Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 25 Issue 41

November 6, 2013

Volume 25, Issue 41

Pages 5829–5985

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Reviews
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    1. You have free access to this content
      Magnetic Microrobots: Fabrication and Characterization of Magnetic Microrobots for Three-Dimensional Cell Culture and Targeted Transportation (Adv. Mater. 41/2013) (page 5829)

      Sangwon Kim, Famin Qiu, Samhwan Kim, Ali Ghanbari, Cheil Moon, Li Zhang, Bradley J. Nelson and Hongsoo Choi

      Article first published online: 4 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370257

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Magnetically manipulated microrobots are demonstrated by H. Choi, B. J. Nelson and co-workers on page 5863 for targeted multi-cell transportation. Fully 3D porous structures are fabricated with a photocurable polymer using a 3D laser lithography system. The structures are coated with nickel for magnetic actuation, and with titanium to ensure biocompatibility for possible in vivo applications. The fabricated microrobots are controlled in the fluid by external magnetic fields. Multiple cells are cultivated in the microrobot to show the possibility for targeted cell transportation.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Reviews
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    1. You have free access to this content
      Liquid-Crystal Polymers: Topography from Topology: Photoinduced Surface Features Generated in Liquid Crystal Polymer Networks (Adv. Mater. 41/2013) (page 5830)

      Michael E. McConney, Angel Martinez, Vincent P. Tondiglia, Kyung Min Lee, Derrick Langley, Ivan I. Smalyukh and Timothy J. White

      Article first published online: 4 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370258

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Light can induce rich and diverse topographical transformations of initially flat films composed of photoresponsive, azobenzene-functionalized liquid-crystalline polymer networks. The N-fold symmetry of the topography of the photoinduced response of defect-containing azo-LCN films is examined by T. J. White and co-workers on page 5880. It is found to be inherently coupled to the strength of the defect, confirming that the director profile emanating from the topological defect governs the behavior. The topography of a film subsumed with a +10 defect resting on water after exposure to light is shown here.

  3. Back Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Reviews
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    1. You have free access to this content
      Biomaterial Laser: All-Biomaterial Laser Using Vitamin and Biopolymers (Adv. Mater. 41/2013) (page 5988)

      Sedat Nizamoglu, Malte C. Gather and Seok Hyun Yun

      Article first published online: 4 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370259

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Vitamin pills sitting on a substrate are illustrated. A similar arrangement, on a much smaller microscopic scale, is used to build a vitamin droplet laser made of FDA-approved human-compatible biomaterials. Daily-taken vitamin B2 is used as the optical gain medium, and vitamin-doped microdroplet lasers with a low-level threshold are embedded on a super-hydrophobic poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) substrate. This work is described by S. H. Yun and co-workers on page 5943.

  4. Masthead

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Reviews
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    1. Masthead: (Adv. Mater. 41/2013)

      Article first published online: 4 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370260

  5. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Reviews
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
  6. Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Reviews
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    1. 25th Anniversary Article: “Cooking Carbon with Salt”: Carbon Materials and Carbonaceous Frameworks from Ionic Liquids and Poly(ionic liquid)s (pages 5838–5855)

      Tim-Patrick Fellinger, Arne Thomas, Jiayin Yuan and Markus Antonietti

      Article first published online: 4 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301975

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Ionic liquids (ILs) and polymerized ionic liquids (PILs) are flexible and versatile precursors for the synthesis of functional carbon materials. Heteroatom doping and various morphologies, such as powder, film, hollow spheres, fibers, and monoliths, are all accessible when proper structures and processing methods are coupled with this IL/PIL route. Applications in energy storage, catalysis, separation, and sorption are highlighted.

  7. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Reviews
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    1. Work-Function-Tuned Reduced Graphene Oxide via Direct Surface Functionalization as Source/Drain Electrodes in Bottom-Contact Organic Transistors (pages 5856–5862)

      Boseok Kang, Soojin Lim, Wi Hyoung Lee, Sae Byeok Jo and Kilwon Cho

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302358

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      RGO electrodes with work functions that can be widely tuned using direct surface functionalization are demonstrated by self-assembled monolayers anchored onto the surfaces of the RGO electrodes, which can remarkably enhance the device performance of organic field-effect transistors.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Fabrication and Characterization of Magnetic Microrobots for Three-Dimensional Cell Culture and Targeted Transportation (pages 5863–5868)

      Sangwon Kim, Famin Qiu, Samhwan Kim, Ali Ghanbari, Cheil Moon, Li Zhang, Bradley J. Nelson and Hongsoo Choi

      Article first published online: 17 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301484

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Magnetically manipulated microrobots are demonstrated for targeted cell transportation. Full three-dimensional (3D) porous structures are fabricated with an SU-8 photoresist using a 3D laser lithography system. Nickel and titanium are deposited as a magnetic material and biocompatible material, respectively. The fabricated microrobots are controlled in the fluid by external magnetic fields. Human embryonic kidney 239 (HEK 239) cells are cultivated in the microrobot to show the possibility for targeted cell transportation.

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Hydrogel Micropillars with Integrin Selective Peptidomimetic Functionalized Nanopatterned Tops: A New Tool for the Measurement of Cell Traction Forces Transmitted through αvβ3- or α5β1-Integrins (pages 5869–5874)

      Sabri Rahmouni, Aaron Lindner, Florian Rechenmacher, Stefanie Neubauer, Tariq Rashad Ali Sobahi, Horst Kessler, Elisabetta Ada Cavalcanti-Adam and Joachim Pius Spatz

      Article first published online: 5 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301338

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Poly(ethylene glycol) micropillars with gold nanopatterns on top are functionalized with two integrin selective ligands. This platform is a powerful new tool to determine the specific contribution of traction forces involved in cell adhesion mediated by α5 β1- and αvβ3- integrins. Cells adherent via α5 β1-integrins have a tendency to exert higher maximum forces than cells adhering via αvβ3-integrins.

    4. Self-Assembled Supramolecular Nanotube Yarn (pages 5875–5879)

      Yaqing Liu, Tianyu Wang, Yong Huan, Zhibo Li, Guowei He and Minghua Liu

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302345

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Metric length supramolecular nanotube yarns are fabricated though a spinning process from the diluted aqueous solution of self-assembled nanotubes, with bolaamphiphiles working as molecular building blocks. These non-covalent bonding based nanotube yarns show outstanding mechanical strength compared with some conventional polymers and could be operated under the macro conditions.

    5. Topography from Topology: Photoinduced Surface Features Generated in Liquid Crystal Polymer Networks (pages 5880–5885)

      Michael E. McConney, Angel Martinez, Vincent P. Tondiglia, Kyung Min Lee, Derrick Langley, Ivan I. Smalyukh and Timothy J. White

      Article first published online: 21 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301891

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Films subsumed with topological defects are transformed into complex, topographical surface features with light irradiation of azobenzene-functionalized liquid crystal polymer networks (azo-LCNs). Using a specially designed optical setup and photoalignment materials, azo-LCN films containing either singular or multiple defects with strengths ranging from |½| to as much as |10| are examined. The local order of an azo-LCN material for a given defect strength dictates a complex, mechanical response observed as topographical surface features.

    6. Reliable and Uniform Thin-Film Transistor Arrays Based on Inkjet-Printed Polymer Semiconductors for Full Color Reflective Displays (pages 5886–5892)

      Jiyoul Lee, Do Hwan Kim, Joo-Young Kim, Byungwook Yoo, Jong Won Chung, Jeong-Il Park, Bang-Lin Lee, Ji Young Jung, Joon Seok Park, Bonwon Koo, Seongil Im, Jung Woo Kim, Byungkwon Song, Myung-Hoon Jung, Jae Eun Jang, Yong Wan Jin and Sang-Yoon Lee

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301257

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Stable uniform performance inkjet-printed polymer transistor arrays, which allow demonstration of flexible full-color displays, were achieved by new ambient processable conjugated copolymer semiconductor, and OTFT devices incorporating this material showed high mobility values > 1.0 cm2 V-1s–1. Bias-stress stability of the devices was improved with a channel-passivation layer, which suppresses the density of trap states at the channel interface.

    7. Advanced Photoassisted Atomic Switches Produced Using ITO Nanowire Electrodes and Molten Photoconductive Organic Semiconductors (pages 5893–5897)

      Annop Klamchuen, Hirofumi Tanaka, Daisuke Tanaka, Hirotaka Toyama, Gang Meng, Sakon Rahong, Kazuki Nagashima, Masaki Kanai, Takeshi Yanagida, Tomoji Kawai and Takuji Ogawa

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302552

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Photoassisted atomic switches (PASs) are those produced using photoconductive organic materials. However, the use of solid photoconductive materials and the formation of a large Ag conductive bridge lead to the formation of large voids during the shrinking of Ag conductive bridges; this may degrade the performance of PASs. A low-melting-point organic semiconductor is used as a molten photoconductive material, and self-assembled ITO nanowires are used as transparent electrodes. Stable atomic switching is observed only under light irradiation.

    8. Tri-Diketopyrrolopyrrole Molecular Donor Materials for High-Performance Solution-Processed Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells (pages 5898–5903)

      Jianhua Liu, Yanming Sun, Preecha Moonsin, Martijn Kuik, Christopher M. Proctor, Jason Lin, Ben B. Hsu, Vinich Promarak, Alan J. Heeger and Thuc-Quyen Nguyen

      Article first published online: 15 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302007

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Two new high-performance DPP-containing donor molecules employing a molecular architecture with three DPP chromorphores (tri-DPP) in conjugated backbones are synthesized and characterized. The two tri-DPP molecules with only a structural difference on alkyl substitutions, when blended with PC71BM, lead to power conversion efficiencies up to 4.8 and 5.5%, respectively.

    9. Ultrastable Metallic Glass (pages 5904–5908)

      Hai-Bin Yu, Yuansu Luo and Konrad Samwer

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302700

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A new metallic glass, which was created by vapour deposition at an appropriately high substrate temperature, shows exceptional thermal stability, and enhanced glass transition temperature and elastic modulus. Comparing this new material with other organic glasses prepared by similar routes and known as ultrastable glasses demonstrates the formation of ultrastable glassy materials correlates to the important concept of fragility.

  8. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Reviews
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    1. You have free access to this content
      Flexible Electronics: Ultrathin Hetero-Nanowire-Based Flexible Electronics with Tunable Conductivity (Adv. Mater. 41/2013) (page 5909)

      Jian-Wei Liu, Wei-Ran Huang, Ming Gong, Meng Zhang, Jin-Long Wang, Jing Zheng and Shu-Hong Yu

      Article first published online: 4 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370262

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A simple solution process is developed to fabricate macroscopicscale, flexible, ordered Au-Te hetero-nanowire film electronics with tunable resistance from MΩ to Ω at room temperature, as described by S.-H. Yu and co-workers on Page 5910. The nanowire films with the electrical conductivity as low as 10000 S cm−1 and sheet resistance 15 Ohm per square (Ω/sq) can generate reliable interconnects for light emitting diode (LED) arrays. Picture design: M.-R. Gao.

  9. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Reviews
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    1. Ultrathin Hetero-Nanowire-Based Flexible Electronics with Tunable Conductivity (pages 5910–5915)

      Jian-Wei Liu, Wei-Ran Huang, Ming Gong, Meng Zhang, Jin-Long Wang, Jing Zheng and Shu-Hong Yu

      Article first published online: 5 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301903

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Flexible hetero-nanowire electronics: A simple solution process has been developed for the first time to fabricate macroscopic flexible, ordered Au–Te hetero-nanowire film electronics with tunable resistance from MΩ to Ω at room temperature (see the Figure). Nanowire films with an electrical conductivity as low as 10 000 S cm−1 and a sheet resistance of 15 Ω sq–1 can generate reliable interconnections for light-emitting diode (LED) arrays. The Au–Te hetero-nanowire films remain conductive after bending 6000 times with a maximum bending radius of 2.0 mm without any obvious degradation.

    2. Carbon Fiber Aerogel Made from Raw Cotton: A Novel, Efficient and Recyclable Sorbent for Oils and Organic Solvents (pages 5916–5921)

      Hengchang Bi, Zongyou Yin, Xiehong Cao, Xiao Xie, Chaoliang Tan, Xiao Huang, Bo Chen, Fangtao Chen, Qingling Yang, Xinyang Bu, Xuehong Lu, Litao Sun and Hua Zhang

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302435

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Twisted carbon fiber (TCF) aerogel with good selective sorption is produced in large scale by using raw cotton as the precursor. TCF aerogel shows highly efficient sorption of organic liquids (pump oil: up to 192 times its own weight; chloroform: up to 115 times its own weight). Moreover, it could be regenerated many times without decrease of sorption capacity by distillation, combustion or squeezing, which depends on the type of pollutants.

    3. A Selective Artificial Enzyme Inhibitor Based on Nanoparticle-Enzyme Interactions and Molecular Imprinting (pages 5922–5927)

      Cheng Zheng, Xiao-Long Zhang, Wei Liu, Bo Liu, Huang-Hao Yang, Zi-An Lin and Guo-Nan Chen

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302064

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A novel and general strategy is developed to design selective artificial enzyme inhibitor based on nanoparticleenzyme inter actions and molecular imprinting. Due to the creation of specific binding cavities, the resulting artificial inhibitor has high inhibition efficiency for the target enzyme, and shows great target-selectivity over other enzymes of similar function and proteins of compaable mole cular weight.

    4. Morphologically Virus-Like Fullerenol Nanoparticles Act as the Dual-Functional Nanoadjuvant for HIV-1 Vaccine (pages 5928–5936)

      Ligeng Xu, Ye Liu, Zhiyun Chen, Wei Li, Ying Liu, Liming Wang, Liying Ma, Yiming Shao, Yuliang Zhao and Chunying Chen

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201300583

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Fullerenol, which self-assembles into virus-sized nanoparticles, is designed as a dual-functional nanoadjuvant to generate comparable immune responses to the HIV DNA vaccine. It shows promising adjuvant activity via various immunization routes, decreasing the antigen dosage and immunization frequency while maintaining immunity levels and inducing TEM-biased immunity to combat the infection at early stage. The underlying mechanisms by which fullerenol-based formulation induces above-mentioned polyvalent immune responses are involved in activating multiple TLRs signaling pathways.

    5. Bioinspired Conical Copper Wire with Gradient Wettability for Continuous and Efficient Fog Collection (pages 5937–5942)

      Jie Ju, Kai Xiao, Xi Yao, Hao Bai and Lei Jiang

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301876

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Inspired by the efficient fog collection on cactus spines, conical copper wires with gradient wettability are fabricated through gradient electrochemical corrosion and subsequent gradient chemical modification. These dual-gradient copper wires’ fog-collection ability is demonstrated to be higher than that of conical copper wires with pure hydrophobic surfaces or pure hydrophilic surfaces, and the underlying mechanism is also analyzed.

    6. All-Biomaterial Laser Using Vitamin and Biopolymers (pages 5943–5947)

      Sedat Nizamoglu, Malte C. Gather and Seok Hyun Yun

      Article first published online: 4 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma201300818

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Lasers based on biomaterials known as Generally-Recognized-As-Safe (GRAS) substances approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) are demonstrated. Vitamin B2-doped microdroplet lasers are generated and trapped on a super-hydrophobic poly-L-lactic acid substrate. The spheres support whispering gallery mode lasing at optical pump energies as low as 15 nJ per pulse (≈1 kW/mm2).

    7. Orientation-Specific Attachment of Polymeric Microtubes on Cell Surfaces (pages 5948–5952)

      Jonathan B. Gilbert, Janice S. O'Brien, Harini S. Suresh, Robert E. Cohen and Michael F. Rubner

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302673

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Tubular particles presenting heterogeneous regions of chemistry on the tube-ends versus the side are fabricated and are shown to control the particle orientation on the surface of live lymphocytes. Controlling the orientation of anisotropic microparticles on cell surfaces is of interest for biomedical applications and drug delivery in particular, since it can be used to promote or resist particle internalization.

    8. Ultrasonic Phosphate Bonding of Nanoparticles (pages 5953–5958)

      David C Bassett, Geraldine Merle, Bruce Lennox, Reza Rabiei, François Barthelat, Liam M Grover and Jake E. Barralet

      Article first published online: 26 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301818

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Low intensity ultrasound-induced radicals interact with surface adsorbed orthophosphate to bond nanoparticles with high mechanical strength and surface area. Dissimilar materials could be bonded to form robust metallic, ceramic, and organic composite microparticles. 3D nanostructures of a hydrated and amorphous electrocatalyst with carbon nanotubes were also constructed which exceeded the resistance-limited efficiency of 2D electrodes.

    9. Selective-Area Van der Waals Epitaxy of Topological Insulator Grid Nanostructures for Broadband Transparent Flexible Electrodes (pages 5959–5964)

      Yunfan Guo, Mahaya Aisijiang, Kai Zhang, Wei Jiang, Yulin Chen, Wenshan Zheng, Zehao Song, Jie Cao, Zhongfan Liu and Hailin Peng

      Article first published online: 16 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302661

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Broadband transparent electrodes based on a two-dimensional grid of topological insulator Bi2Se3 are synthesized by a facile selective-area van der Waals epitaxy method. These two-dimensional grid electrodes exhibit high uniformity over large area, outstanding mechanical durability, and excellent chemical resistance to environmental perturbations. Remarkably, the topological grid electrode has high transmittance of more than 85% from the visible to the near-infrared region.

    10. Flexible and Weaveable Capacitor Wire Based on a Carbon Nanocomposite Fiber (pages 5965–5970)

      Jing Ren, Wenyu Bai, Guozhen Guan, Ye Zhang and Huisheng Peng

      Article first published online: 16 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302498

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A flexible and weaveable electric double-layer capacitor wire is developed by twisting two aligned carbon nanotube/ordered mesoporous carbon composite fibers with remarkable mechanical and electronic properties as electrodes. This capacitor wire exhibits high specific capacitance and long life stability. Compared with the conventional planar structure, the capacitor wire is also lightweight and can be integrated into various textile structures that are particularly promising for portable and wearable electronic devices.

    11. Understanding Universal Adsorption Limits for Hydrogen Storage in Nano Porous Systems (pages 5971–5974)

      Lucyna Firlej, Peter Pfeifer and Bogdan Kuchta

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201303023

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Despite of more than 15 years of research, no materials possess the adsorbing properties required for mobile storage. At this time of state-of-the-art technology, the essential question should be asked: why is it so difficult to prepare a material with the desired properties? Here, we discuss the sources of physical limitations of existing materials and indicate the directions for further material research.

    12. Logic Computation in Phase Change Materials by Threshold and Memory Switching (pages 5975–5980)

      M. Cassinerio, N. Ciocchini and D. Ielmini

      Article first published online: 15 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301940

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Memristors, namely hysteretic devices capable of changing their resistance in response to applied electrical stimuli, may provide new opportunities for future memory and computation, thanks to their scalable size, low switching energy and nonvolatile nature. We have developed a functionally complete set of logic functions including NOR, NAND and NOT gates, each utilizing a single phase-change memristor (PCM) where resistance switching is due to the phase transformation of an active chalcogenide material. The logic operations are enabled by the high functionality of nanoscale phase change, featuring voltage comparison, additive crystallization and pulse-induced amorphization. The nonvolatile nature of memristive states provides the basis for developing reconfigurable hybrid logic/memory circuits featuring low-power and high-speed switching.

    13. Developing Functionalized Dendrimer-Like Silica Nanoparticles with Hierarchical Pores as Advanced Delivery Nanocarriers (pages 5981–5985)

      Xin Du, Bingyang Shi, Ji Liang, Jingxu Bi, Sheng Dai and Shi Zhang Qiao

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302189

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Functionalized dendrimer-like hybrid silica nanoparticles with hierarchical pores are designed and synthesized. The unique structure, large surface area, and excellent biocompability render such materials attractive nanocarriers for the advanced delivery of various sized drugs and genes simultaneously.

SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION