Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 25 Issue 42

November 13, 2013

Volume 25, Issue 42

Pages 5989–6145

  1. Cover Picture

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      Membranes: Combining Phosphate and Bacteria Removal on Chemically Active Filter Membranes Allows Prolonged Storage of Drinking Water (Adv. Mater. 42/2013) (page 5989)

      A. C. C. Rotzetter, C. R. Kellenberger, C. M. Schumacher, C. Mora, R. N. Grass, M. Loepfe, N. A. Luechinger and W. J. Stark

      Version of Record online: 8 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370263

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      On page 6057, W. J. Stark and co-workers present a chemically active filtration membrane that removes bacteria and the essential growth nutrient phosphate in a single filtration step. This allows the suppression of the microbial regrowth processes and thus, provides a simple device for the preparation of drinking water and subsequent safe storage.

  2. Inside Front Cover

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      Solar Cells: Re-evaluating the Role of Sterics and Electronic Coupling in Determining the Open-Circuit Voltage of Organic Solar Cells (Adv. Mater. 42/2013) (page 5990)

      Kenneth R. Graham, Patrick Erwin, Dennis Nordlund, Koen Vandewal, Ruipeng Li, Guy O. Ngongang Ndjawa, Eric T. Hoke, Alberto Salleo, Mark E. Thompson, Michael D. McGehee and Aram Amassian

      Version of Record online: 8 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370264

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      The energy of the charge-transfer state formed between electron-donating and electronaccepting materials, a state that directly absorbs, largely determines the limit of the open-circuit voltage in organic photovoltaic devices. This is described in work by Aram Amassian, Michael D. McGehee and co-workers on page 6076.

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      Metal–Organic Frameworks: Metal–Organic Frameworks Capable of Healing at Low Temperatures (Adv. Mater. 42/2013) (page 6148)

      Ziguang Chen, Gonghua Wang, Zhanping Xu, Hui Li, Alexandre Dhôtel, Xiao Cheng Zeng, Banglin Chen, Jean-Marc Saiter and Li Tan

      Version of Record online: 8 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370265

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      Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) are important to many sectors of science and engineering. The slight ionic nature of their coordination bonds make them dynamic or unstable in a polar medium. On page 6106, Li Tan and co-workers report that missing building blocks in MOFs can be patched back to the defect sites, and that mended crystals at a low temperature show significantly improved appearance and mechanical properties.

  4. Masthead

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      Masthead: (Adv. Mater. 42/2013)

      Version of Record online: 8 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370266

  5. Contents

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  6. Reviews

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    1. 25th Anniversary Article: The Evolution of Electronic Skin (E-Skin): A Brief History, Design Considerations, and Recent Progress (pages 5997–6038)

      Mallory L. Hammock, Alex Chortos, Benjamin C.-K. Tee, Jeffrey B.-H. Tok and Zhenan Bao

      Version of Record online: 22 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302240

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      Human skin is a complex organ. There is much interest in developing large-area networks of electronic devices inspired by human skin for use in autonomous intelligent robots and biomimetic prosthetics. Flexible and stretchable electronic networks that are integrated with multiple functionalities already provide augmented performance over their organic counterpart. Continued research in this area is promising for the fabrication of a fully integrated e-skin.

    2. Supramolecular Helices: Chirality Transfer from Conjugated Molecules to Structures (pages 6039–6049)

      Yang Yang, Yajie Zhang and Zhixiang Wei

      Version of Record online: 21 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302448

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      Conjugated molecules can be induced into a predominately single-handed conformation by chiral dopants. The chiral molecules are then self-assembled into helical nanostructures, superstructures, and even macroscopic structures. In this review paper, the principles that guide the formation, adjustment, and hierarchy of supramolecular helicity are critically reviewed. The potential application of chiral structures and areas for further investigation are also highlighted.

  7. Communications

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    1. Fabrication of All-Carbon Nanotube Electronic Devices on Flexible Substrates Through CVD and Transfer Methods (pages 6050–6056)

      Yuan Zou, Qunqing Li, Junku Liu, Yuanhao Jin, Qingkai Qian, Kaili Jiang and Shoushan Fan

      Version of Record online: 1 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302265

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      SWNT thin films with different nanotube densities are fabricated by CVD while controlling the concentration of catalyst and growth time. Three layers of SWNT films are transferred to flexible substrates serving as electrodes and channel materials, respectively. All-carbon nanotube TFTs with an on/off ratio as high as 105 are obtained. Inverters are fabricated on top of the flexible substrates with symmetric input/output behavior.

    2. Combining Phosphate and Bacteria Removal on Chemically Active Filter Membranes Allows Prolonged Storage of Drinking Water (pages 6057–6063)

      A. C. C. Rotzetter, C. R. Kellenberger, C. M. Schumacher, C. Mora, R. N. Grass, M. Loepfe, N. A. Luechinger and W. J. Stark

      Version of Record online: 5 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201303119

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      A chemically active filtration membrane with incorporated lanthanum oxide nanoparticles enables the removal of bacteria and phosphate at the same time and thus provides a simple device for preparation of drinking water and subsequent safe storage without using any kind of disinfectants.

    3. Bio-Inspired Two-Dimensional Nanofluidic Generators Based on a Layered Graphene Hydrogel Membrane (pages 6064–6068)

      Wei Guo, Chi Cheng, Yanzhe Wu, Yanan Jiang, Jun Gao, Dan Li and Lei Jiang

      Version of Record online: 31 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302441

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      An electrogenetic layered graphene hydrogel membrane (GHM) possesses ultra-large interlayer spacing of about 10 nm, forming charged 2D nanocapillaries between graphene sheets that selectively permeate counter-ions and exclude co-ions. When an electrolyte flow goes through the GHM, it functions as an integrated 2D nanofluidic generator converting hydraulic motion into electricity. The maximum streaming conductance density approaches 16.8 μA cm−2 bar−1.

    4. Efficient Small-Molecule Photovoltaic Cells Using a Crystalline Diindenoperylene Film as a Nanostructured Template (pages 6069–6075)

      Ying Zhou, Tetsuya Taima, Takayuki Kuwabara and Kohshin Takahashi

      Version of Record online: 3 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302167

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      A cascade-type small-molecule organic photovoltaic cell using a crystalline diindenoperylene film as a nanostructured template is demonstrated. This cell architecture simultaneously realizes organic nanostructure and cascade energy concepts, which significantly improves the photocurrent generation and fill factor, leading to a power conversion efficiency of 5.2 ± 0.3%.

    5. Re-evaluating the Role of Sterics and Electronic Coupling in Determining the Open-Circuit Voltage of Organic Solar Cells (pages 6076–6082)

      Kenneth R. Graham, Patrick Erwin, Dennis Nordlund, Koen Vandewal, Ruipeng Li, Guy O. Ngongang Ndjawa, Eric T. Hoke, Alberto Salleo, Mark E. Thompson, Michael D. McGehee and Aram Amassian

      Version of Record online: 30 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301319

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      The effects of sterics and molecular orientation on the open-circuit voltage and absorbance properties of charge-transfer states are explored in model bilayer organic photovoltaics. It is shown that the open-circuit voltage correlates linearly with the charge-transfer state energy and is not significantly influenced by electronic coupling.

    6. Ultrabright Organic Dots with Aggregation-Induced Emission Characteristics for Real-Time Two-Photon Intravital Vasculature Imaging (pages 6083–6088)

      Dan Ding, Chi Ching Goh, Guangxue Feng, Zujin Zhao, Jie Liu, Rongrong Liu, Nikodem Tomczak, Junlong Geng, Ben Zhong Tang, Lai Guan Ng and Bin Liu

      Version of Record online: 19 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301938

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      Ultrabright organic dots with aggregation-induced emission characteristics (AIE dots) are prepared and shown to exhibit a high quantum yield, a, large two-photon absorption cross-section, and low in vivo toxicity. Real-time two-photon intravital blood vascular imaging in various tissues substantiates that the AIE dots are effective probes for in vivo vasculature imaging in a deep and high-contrast manner.

  8. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Reviews
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
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      Magnetic Materials: Novel Nanostructured Rare-Earth-Free Magnetic Materials with High Energy Products (Adv. Mater. 42/2013) (page 6089)

      Balamurugan Balasubramanian, Bhaskar Das, Ralph Skomski, Wenyong Y. Zhang and David J. Sellmyer

      Version of Record online: 8 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370268

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      The development of new magnetic materials is of paramount importance to surmount significant worldwide challenges in energy and environmental security. On page 6090, David J. Sellmyer, Balamurugan Balasubramanian, and co-workers report a novel hybrid nanomagnetic material having the highest energy product for permanentmagnet materials free of critical rare-earth elements or expensive Pt. This is achieved in a single-step process by assembling the easy-axis aligned high-anisotropy nanoparticles with a high-magnetization soft Fe-Co phase.

  9. Communications

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    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    1. Novel Nanostructured Rare-Earth-Free Magnetic Materials with High Energy Products (pages 6090–6093)

      Balamurugan Balasubramanian, Bhaskar Das, Ralph Skomski, Wenyong Y. Zhang and David J. Sellmyer

      Version of Record online: 19 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302704

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      Novel nanostructured Zr2Co11-based magnetic materials are fabricated in a single step process using cluster-deposition method. The composition, atomic ordering, and spin structure are precisely controlled to achieve a substantial magnetic remanence and coercivity, as well as the highest energy product for non-rare-earth and Pt-free permanent-magnet alloys.

    2. Harmonic-Resonator-Based Triboelectric Nanogenerator as a Sustainable Power Source and a Self-Powered Active Vibration Sensor (pages 6094–6099)

      Jun Chen, Guang Zhu, Weiqing Yang, Qingshen Jing, Peng Bai, Ya Yang, Te-Chien Hou and Zhong Lin Wang

      Version of Record online: 3 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302397

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      A harmonic-resonator-based triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) is presented as a sustainable power source and an active vibration sensor. It can effectively respond to vibration frequencies ranging from 2 to 200 Hz with a considerably wide working bandwidth of 13.4 Hz. This work not only presents a new principle in the field of vibration energy harvesting but also greatly expands the applicability of TENGs.

    3. Direct-Write Thermocapillary Dewetting of Polymer Thin Films by a Laser-Induced Thermal Gradient (pages 6100–6105)

      Jonathan P. Singer, Pao-Tai Lin, Steven E. Kooi, Lionel C. Kimerling, Jurgen Michel and Edwin L. Thomas

      Version of Record online: 21 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302777

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      A positive-tone 2D direct-write technique that can achieve sub-wavelength patterning by non-linear overlap effects in a conventional polymer system is described. The technique involves relatively inexpensive free-space optics, skips the usual development step, and promises the possibility of a lithographic method that is solvent-free.

    4. Metal–Organic Frameworks Capable of Healing at Low Temperatures (pages 6106–6111)

      Ziguang Chen, Gonghua Wang, Zhanping Xu, Hui Li, Alexandre Dhôtel, Xiao Cheng Zeng, Banglin Chen, Jean-Marc Saiter and Li Tan

      Version of Record online: 2 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302471

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      Filling crystalline gaps with small molecules can drive interfacial healing between anisotropic solids. Sufficient mobility from these fillers allows the process to happen at a low temperature of –56 °C. Mended bulk crystals show modulus leap from 4 to 12 GPa and hardness from 400 to 1000 MPa.

    5. Modularity Analysis of Tunable Solid-State Emission Based on a Twisted Conjugated Molecule Containing 9,9′-Bianthracene Group (pages 6112–6116)

      Peng Zhang, Wei Dou, Zhenghua Ju, Xiaoliang Tang, Wei Liu, Chunyang Chen, Bei Wang and Weisheng Liu

      Version of Record online: 23 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301648

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      The solid-state luminescence behavior of a compound (BAPN) depends on the molecular aggregation pattern. Modular analysis shows that the two emitting systems within the BAPN molecule are responsible for switching the emission color in various aggregation states.

    6. Three-Dimensional Microscaffolds Exhibiting Spatially Resolved Surface Chemistry (pages 6117–6122)

      Benjamin Richter, Thomas Pauloehrl, Johannes Kaschke, Dagmar Fichtner, Joachim Fischer, Alexandra M. Greiner, Doris Wedlich, Martin Wegener, Guillaume Delaittre, Christopher Barner-Kowollik and Martin Bastmeyer

      Version of Record online: 4 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302678

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      Spatial control over the surface chemistry of 3D organic–inorganic hybrid microscaffolds is achieved by a two-photon-triggered cycloaddition. Following a coating step with photoactivatable dienes via silanization, surface irradiation with a femtosecond-pulsed laser in the presence of functional dienophiles enables a site-selective alteration of the surface chemistry. Bioconjugation with fluorescent protein tags is employed to reveal the 3D molecular patterns.

    7. Controlled Cell Adhesion on Poly(dopamine) Interfaces Photopatterned with Non-Fouling Brushes (pages 6123–6127)

      Cesar Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Corinna M. Preuss, Basit Yameen, Ognen Pop-Georgievski, Michael Bachmann, Jan O. Mueller, Michael Bruns, Anja S. Goldmann, Martin Bastmeyer and Christopher Barner-Kowollik

      Version of Record online: 3 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302492

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      Bioinspired poly(dopamine) (PDA) films are merged with antifouling poly(MeOEGMA) brushes utilizing a nitrile imine-mediated tetrazole-ene cycloaddition (NITEC)-based phototriggered surface encoding protocol. The antifouling brushes were photopatterned on PDA surfaces, leading cells to form confluent layers in the non-irradiated sections, while no adhesion occurred on the brushes resulting in a remarkably precise cell pattern. The presented strategy paves the way for the design of tailor-made patterned cell interfaces.

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      Local Temperature Redistribution and Structural Transition During Joule-Heating-Driven Conductance Switching in VO2 (pages 6128–6132)

      Suhas Kumar, Matthew D. Pickett, John Paul Strachan, Gary Gibson, Yoshio Nishi and R. Stanley Williams

      Version of Record online: 19 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302046

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      Joule-heating induced conductance-switching is studied in VO2, a Mott insulator. Complementary in situ techniques including optical characterization, blackbody microscopy, scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and numerical simulations are used. Abrupt redistribution in local temperature is shown to occur upon conductance-switching along with a structural phase transition, at the same current.

    9. Intrinsic Au Decoration of Growing TiO2 Nanotubes and Formation of a High-Efficiency Photocatalyst for H2 Production (pages 6133–6137)

      Kiyoung Lee, Robert Hahn, Marco Altomare, Elena Selli and Patrik Schmuki

      Version of Record online: 21 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302581

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      Electrochemical anodization of low-concentration (0.02–0.2 at% Au) TiAu alloys in a fluoride electrolyte leads to self-organized TiO2 nanotubes that show a controllable, regular in situ decoration with elemental Au nanoclusters of ≈5 nm in diameter. The degree of self-decoration can be adjusted by the Au concentration in the alloy and the anodization time. Such Au particle decorated tubes show a high activity for photocatalytic H2 production from ethanol solutions.

    10. Edge-Selectively Sulfurized Graphene Nanoplatelets as Efficient Metal-Free Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction: The Electron Spin Effect (pages 6138–6145)

      In-Yup Jeon, Sheng Zhang, Lipeng Zhang, Hyun-Jung Choi, Jeong-Min Seo, Zhenhai Xia, Liming Dai and Jong-Beom Baek

      Version of Record online: 23 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302753

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      To replace precious platinum (Pt)-based electrocatalysts for cathodic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), edge-selectively sulfurized graphene nanoplatelets (SGnP) are synthesized as efficient metal-free electrocatalysts simply by ball-milling pristine graphite in the presence of sulfur (S8). The resultant SGnPs exhibit remarkable electrocatalytic activity toward ORR with better tolerance to methanol crossover/CO poisoning effects and longer-term stability than those of pristine graphite and commercial Pt/C electrocatalysts. Edge-Selectively Sulfurized Graphene Nanoplatelets as Efficient Metal-Free Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction: The Electron Spin Effect

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