graphene Oxide for High Performance Supercapacitors (pages 4437–4444)

      Yeoheung Yoon, Keunsik Lee, Chul Baik, Heejoun Yoo, Misook Min, Younghun Park, Sae Mi Lee and Hyoyoung Lee

      Version of Record online: 21 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301230

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      An anti-solvent for graphene oxide (GO), hexane, is introduced to increase the surface area and the pore volume of the non-stacked GO/reduced GO 3D structure and allows the formation of a highly crumpled non-stacked GO powder, which clearly shows ideal supercapacitor behavior.

    7. Tunable Electronic Transport Properties of Metal-Cluster-Decorated III–V Nanowire Transistors (pages 4445–4451)

      Ning Han, Fengyun Wang, Jared J. Hou, Sen Po Yip, Hao Lin, Fei Xiu, Ming Fang, Zaixing Yang, Xiaoling Shi, Guofa Dong, Tak Fu Hung and Johnny C. Ho

      Version of Record online: 20 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301362

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      A metal-cluster-decoration approach is utilized to tailor electronic transport properties (e.g., threshold voltage) of III–V NWFETs through the modulation of free carriers in the NW channel via the deposition of different metal clusters with different work function. The versatility of this technique has been demonstrated through the fabrication of high-mobility enhancement-mode InAs NW parallel FETs as well as the construction of low-power InAs NW inverters.

    8. Hydrophobic Anticancer Drug Delivery by a 980 nm Laser-Driven Photothermal Vehicle for Efficient Synergistic Therapy of Cancer Cells In Vivo (pages 4452–4458)

      Kai Dong, Zhen Liu, Zhenhua Li, Jinsong Ren and Xiaogang Qu

      Version of Record online: 25 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301232

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      A novel 980 nm laser-driven hydrophobic anticancer drug-delivery platform based on hollow CuS nanoparticles is constructed in this work. The excellent synergistic therapy combining drug treatment and photothermal ablation of cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo is demonstrated, which opens up new opportunities for biological and medical applications.

    9. 3D Structural Patterns in Scalable, Elastomeric Scaffolds Guide Engineered Tissue Architecture (pages 4459–4465)

      Martin E. Kolewe, Hyoungshin Park, Caprice Gray, Xiaofeng Ye, Robert Langer and Lisa E. Freed

      Version of Record online: 14 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301016

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      Microfabricated elastomeric scaffolds with 3D structural patterns are created by semiautomated layer-by-layer assembly of planar polymer sheets with through-pores. The mesoscale interconnected pore architectures governed by the relative alignment of layers are shown to direct cell and muscle-like fiber orientation in both skeletal and cardiac muscle, enabling scale up of tissue constructs towards clinically relevant dimensions.

    10. Reversible Bidirectional Shape-Memory Polymers (pages 4466–4469)

      Marc Behl, Karl Kratz, Jörg Zotzmann, Ulrich Nöchel and Andreas Lendlein

      Version of Record online: 13 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201300880

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      Free-standing copolymer network samples with two types of crystallizable domains are capable of a fully reversible bidirectional shape-memory effect. One set of crystallizable domains determines the shape-shifting geometry while the other provides the thermally controlled actuation capability.

    11. Wet Chemical Etching of Semipolar GaN Planes to Obtain Brighter and Cost-Competitive Light Emitters (pages 4470–4476)

      Sungmin Jung, Ki-Ryong Song, Sung-Nam Lee and Hyunsoo Kim

      Version of Record online: 17 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301640

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      Spotlight on etching: (11-22) semipolar GaN plane light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are demonstrated using a wet-etching process. A trigonal prism cell structure with a (0001) c plane and nnn{10-10} m planes is formed after KOH wet etching, and leads to a better ohmic contact and enhanced light extraction. LEDs fabricated by wet etching show excellent output performance 1.89 times higher than that of the reference LEDs.

    12. Organogel-based Thin Films for Self-Cleaning on Various Surfaces (pages 4477–4481)

      Hongliang Liu, Pengchao Zhang, Mingjie Liu, Shutao Wang and Lei Jiang

      Version of Record online: 17 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301289

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      Self-cleaning on various surfaces is obtained using the facile approach of modifying the surface with a thin organogel film. The film not only absorbs oil but also holds it in a crosslinked network, which endows the material with excellent self-cleaning properties. This facile method can be applied to various common engineering metals.

    13. A Biomimetic Composite from Solution Self-Assembly of Chitin Nanofibers in a Silk Fibroin Matrix (pages 4482–4487)

      Jungho Jin, Pegah Hassanzadeh, Giovanni Perotto, Wei Sun, Mark A. Brenckle, David Kaplan, Fiorenzo G. Omenetto and Marco Rolandi

      Version of Record online: 21 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301429

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      A chitin nanofiber-silk biomimetic nanocomposite with enhanced mechanical properties is self-assembled from solution to yield ultrafine chitin nanofibers embedded in a silk matrix.

    14. Direct Measurement of Ion Mobility in a Conducting Polymer (pages 4488–4493)

      Eleni Stavrinidou, Pierre Leleux, Harizo Rajaona, Dion Khodagholy, Jonathan Rivnay, Manfred Lindau, Sébastien Sanaur and George G. Malliaras

      Version of Record online: 20 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301240

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      Using planar junctions between the conducting polymer PEDOT:PSS and various electrolytes, it is possible to inject common ions and directly observe their transit through the film. The 1D geometry of the experiment allows a straightforward estimate of the ion drift mobilities.

    15. Vacuum-Dried Robust Bridged Silsesquioxane Aerogels (pages 4494–4497)

      Zhen Wang, Zhen Dai, Junjie Wu, Ning Zhao and Jian Xu

      Version of Record online: 20 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301617

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      Robust aerogels derived from a thiol-ene clicked bridged silsesquioxane precursor are obtained by a facile vacuum-drying method. With rather low densities, the flexible aerogels are still robust enough to bear at least 20 repeating compressions and further functionalization by wet doping. The durability and facile preparation procedure promise the aerogels' wider practical applications.

    16. Critical Thickness of SiO2 Coating Layer on Core@Shell Bulk@Nanowire Si Anode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries (pages 4498–4503)

      Soojin Sim, Pilgun Oh, Soojin Park and Jaephil Cho

      Version of Record online: 20 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301454

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      Amorphous SiO2 coating layers with thicknesses of ca. 2, 7, 10, and 15 nm are introduced into bulk@nanowire core@shell Si particles via direct thermal oxidation at 650–850 °C. Of the coated samples, Si with a coating thickness of ca. 7 nm has the best electrochemical performance. This sample shows an initial discharge capacity of 2279 mA h g−1 with a Coulombic efficiency of 92% and displays 83% capacity retention after 50 cycles at 0.2C rate.

    17. Fluorescent Multiblock π-Conjugated Polymer Nanoparticles for In Vivo Tumor Targeting (pages 4504–4510)

      Eilaf Ahmed, Stephen W. Morton, Paula T. Hammond and Timothy M. Swager

      Version of Record online: 24 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301656

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      Highly fluorescent multiblock conjugated polymer nanoparticles with folic acid surface ligands are highly effective for bioimaging and in vivo tumor targeting. The targeted nanoparticles were preferentially localized in tumor cells in vivo, thereby illustrating their potential for diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

    18. Low-Voltage Self-Assembled Monolayer Field-Effect Transistors on Flexible Substrates (pages 4511–4514)

      Thomas Schmaltz, Atefeh Y. Amin, Artoem Khassanov, Timo Meyer-Friedrichsen, Hans-Georg Steinrück, Andreas Magerl, Juan José Segura, Kislon Voitchovsky, Francesco Stellacci and Marcus Halik

      Version of Record online: 21 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301176

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      Self-assembled monolayer field-effect transistors (SAMFETs) of BTBT functionalized phosphonic acids are fabricated. The molecular design enables device operation with charge carrier mobilities up to 10−2 cm2 V−1 s−1 and for the first time SAMFETs which operate on rough, flexible PEN substrates even under mechanical substrate bending.

    19. Hybrid Semiconductor Core-Shell Nanowires with Tunable Plasmonic Nanoantennas (pages 4515–4520)

      Tuncay Ozel, Gilles R. Bourret, Abrin L. Schmucker, Keith A. Brown and Chad A. Mirkin

      Version of Record online: 1 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301367

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      Multi-segmented nanowires with optically active hybrid core-shell regions are fabricated between two metal nanoantennas. These nanowires generate significant photocurrent under illumination and are solution-dispersible.

    20. Clean-Lifting Transfer of Large-area Residual-Free Graphene Films (pages 4521–4526)

      Di-Yan Wang, I-Sheng Huang, Po-Hsun Ho, Shao-Sian Li, Yun-Chieh Yeh, Duan-Wei Wang, Wei-Liang Chen, Yu-Yang Lee, Yu-Ming Chang, Chia-Chun Chen, Chi-Te Liang and Chun-Wei Chen

      Version of Record online: 27 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301152

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      A unique “clean-lifting transfer” (CLT) technique that applies a controllable electrostatic force to transfer large-area and high-quality CVD-grown graphene onto various rigid or flexible substrates is reported. The CLT technique without using any organic support or adhesives can produce residual-free graphene films with large-area processability, and has great potential for future industrial production of graphene-based electronics or optoelectronics.

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