Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 25 Issue 38

October 11, 2013

Volume 25, Issue 38

Pages 5365–5518

  1. Cover Picture

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    9. Review
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      Organic Light-Emitting Diodes: Above 30% External Quantum Efficiency in Blue Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Using Pyrido[2,3-b]indole Derivatives as Host Materials (Adv. Mater. 38/2013) (page 5365)

      Chil Won Lee and Jun Yeob Lee

      Version of Record online: 8 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370237

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      High external quantum efficiencies of above 30% in blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes are demonstrated by Jun Yeob Lee and Chil Won Lee on page 5450 using novel pyridoindolebased bipolar host materials. This is the first work reporting above 30% external quantum efficiency in blue organic light-emitting diodes and opens a way to enhance the external quantum efficiency of blue organic light-emitting diodes up to a theoretical limit of 40%.

  2. Inside Front Cover

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      Transition Metal Monolayers: Spontaneous Ripple Formation in MoS2 Monolayers: Electronic Structure and Transport Effects (Adv. Mater. 38/2013) (page 5366)

      Pere Miró, Mahdi Ghorbani-Asl and Thomas Heine

      Version of Record online: 8 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370238

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      The spontaneous formation of ripples in molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) monolayers is investigated by Pere Miró and co-workers on page 5473 via density-functional-theory-based tight-binding Born–Oppenheimer molecular dynamics. Monolayers with different lengths show spontaneous rippling during the simulations. The density of states reveals a decrease in the bandgap induced by the stretching of the MoS2 units due to ripple formation. Ripples in the MoS2 monolayers have an effect on the properties of the material and may impact its application in nanoelectronics.

  3. Back Cover

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      Photo-Thermo-Electric Converters: NIR-Sensitive Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxyselenophene) Derivatives for Transparent Photo-Thermo-Electric Converters (Adv. Mater. 38/2013) (page 5520)

      Byeonggwan Kim, Haijin Shin, Teahoon Park, Hanwhuy Lim and Eunkyoung Kim

      Version of Record online: 8 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370239

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      The electrochromism and photothermoelectric properties of a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxyselenophene) derivative are investigated by precisely controlling the morphology and applied electrical potential of the flexible polymer films. On page 5483, Eunkyoung Kim and co-workers report a highly efficient and flexible photothermoelectric converter using doped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxyselenophene)s. Efficient visible to near-infrared absorption, photon to heat, and heat to electric conversion are realized in one polymer film.

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      Masthead: (Adv. Mater. 38/2013)

      Version of Record online: 8 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370240

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  6. Reviews

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    1. 25th Anniversary Article: Recent Advances in n-Type and Ambipolar Organic Field-Effect Transistors (pages 5372–5391)

      Yan Zhao, Yunlong Guo and Yunqi Liu

      Version of Record online: 27 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302315

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      This review focuses on the advances in n-type and ambipolar semiconductors reported in the past few years. n-Type and ambipolar semiconducting materials designed for high-performance OFETs are classified by their chemical structures. The relationships between the chemical structure, energy level, transistor characteristics, stability, etc. are discussed.

    2. 25th Anniversary Article: CVD Polymers: A New Paradigm for Surface Modifi cation and Device Fabrication (pages 5392–5423)

      Anna Maria Coclite, Rachel M. Howden, David C. Borrelli, Christy D. Petruczok, Rong Yang, Jose Luis Yagüe, Asli Ugur, Nan Chen, Sunghwan Lee, Won Jun Jo, Andong Liu, Xiaoxue Wang and Karen K. Gleason

      Version of Record online: 25 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301878

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      The deposition of functional polymers from the vapor phase enables new frontiers for device fabrication and technological development. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods have a marked footprint in a wide range of applications from biotechnology to conducting polymers for solar cells. Finally, CVD process implementation to an industrial scale and commercialization are also discussed.

  7. Frontispiece

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      Towards the Development of Flexible Non-Volatile Memories (Adv. Mater. 38/2013) (page 5424)

      Su-Ting Han, Ye Zhou and V. A. L. Roy

      Version of Record online: 8 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370242

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      Non-volatile memories have attracted tremendous attention for data storage. For future electronics, devices are expected to be on flexible substrates in order to cope with the growing trend of flexible electronics. V. A. L. Roy and co-workers on page 5425 provide general background knowledge on device structure, working principle, materials, challenges, and recent progress with the emphasis on the flexibility of various memory devices.

  8. Review

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    1. Towards the Development of Flexible Non-Volatile Memories (pages 5425–5449)

      Su-Ting Han, Ye Zhou and V. A. L. Roy

      Version of Record online: 22 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301361

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      Flexible nonvolatile memories have attracted tremendous attention to store information for future electronics. Here, we review the general background knowledge on device structure, working principle, materials, and recent research works with emphasis on flexibility of flash memories, resistive random access memories and ferroelectric random access memory/ferroelectric field-effect transistor memories.

  9. Communications

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    1. Above 30% External Quantum Efficiency in Blue Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Using Pyrido[2,3-b]indole Derivatives as Host Materials (pages 5450–5454)

      Chil Won Lee and Jun Yeob Lee

      Version of Record online: 21 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301091

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      High quantum efficiencies of above 30% in blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes are achieved by using novel pyridoindole-based bipolar host materials. A high quantum efficiency of 30.0% is obtained at 100 cd/m2 by using the new host materials.

    2. Substrate-Free Ultra-Flexible Organic Field-Effect Transistors and Five-Stage Ring Oscillators (pages 5455–5460)

      Lei Zhang, Hanlin Wang, Yan Zhao, Yunlong Guo, Wenping Hu, Gui Yu and Yunqi Liu

      Version of Record online: 21 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201300675

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      Freestanding, substrate-free organic field-effect transistors and organic circuits with a nominal thickness of 320 nm are demonstrated by using a simple water-floatation method. The devices work well in freestanding status, attached on banknotes, or bent over the blade of a knife. The ultralight devices with extreme bending stability indicate a bright future for organic electronics.

    3. In Situ Atomic-Scale Imaging of Phase Boundary Migration in FePO4 Microparticles During Electrochemical Lithiation (pages 5461–5466)

      Yujie Zhu, Jiang Wei Wang, Yang Liu, Xiaohua Liu, Akihiro Kushima, Yihang Liu, Yunhua Xu, Scott X. Mao, Ju Li, Chunsheng Wang and Jian Yu Huang

      Version of Record online: 21 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301374

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      The electrochemical lithiation of FePO4 particles is investigated by in situ high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and the anisotropic lithiation mechanism is directly observed. For the first time and in contrast to the previous post mortem HRTEM observations, a sharp (010) phase boundary between LiFePO4 and FePO4 is observed, which migrates along the [010] direction during lithiation.

    4. Rational Design of Benzotrithiophene-Diketopyrrolopyrrole-Containing Donor-Acceptor Polymers for Improved Charge Carrier Transport (pages 5467–5472)

      Xin Guo, Sreenivasa Reddy Puniredd, Martin Baumgarten, Wojciech Pisula and Klaus Müllen

      Version of Record online: 21 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302052

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      Two new donor-acceptor polymers containing benzo[2,1-b:3,4-b':5,6-c'']trithiophene (BTT) as donor and diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) as acceptor are synthesized and applied in OFETs. By tuning the alkyl substituents of the polymers, a striking difference in packing order, thin-film arrangement, and charge carrier transport is observed. The polymer without substituents at the BTT exhibits a hole mobility two orders of magnitude higher than that with alkyl chains therein.

    5. Spontaneous Ripple Formation in MoS2 Monolayers: Electronic Structure and Transport Effects (pages 5473–5475)

      Pere Miró, Mahdi Ghorbani-Asl and Thomas Heine

      Version of Record online: 1 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301492

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The spontaneous formation of ripples in molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) monolayers is investigated via density functional theory based tight-binding Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics. Monolayers with different lengths show spontaneous rippling during the simulations. The density of states reveals a decrease in the bandgap induced by the stretching of the MoS2 units due to ripple formation. Significant quenching in electron conductance was also observed. The ripples in the MoS2 monolayers have an effect on the properties of the material and could impact its application in nanoelectronics.

  10. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Reviews
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Review
    10. Communications
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Communications
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      Bionanotechnology: Axonal Alignment and Enhanced Neuronal Differentiation of Neural Stem Cells on Graphene-Nanoparticle Hybrid Structures (Adv. Mater. 38/2013) (page 5476)

      Aniruddh Solanki, Sy-Tsong Dean Chueng, Perry T. Yin, Rajesh Kappera, Manish Chhowalla and Ki-Bum Lee

      Version of Record online: 8 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370243

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      Graphene-nanoparticle hybrid structures have been developed to control the behavior of human neural stem cells (hNSCs) in a unique manner. The axons from the differentiated hNSCs, as described by Ki-Bum Lee and co-workers on page 5477, show enhanced growth and alignment. While the axonal alignment is primarily due to the presence of graphene, the underlying nanoparticle monolayer causes enhanced neuronal differentiation of the hNSCs, thus having great implications of these hybrid-nanostructures for neuroregenerative medicine.

  11. Communications

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    1. Axonal Alignment and Enhanced Neuronal Differentiation of Neural Stem Cells on Graphene-Nanoparticle Hybrid Structures (pages 5477–5482)

      Aniruddh Solanki, Sy-Tsong Dean Chueng, Perry T. Yin, Rajesh Kappera, Manish Chhowalla and Ki-Bum Lee

      Version of Record online: 4 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302219

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      Human neural stem cells (hNSCs) cultured on graphene-nanoparticle hybrid structures show a unique behavior wherein the axons from the differentiating hNSCs show enhanced growth and alignment. We show that the axonal alignment is primarily due to the presence of graphene and the underlying nanoparticle monolayer causes enhanced neuronal differentiation of the hNSCs, thus having great implications of these hybrid-nanostructures for neuro-regenerative medicine.

    2. NIR-Sensitive Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxyselenophene) Derivatives for Transparent Photo-Thermo-Electric Converters (pages 5483–5489)

      Byeonggwan Kim, Haijin Shin, Teahoon Park, Hanwhuy Lim and Eunkyoung Kim

      Version of Record online: 15 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301834

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      Electrochromism, photothermal effect, and thermoelectric properties of hexyl-derivatized poly(3,4-ethylenedioxyselenophene) are investigated by precisely controlling the morphology. These properties are clearly demonstrated by controlling the applied electrical potential of the polymer films. Especially, the doped polymer film at –0.1 V reveals the highest photothermal conversion efficiency and a power factor of 42.5% and 354.7 μW m−1 K−2, respectively. Efficient visible to near-infrared absorption, photon to heat, and heat to electric conversion has been realized in one film that could benefit in exploiting multifunctional film displays, invisible NIR sensors, photodynamic theragnosis, and thermoelectric devices.

    3. Multi-Level Micro/Nanotexturing by Three-Dimensionally Controlled Photofluidization and its Use in Plasmonic Applications (pages 5490–5497)

      Hong Suk Kang, Seungwoo Lee, Sol-Ah Lee and Jung-Ki Park

      Version of Record online: 15 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301715

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      The Field-Gradient Effect extends the photofluidization of azobenzene materials to 3D, multi-level micro/nanotexturing with a newly conceptualized design strategy based on “field-gradient photofluidization”. In particular, we successfully characterized the vertical gradient optical absorption within the azobenzene material and the resulting field-gradient photofluidization both theoretically and experimentally. Furthermore, we could create the heterogeneously integrated micro/nanotextures at any desired surface heights, capability that is potentially beneficial for plasmonic applications.

    4. Sericin for Resistance Switching Device with Multilevel Nonvolatile Memory (pages 5498–5503)

      Hong Wang, Fanben Meng, Yurong Cai, Liyan Zheng, Yuangang Li, Yuanjun Liu, Yueyue Jiang, Xiaotian Wang and Xiaodong Chen

      Version of Record online: 29 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301983

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      Resistance switching characteristics of natural sericin protein film is demonstrated for nonvolatile memory application for the first time. Excellent memory characteristics with a resistance OFF/ON ratio larger than 106 have been obtained and a multilevel memory based on sericin has been achieved. The environmentally friendly high performance biomaterial based memory devices may hold a place in the future of electronic device development.

    5. Microcrystalline Organic Thin-Film Solar Cells (pages 5504–5507)

      Bregt Verreet, Paul Heremans, Andre Stesmans and Barry P. Rand

      Version of Record online: 13 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301643

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      Microcrystalline organic films with tunable thickness are produced directly on an indium-tin-oxide substrate, by crystallizing a thin amorphous rubrene film followed by its use as a template for subsequent homoepitaxial growth. These films, with exciton diffusion lengths exceeding 200 nm, produce solar cells with increasing photocurrents at thicknesses up to 400 nm with a fill factor >65%, demonstrating significant potential for microcrystalline organic electronic devices.

    6. LHRH-PE40 Fusion Protein Tethered Silica Nanorattles for Imaging-Guided Tumor-Specific Drug Delivery and Bimodal Therapy (pages 5508–5513)

      Fuping Gao, Linlin Li, Changhui Fu, Liya Nie, Dong Chen and Fangqiong Tang

      Version of Record online: 22 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301217

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      Docyanine green (ICG) and LHRH-PE40 fusion protein are tethered onto drug carriers of silica nanorattles for imaging-guided tumor-specific drug delivery and bimodal therapy. The synergistic therapeutic effect of toxin PE40 and the chemotherapeutic drug docetaxel (Dtxl), specifically directed by LHRH to cancer, improves cancer treatment. Simultaneously, ICG enables real-time monitoring of the silica nanocomposites and therapeutic response.

    7. Triple-Shape Effect in Polymer-Based Composites by Cleverly Matching Geometry of Active Component with Heating Method (pages 5514–5518)

      M. Y. Razzaq, M. Behl, K. Kratz and A. Lendlein

      Version of Record online: 25 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301521

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      A triple-shape effect is created for a segmented device consisting of an active component encapsulated in a highly flexible polymer network. Segments with the same composition but different interface areas can be recovered independently either at specific field strengths (Hsw) during inductive heating, at a specific time during environmentally heating, or at different airflow during inductive heating at constant H. Herein the type of heating method regulates the sequence order.

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