Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 25 Issue 40

October 25, 2013

Volume 25, Issue 40

Pages 5677–5825

  1. Cover Picture

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      Thin Films: Mapping of Trap Densities and Hotspots in Pentacene Thin-Film Transistors by Frequency-Resolved Scanning Photoresponse Microscopy (Adv. Mater. 40/2013) (page 5677)

      Christian Westermeier, Matthias Fiebig and Bert Nickel

      Article first published online: 22 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370251

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      On page 5719, Bert Nickel and co-workers use a pulsed laser scanning microscope for mapping of trap densities in pentacene thin-film transistors. They depict the light-induced change of the transistor current in dependence on the position, the modulation frequency of illumination, and on the applied voltages. The collision of an exciton with a trapped charge in a conducting transistor channel causes the carrier release – the elemental process that induces the observed photoresponse. The graphic is by Christoph Hohmann, Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM).

  2. Inside Front Cover

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      Field Emitters: Epitaxial ZnO Nanowire-on-Nanoplate Structures as Efficient and Transferable Field Emitters (Adv. Mater. 40/2013) (page 5678)

      Jizhong Song, Sergei A. Kulinich, Jian Yan, Zhigang Li, Jianping He, Caixia Kan and Haibo Zeng

      Article first published online: 22 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370252

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      Novel ZnO nanostructures grown as single epitaxial wires at the centers of nanoplates are prepared with high selectivity via the vapor-phase transport method. These structures possess high field emission properties and are attractive as transferable electron field emitters as demonstrated by Haibo Zeng and co-workers on page 5750.

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      Graphene Hydrogels: Functionalized Graphene Hydrogel-Based High-Performance Supercapacitors (Adv. Mater. 40/2013) (page 5828)

      Yuxi Xu, Zhaoyang Lin, Xiaoqing Huang, Yang Wang, Yu Huang and Xiangfeng Duan

      Article first published online: 22 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370253

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      Three-dimensional porous graphene frameworks functionalized with redox molecules can be used for the fabrication of highly flexible solid-state supercapacitors as demonstrated by Xiangfeng Duan and co-workers on page 5779. These devices reveal superior capacitive performances and extraordinary mechanical flexibility. The cover design is by Nathan Weiss.

  4. Masthead

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    1. Masthead: (Adv. Mater. 40/2013)

      Article first published online: 22 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370254

  5. Contents

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    1. Contents: (Adv. Mater. 40/2013) (pages 5679–5685)

      Article first published online: 22 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370255

  6. Reviews

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    1. 25th Anniversary Article: No Assembly Required: Recent Advances in Fully Conjugated Block Copolymers (pages 5686–5700)

      Maxwell J. Robb, Sung-Yu Ku and Craig J. Hawker

      Article first published online: 23 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302677

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      The convergence of semiconducting properties and nanoscale self-assembly endow fully conjugated block copolymers with remarkable qualities. Recent advances in the preparation of these unique materials provide researchers with a new handle for advancing organic electronic technologies. Relevant chemistries to high-performance polymers like Stille, Suzuki–Miyaura, and Yamamoto coupling are being used to generate advanced conjugated block copolymers with exceptional capabilities.

  7. Communications

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    1. A Novel Method for Applying Reduced Graphene Oxide Directly to Electronic Textiles from Yarns to Fabrics (pages 5701–5705)

      Yong Ju Yun, Won G. Hong, Wan-Joong Kim, Yongseok Jun and Byung Hoon Kim

      Article first published online: 15 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201303225

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      Conductive, flexible, and durable reduced RGO textiles with a facile preparation method are presented. BSA proteins serve as universal adhesives for improving the adsorption of GO onto any textile, irrespective of the materials and the surface conditions. Using this method, we successfully prepared various RGO textiles based on nylon-6 yarns, cotton yarns, polyester yarns, and nonwoven fabrics.

    2. Enhanced Efficacy of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Against Antibiotic-Resistant Biofilms in the Presence of Metabolites (pages 5706–5713)

      Naside G. Durmus, Erik N. Taylor, Kim M. Kummer and Thomas J. Webster

      Article first published online: 20 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302627

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      Antibiotic resistance and the lack of new antibacterial agents cause major challenges for the treatment of infections. Here, we describe a simple, broad-spectrum, and low-cost dual-sided approach which uses superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SPION) in combination with fructose metabolites as an alternative to existing antibacterial strategies. This strategy offers further improved efficacy of SPION against persistent gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria infections by manipulating the biofilm metabolic microenvironment and outperforms vancomycin (the antibiotic of last resort), creating a new nanotechnology-driven approach.

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      Tuning the Bandgap of Exfoliated InSe Nanosheets by Quantum Confinement (pages 5714–5718)

      Garry W. Mudd, Simon A. Svatek, Tianhang Ren, Amalia Patanè, Oleg Makarovsky, Laurence Eaves, Peter H. Beton, Zakhar D. Kovalyuk, George V. Lashkarev, Zakhar R. Kudrynskyi and Alexandr I. Dmitriev

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302616

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      Strong quantization effects and tuneable near-infrared photoluminescence emission are reported in mechanically exfoliated crystals of γ-rhombohedral semiconducting InSe. The optical properties of InSe nanosheets differ qualitatively from those reported recently for exfoliated transition metal dichalcogenides and indicate a crossover from a direct to an indirect band gap semiconductor when the InSe flake thickness is reduced to a few nanometers.

    4. Mapping of Trap Densities and Hotspots in Pentacene Thin-Film Transistors by Frequency-Resolved Scanning Photoresponse Microscopy (pages 5719–5724)

      Christian Westermeier, Matthias Fiebig and Bert Nickel

      Article first published online: 25 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201300958

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      Frequency-resolved scanning photoresponse microscopy of pentacene thin-film transistors is reported. The photoresponse pattern maps the in-plane distribution of trap states which is superimposed by the level of trap filling adjusted by the gate voltage of the transistor. Local hotspots in the photoresponse map thus indicate areas of high trap densities within the pentacene thin film.

    5. A Novel Diblock Copolymer with a Supramolecular Polymer Block and a Traditional Polymer Block: Preparation, Controllable Self-Assembly in Water, and Application in Controlled Release (pages 5725–5729)

      Xiaofan Ji, Shengyi Dong, Peifa Wei, Danyu Xia and Feihe Huang

      Article first published online: 8 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301654

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      A novel diblock copolymer with a hydrophobic supramolecular polymer block and a hydrophilic traditional polymer block has been prepared. Control over the chain length ratio of the two blocks is obtained by simply changing the concentration proportion of the monomer of the supramolecular polymer block to the traditional polymer block in solution. When the chain length ratio of the two blocks is changed, the formation of various self-assembly morphologies is achieved.

    6. Multifunctional Hybrid Nanocomposites with Magnetically Controlled Reversible Shape–Memory Effect (pages 5730–5733)

      Muhammad Yasar Razzaq, Marc Behl, Karl Kratz and Andreas Lendlein

      Article first published online: 6 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302485

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      Magneto-sensitivity and a thermo-sensitive reversible shape–memory effect have been successfully integrated into a hybrid nanocomposite, resulting in a magnetically controlled actuator. The complex requirements for gaining this multifunctionality are fulfilled by combining netpoints on the molecular and nano level in a polyesterurethane network prepared from hydroxyl group decorated magnetic nanoparticles, crystallizable star-shaped poly(ω-pentadecalactone) precursors, and a diisocyanate.

    7. See-Through Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Photonic Reflectors for Tandem and Building Integrated Photovoltaics (pages 5734–5741)

      Leo-Philipp Heiniger, Paul G. O'Brien, Navid Soheilnia, Yang Yang, Nazir P. Kherani, Michael Grätzel, Geoffrey A. Ozin and Nicolas Tétreault

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302113

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      See-through dye-sensitized solar cells with 1D photonic crystal Bragg reflector photoanodes show an increase in peak external quantum efficiency of 47% while still maintaining high fill factors, resulting in an almost 40% increase in power conversion efficiency. These photoanodes are ideally suited for tandem and building integrated photovoltaics.

    8. Directly Deposited Quantum Dot Solids Using a Colloidally Stable Nanoparticle Ink (pages 5742–5749)

      Armin Fischer, Lisa Rollny, Jun Pan, Graham H. Carey, Susanna M. Thon, Sjoerd Hoogland, Oleksandr Voznyy, David Zhitomirsky, Jin Young Kim, Osman M. Bakr and Edward H. Sargent

      Article first published online: 12 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302147

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      We develop a photovoltaic colloidal quantum dot ink that allows for lossless, single-step coating of large areas in a manufacturing-compatible process. Our materials strategy involves a solution-phase ligand exchange to transport compatible linkers that yield 1-thioglycerol-capped PbS quantum dots in dimethyl sulfoxide with a photoluminescence quantum yield of 24%. A proof-of-principle solar cell made from the ink exhibits 2.1% power conversion efficiency.

    9. Epitaxial ZnO Nanowire-on-Nanoplate Structures as Efficient and Transferable Field Emitters (pages 5750–5755)

      Jizhong Song, Sergei A. Kulinich, Jian Yan, Zhigang Li, Jianping He, Caixia Kan and Haibo Zeng

      Article first published online: 29 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302293

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      Highly epitaxial ZnO nanowire-on-nanoplate structures as efficient and transferable electron field emitters are reported here. Well-faceted ZnO nanoplates can be used as efficient substrates for the epitaxial growth of nanowires with a sharp and high-quality interface, which significantly improves its field emitter performance. Because of its scalable preparation, high performance and facile transfer, the novel material is of high potential for applications in various optoelectronic devices.

    10. Directional Oil Sliding Surfaces with Hierarchical Anisotropic Groove Microstructures (pages 5756–5761)

      Seong Min Kang, Chanseok Lee, Hong Nam Kim, Byung Jun Lee, Ji Eun Lee, Moon Kyu Kwak and Kahp-Yang Suh

      Article first published online: 5 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302083

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      A robust directional oil sliding surface is presented by utilizing re-entrant micro-groove arrays inspired from the microgrooves of rice leaf. The overhang micro-groove arrays are shown to provide two primary goals of “omniphobicty” and “anisotropic sliding” with DI water (inline image = 72.1 mN/m) as well as mineral oil (inline image = 28 mN/m) and conventional photoresist.

    11. Solution-Grown Organic Single-Crystalline p-n Junctions with Ambipolar Charge Transport (pages 5762–5766)

      Congcheng Fan, Arjan P. Zoombelt, Hao Jiang, Weifei Fu, Jiake Wu, Wentao Yuan, Yong Wang, Hanying Li, Hongzheng Chen and Zhenan Bao

      Article first published online: 16 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302605

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      Organic single-crystalline p-n junctions are grown from mixed solutions. First, C60 crystals (n-type) form and, subsequently, C8-BTBT crystals (p-type) nucleate heterogeneously on the C60 crystals. Both crystals continue to grow simultaneously into single-crystalline p-n junctions that exhibit ambipolar charge transport characteristics. This work provides a platform to study organic single-crystalline p-n junctions.

    12. Near-Incompressible Faceted Polymer Microcapsules from Metal-Organic Framework Templates (pages 5767–5771)

      Hirotaka Ejima, Nobuhiro Yanai, James P. Best, Melinda Sindoro, Steve Granick and Frank Caruso

      Article first published online: 15 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302442

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      Faceted polymer microcapsules are prepared from metal-organic framework (MOF) templates. The MOF templates are removable under mild aqueous conditions. The obtained microcapsules are stiffer than their spherical counterparts, reflecting the near-incompressibility of the facet edges, and indicating that the faceting might be a useful strategy for controlling the mechanical properties of polymer microcapsules.

    13. High-Efficiency Hybrid Solar Cells Based on Polymer/PbSxSe1-x Nanocrystals Benefiting from Vertical Phase Segregation (pages 5772–5778)

      Zeke Liu, Yaxiang Sun, Jianyu Yuan, Huaixin Wei, Xiaodong Huang, Lu Han, Weiwei Wang, Haiqiao Wang and Wanli Ma

      Article first published online: 12 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302340

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      Solution-processed hybrid solar cells employing a low band-gap polymer and PbSxSe1-x alloy nanocrystals, achieving a record high PCE of 5.50% and an optimal FF of 67% are presented. The remarkable device efficiency can be attributed to the high-performance active materials, the optimal polymer/NCs ratio and, more importantly, the vertical donor/(donor:acceptor)/acceptor structure which benefits charge dissociation and transport.

    14. Functionalized Graphene Hydrogel-Based High-Performance Supercapacitors (pages 5779–5784)

      Yuxi Xu, Zhaoyang Lin, Xiaoqing Huang, Yang Wang, Yu Huang and Xiangfeng Duan

      Article first published online: 31 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301928

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      Functionalized graphene hydrogels are prepared by a one-step low-temperature reduction process and exhibit ultrahigh specific capacitances and excellent cycling stability in the aqueous electrolyte. Flexible solid-state supercapacitors based on functionalized graphene hydrogels are demonstrated with superior capacitive performances and extraordinary mechanical flexibility.

    15. A Rapid and Efficient Self-Healing Thermo-Reversible Elastomer Crosslinked with Graphene Oxide (pages 5785–5790)

      Chao Wang, Nan Liu, Ranulfo Allen, Jeffrey B.-H. Tok, Yunpeng Wu, Fan Zhang, Yongsheng Chen and Zhenan Bao

      Article first published online: 15 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302962

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      A self-healing thermo-reversible elastomer is synthesized by cross-linking a hydrogen bonding polymer network with chemically-modified graphene oxide. This nanocomposite allows for both rapid and efficient self-healing (in only several minutes) at room temperature, without the need for any external stimuli (e.g., heating or light exposure), healing agents, plasticizers or solvents.

    16. A Potential Perylene Diimide Dimer-Based Acceptor Material for Highly Efficient Solution-Processed Non-Fullerene Organic Solar Cells with 4.03% Efficiency (pages 5791–5797)

      Xin Zhang, Zhenhuan Lu, Long Ye, Chuanlang Zhan, Jianhui Hou, Shaoqing Zhang, Bo Jiang, Yan Zhao, Jianhua Huang, Shanlin Zhang, Yang Liu, Qiang Shi, Yunqi Liu and Jiannian Yao

      Article first published online: 7 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201300897

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      A highly efficient acceptor material for organic solar cells (OSCs) – based on perylene diimide (PDI) dimers – shows significantly reduced aggregation compared to monomeric PDI. The dimeric PDI shows a best power conversion efficiency (PCE) approximately 300 times that of the monomeric PDI when blended with a conjugate polymer (BDTTTT-C-T) and with 1,8-diiodooctane as co-solvent (5%). This shows that non-fullerene materials also hold promise for efficient OSCs.

  8. Frontispiece

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      Graphene Supercapacitors: Vertically Oriented Graphene Bridging Active-Layer/Current-Collector Interface for Ultrahigh Rate Supercapacitors (Adv. Mater. 40/2013) (page 5798)

      Zheng Bo, Weiguang Zhu, Wei Ma, Zhenhai Wen, Xiaorui Shuai, Junhong Chen, Jianhua Yan, Zhihua Wang, Kefa Cen and Xinliang Feng

      Article first published online: 22 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370256

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      Vertically oriented graphene nanosheets are used to electrically bridge the current collector and active materials, enabling fluent charge transport in electrochemical energy storage devices. As reported by Zheng Bo, Zhenhai Wen, Xinliang Feng, and co-workers on page 5799, the vertically oriented graphene-bridged supercapacitors present excellent rate and power capabilities with a significantly reduced interfacial contact resistance.

  9. Communications

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    1. Vertically Oriented Graphene Bridging Active-Layer/Current-Collector Interface for Ultrahigh Rate Supercapacitors (pages 5799–5806)

      Zheng Bo, Weiguang Zhu, Wei Ma, Zhenhai Wen, Xiaorui Shuai, Junhong Chen, Jianhua Yan, Zhihua Wang, Kefa Cen and Xinliang Feng

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301794

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      Dense networks of graphene nanosheets standing vertically on a current collector can work as numerous electrically conductive bridges to facilitate charge transport and mitigate the constriction/spreading resistance at the interface between the active material and the current collector. The vertically oriented graphene-bridged supercapacitors present excellent rate and power capabilities.

    2. Defect-Rich MoS2 Ultrathin Nanosheets with Additional Active Edge Sites for Enhanced Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution (pages 5807–5813)

      Junfeng Xie, Hao Zhang, Shuang Li, Ruoxing Wang, Xu Sun, Min Zhou, Jingfang Zhou, Xiong Wen (David) Lou and Yi Xie

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302685

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      Defect-rich MoS2 ultrathin nanosheets are synthesized on a gram scale for electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution. The novel defect-rich structure introduces additional active edge sites into the MoS2 ultrathin nanosheets, which significantly improves their electrocatalytic performance. Low onset overpotential and small Tafel slope, along with large cathodic current density and excellent durability, are all achieved for the novel hydrogen-evolution-reaction electrocatalyst.

    3. Fabrication of Red-Blood-Cell-Like Polyelectrolyte Microcapsules and Their Deformation and Recovery Behavior Through a Microcapillary (pages 5814–5818)

      Shupeng She, Qinqin Li, Bowen Shan, Weijun Tong and Changyou Gao

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302875

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      Multilayer microcapsules with a biconcave discoidal shape mimicking red blood cells (RBCs) are fabricated. The structure of the RBC-like microcapsules is verified by scanning electron and confocal laser scanning microscopies. The capsules show elastic deformation after being forced through a microcapillary with a smaller diameter, exhibiting a high recovery ratio of ≈90%. When the capsules are coated with hemoglobin (Hb),they are able to reversibly bind and release oxygen.

  10. Research News

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    1. Multifunctional Nanoparticle@MOF Core–Shell Nanostructures (pages 5819–5825)

      Yaling Liu and Zhiyong Tang

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302781

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      Controllable integration of inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) and metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) is creating many new multi-functional materials. In this Research News, an emerging type of core–shell nanostructure, in which NP cores are encapsulated by MOF shells, is briefly introduced. The unique functions originating from property synergies of different types of NPs and MOFs are highlighted, and insights into their future development are offered.

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