Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 25 Issue 44

November 26, 2013

Volume 25, Issue 44

Pages 6305–6463

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Progress Reports
    8. Reviews
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Communications
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      Solar Cells: Solvent Additive Effects on Small Molecule Crystallization in Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells Probed During Spin Casting (Adv. Mater. 44/2013) (page 6305)

      Louis A. Perez, Kang Wei Chou, John A. Love, Thomas S. van der Poll, Detlef-M. Smilgies, Thuc-Quyen Nguyen, Edward J. Kramer, Aram Amassian and Guillermo C. Bazan

      Version of Record online: 26 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370275

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      In situ X-ray scattering is used by Guillermo C. Bazan, Aram Amassian and co-workers to investigate the kinetics of crystallization during spincasting of an organic bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) layer based on a small molecule-fullerene blend, as described on page 6380. The high-speed measurements capture evidence of an unexpected structural evolution and phase transformation of the small-molecule donor both during and shortly after spin-casting; such behavior is not known to occur in polymer-fullerene BHJ solar cells.

  2. Inside Front Cover

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    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
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    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Progress Reports
    8. Reviews
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
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      Organic Semiconductors: V-Shaped Organic Semiconductors With Solution Processability, High Mobility, and High Thermal Durability (Adv. Mater. 44/2013) (page 6306)

      Toshihiro Okamoto, Chikahiko Mitsui, Masakazu Yamagishi, Katsumasa Nakahara, Junshi Soeda, Yuri Hirose, Kazumoto Miwa, Hiroyasu Sato, Akihito Yamano, Takeshi Matsushita, Takafumi Uemura and Jun Takeya

      Version of Record online: 26 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370276

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      V-shaped organic semiconductors are designed and synthesized via a large-scale applicable synthetic route. On page 6392, Jun Takeya, Toshihiro Okamoto and co-workers describe solution-crystallized films based on such molecules and demonstrate that they have high-performance transistor properties with maximum mobilities of up to 9.5 cm2 V−1 s−1, as well as pronounced device durability against environmental, thermal, and bias stresses.

  3. Back Cover

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    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
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    7. Progress Reports
    8. Reviews
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Communications
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      Capacitors: Novel Electric Double-Layer Capacitor with a Coaxial Fiber Structure (Adv. Mater. 44/2013) (page 6468)

      Xuli Chen, Longbin Qiu, Jing Ren, Guozhen Guan, Huijuan Lin, Zhitao Zhang, Peining Chen, Yonggang Wang and Huisheng Peng

      Version of Record online: 26 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370277

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      A coaxial electric double-layer capacitor fiber is developed by Huisheng Peng and co-workers on page 6436 from the aligned carbon nanotube fiber and sheet, which function as two electrodes, with a polymer gel being sandwiched between them. The unique coaxial structure enables a rapid transportation of ions between the two electrodes with a high electrochemical performance. These energy-storage fibers are also flexible and stretchable, and can be woven into and widely used for electronic textiles.

  4. Masthead

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    7. Progress Reports
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    9. Communications
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    11. Communications
    1. Masthead: (Adv. Mater. 44/2013)

      Version of Record online: 26 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370278

  5. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Progress Reports
    8. Reviews
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Communications
  6. Progress Reports

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    11. Communications
    1. 25th Anniversary Article: Galvanic Replacement: A Simple and Versatile Route to Hollow Nanostructures with Tunable and Well-Controlled Properties (pages 6313–6333)

      Xiaohu Xia, Yi Wang, Aleksey Ruditskiy and Younan Xia

      Version of Record online: 12 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302820

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      Galvanic replacement offers a simple and powerful method for engineering the properties of nanostructures in terms of composition, structure, porosity, shape, morphology, and complexity. In addition to discussions of the reaction mechanism and fundamental concepts, we also provide a brief discussion on some niche applications enabled by the novel nanostructures.

  7. Reviews

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    9. Communications
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    11. Communications
    1. Flexible Nanodielectric Materials with High Permittivity for Power Energy Storage (pages 6334–6365)

      Zhi-Min Dang, Jin-Kai Yuan, Sheng-Hong Yao and Rui-Jin Liao

      Version of Record online: 6 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301752

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      Recent progress in the development of flexible nanodielectric materials (FNDMs) with high dielectric permittivity is highlighted. Particular focus is given to increasing the energy density of various FNDMs. Key issuses in the synthesis, structure, and dielectric properties of nanodielectrics are reviewed. Some long-standing problems and topics that warrant further investigation are also addressed.

  8. Communications

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    11. Communications
    1. Biochemical and Physical Signal Gradients in Hydrogels to Control Stem Cell Behavior (pages 6366–6372)

      Oju Jeon, Daniel S. Alt, Stephen W. Linderman and Eben Alsberg

      Version of Record online: 25 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302364

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      Three-dimensional (3D) gradients of biochemical and physical signals in macroscale degradable hydrogels are engineered that can regulate photoencapsulated human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) behavior. This simple, cytocompatible, and versatile gradient system may be a valuable tool for researchers in biomaterials science to control stem cell fate in 3D and guide tissue regeneration.

    2. Carbon Nanotube/Biocompatible Bola-Amphiphile Supramolecular Biohybrid Materials: Preparation and Their Application in Bacterial Cell Agglutination (pages 6373–6379)

      Guocan Yu, Jinying Li, Wei Yu, Chengyou Han, Zhengwei Mao, Changyou Gao and Feihe Huang

      Version of Record online: 1 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302942

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      Supramolecular biohybrid materials were successfully constructed driven by non-covalent interactions between three biocompatible bolaform amphiphiles and single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). The existence of galactoses in these supramolecular systems endowed the hybrid materials with interesting bio-function. By introducing the SWNTs as semi-flexible platforms, these supramolecular biohybrid materials display excellent agglutination ability for E. coli.

    3. Solvent Additive Effects on Small Molecule Crystallization in Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells Probed During Spin Casting (pages 6380–6384)

      Louis A. Perez, Kang Wei Chou, John A. Love, Thomas S. van der Poll, Detlef-M. Smilgies, Thuc-Quyen Nguyen, Edward J. Kramer, Aram Amassian and Guillermo C. Bazan

      Version of Record online: 4 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302389

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      Solvent additive processing can lead to drastic improvements in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) in solution processable small molecule (SPSM) bulk heterojunction solar cells. In situ grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering is used to investigate the kinetics of crystallite formation during and shortly after spin casting. The additive is shown to have a complex effect on structural evolution invoking polymorphism and enhanced crystalline quality of the donor SPSM.

    4. Cell-laden Microengineered and Mechanically Tunable Hybrid Hydrogels of Gelatin and Graphene Oxide (pages 6385–6391)

      Su Ryon Shin, Behnaz Aghaei-Ghareh-Bolagh, Tram T. Dang, Seda Nur Topkaya, Xiguang Gao, Seung Yun Yang, Sung Mi Jung, Jong Hyun Oh, Mehmet R. Dokmeci, Xiaowu (Shirley) Tang and Ali Khademhosseini

      Version of Record online: 1 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301082

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      Incorporating graphene oxide inside GelMA hydrogels enhances their mechanical properties and reduces UV-induced cell damage while preserving their favorable characteristics for 3D cell encapsulation. NIH-3T3 fibroblasts encapsulated in GO-GelMA microgels demonstrate excellent cellular viability, proliferation, spreading, and alignment. GO reinforcement combined with a multi-stacking approach offers a facile engineering strategy for the construction of complex artificial tissues.

    5. V-Shaped Organic Semiconductors With Solution Processability, High Mobility, and High Thermal Durability (pages 6392–6397)

      Toshihiro Okamoto, Chikahiko Mitsui, Masakazu Yamagishi, Katsumasa Nakahara, Junshi Soeda, Yuri Hirose, Kazumoto Miwa, Hiroyasu Sato, Akihito Yamano, Takeshi Matsushita, Takafumi Uemura and Jun Takeya

      Version of Record online: 23 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302086

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      V-shaped organic semiconductors have been designed and synthesized via a large-scale applicable synthetic route. Solution-crystallized films based on such molecules have demonstrated high-performance transistor properties with maximum mobilities of up to 9.5 cm2 V−1 s−1 as well as pronounced thermal durability of up to 150 °C inherent in the V-shaped cores.

    6. Fluidic-Directed Assembly of Aligned Oligopeptides with π-Conjugated Cores (pages 6398–6404)

      Amanda B. Marciel, Melikhan Tanyeri, Brian D. Wall, John D. Tovar, Charles M. Schroeder and William L. Wilson

      Version of Record online: 21 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302496

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      A microfluidic-based directed assembly strategy is employed to form highly aligned supramolecular structures. Formation of aligned synthetic oligopeptide nanostructures is accomplished using planar extensional flow, which induces alignment of underlying material suprastructures. Fluidic-directed assembly of supramolecular structures allows for unprecedented manipulation at the nano- and mesoscales, which has the potential to provide rapid and efficient control of functional material properties.

    7. Superhydrophobic Polymer Multilayers that Promote the Extended, Long-Term Release of Embedded Water-Soluble Agents (pages 6405–6409)

      Uttam Manna, Michael J. Kratochvil and David M. Lynn

      Version of Record online: 25 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302561

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      Polymer multilayers that exhibit surface and bulk superhydrophobicity are demonstrated to promote long-term release of water-soluble agents (for ca.1 year) when submerged in water. The extremely nonwetting nature of these materials prevents rapid influx of water, addressing a key limitation inherent to polyelectrolytebased multilayers that release imbedded agents quickly. Our results provide new and potentially general principles for the design of surface coatings in the context of controlled release.

  9. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Progress Reports
    8. Reviews
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Communications
    1. You have free access to this content
      Charge Transport: Efficient Charge Transport in Assemblies of Surfactant-Stabilized Semiconducting Nanoparticles (Adv. Mater. 44/2013) (page 6410)

      Monojit Bag, Timothy S. Gehan, Dana D. Algaier, Feng Liu, Gavvalapalli Nagarjuna, Paul M. Lahti, Thomas P. Russell and Dhandapani Venkataraman

      Version of Record online: 26 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201370280

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      Nanoparticle assemblies are derived from poly[3-hexylthiophene] (P3HT) nanoparticles that are stabilized by sodium dodecylsulfate, between two electrodes, showing efficent hole transport in time-of-flight mobility measurements. The charge-carrier mobility from various P3HT-based nanoparticle assemblies are found by Dhandapani Venkataraman and co-workers on page 6411 to be on the order of 10−4 cm2 V−1 s−1, comparable with the charge-carrier mobilities in P3HT drop-cast films.

  10. Communications

    1. Top of page
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    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Progress Reports
    8. Reviews
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Communications
    1. Efficient Charge Transport in Assemblies of Surfactant-Stabilized Semiconducting Nanoparticles (pages 6411–6415)

      Monojit Bag, Timothy S. Gehan, Dana D. Algaier, Feng Liu, Gavvalapalli Nagarjuna, Paul M. Lahti, Thomas P. Russell and Dhandapani Venkataraman

      Version of Record online: 30 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301302

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      Charge transport through a semiconducting nanoparticle assembly is demonstrated. The hole mobility of low and high molecular weight and regioreglular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) nanoparticles is on the order of 2 × 10−4 to 5 × 10−4 cm2 V−1 s−1, which is comparable to drop-cast thin films of pristine P3HT. Various methods are employed to understand the nature and importance of the nanoparticle packing.

    2. A Novel Thermally Reversible Soluble-Insoluble Conjugated Polymer with Semi-Fluorinated Alkyl Chains: Enhanced Transistor Performance by Fluorophobic Self-Organization and Orthogonal Hydrophobic Patterning (pages 6416–6422)

      Hyung-Gu Jeong, Bogyu Lim, Dongyoon Khim, Mingu Han, Jaewon Lee, Juhwan Kim, Jin-Mun Yun, Kilwon Cho, Ji-Woong Park and Dong-Yu Kim

      Version of Record online: 29 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301337

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      SFA-PQT exhibits self-assembly via a fluorophobic effect in a non-fluorous solvent, which leads to an enhanced electrical performance. Ambipolar transistors and inverters with p- and n- type bilayers are enabled by the unique thermally reversible soluble-insoluble properties of SFA-PQT. More importantly, the hydrophobicity of SFA-PQT facilitates orthogonal hydrophobic patterning and a patterned inverter exhibits low voltage dissipation, a narrow transition zone, a high gain value, and negligible hysteresis.

    3. A Light Incident Angle Switchable ZnO Nanorod Memristor: Reversible Switching Behavior Between Two Non-Volatile Memory Devices (pages 6423–6429)

      Jinjoo Park, Seunghyup Lee, Junghan Lee and Kijung Yong

      Version of Record online: 1 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201303017

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      A light incident angle selectivity of a memory device is demonstrated. As a model system, the ZnO resistive switching device has been selected. Electrical signal is reversibly switched between memristor and resistor behaviors by modulating the light incident angle on the device. Moreover, a liquid passivation layer is introduced to achieve stable and reversible exchange between the memristor and WORM behaviors.

    4. Programmable Mechanical Resonances in MEMS by Localized Joule Heating of Phase Change Materials (pages 6430–6435)

      Nicola Manca, Luca Pellegrino, Teruo Kanki, Syouta Yamasaki, Hidekazu Tanaka, Antonio Sergio Siri and Daniele Marré

      Version of Record online: 27 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302087

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      A programmable micromechanical resonator based on a VO2 thin film is reported. Multiple mechanical eigenfrequency states are programmed using Joule heating as local power source, gradually driving the phase transition of VO2 around its Metal-Insulator transition temperature. Phase coexistence of domains is used to tune the stiffness of the device via local control of internal stresses and mechanical properties. This study opens perspectives for developing mechanically configurable nanostructure arrays.

    5. Novel Electric Double-Layer Capacitor with a Coaxial Fiber Structure (pages 6436–6441)

      Xuli Chen, Longbin Qiu, Jing Ren, Guozhen Guan, Huijuan Lin, Zhitao Zhang, Peining Chen, Yonggang Wang and Huisheng Peng

      Version of Record online: 16 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301519

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      A coaxial electric double-layer capacitor fiber is developed from the aligned carbon nanotube fiber and sheet, which functions as two electrodes with a polymer gel sandwiched between them. The unique coaxial structure enables a rapid transportation of ions between the two electrodes with a high electrochemical performance. These energy storage fibers are also flexible and stretchable, and can be woven into and widely used for electronic textiles.

    6. Controlled Growth of Large-Area High-Performance Small-Molecule Organic Single-Crystalline Transistors by Slot-Die Coating Using A Mixed Solvent System (pages 6442–6447)

      Jingjing Chang, Chunyan Chi, Jie Zhang and Jishan Wu

      Version of Record online: 25 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301267

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      A slot-die coating technique is used for the crystal alignment of triisopropylsilylethynyl (TIPS)-pentacene in solution-processed field-effect transistors (FETs). The film thickness, uniformity, and crystal growth behavior are well controlled by tuning the coating parameters and by using a mixed solvent system (toluene/anisole). An average saturation regime FET mobility of 1.8 cm2 V−1 s−1 is achieved under ambient conditions.

    7. Phase Separation in Garnet Solid Solutions and its Effect on Optical Properties (pages 6448–6452)

      Shakiba Kaveh, Clément P. Tremblay, Nurhakimah Norhashim, Richard J. Curry and Anthony K. Cheetham

      Version of Record online: 1 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302288

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      Phase behavior is studied in erbium-doped Y3Al5O12 (YAG) garnets synthesized by solid-state reactions. High resolution synchrotron XRD and SEM-EDX studies reveal phase separation at an erbium content between 8 and 50 at%, depending upon the processing conditions. Similar results are found in closely-related garnet systems. The phase separation has a striking effect on the optical properties of YAG:Er3+.

    8. Simultaneous Study of Exciton Diffusion/Dissociation and Charge Transport in a Donor-Acceptor Bilayer: Pentacene on a C60-terminated Self-Assembled Monolayer (pages 6453–6458)

      Byoungnam Park, Seong Eun Cho, Youngjun Kim, Won Jin Lee, Nam-Ho You, Insik In and Elsa Reichmanis

      Version of Record online: 3 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302934

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      In-situ photoinduced threshold voltage measurement is a sensitive probe for exploring charge transport and exciton diffusion simultaneously, the main determinants of the power conversion efficiency in organic photovoltaic devices. The exciton diffusion length in a pentacene film deposited onto a C60-terminated self-assembled monolayer is measured. The methodology and analysis presented here can be applied in the design and engineering of electron/donor acceptor interfaces for photovoltaic devices..

    9. Orienting Oxygen Vacancies for Fast Catalytic Reaction (pages 6459–6463)

      Hyoungjeen Jeen, Zhonghe Bi, Woo Seok Choi, Matthew F. Chisholm, Craig A. Bridges, M. Parans Paranthaman and Ho Nyung Lee

      Version of Record online: 1 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302919

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      A strategy to enhance the catalytic activity at the surface of an oxide thin film is unveiled through epitaxial orientation control of the surface oxygen vacancy concentration. By tuning the direction of the oxygen vacancy channels (OVCs) in the brownmillerite SrCoO2.5, a 100-fold improvement in the oxygen reduction kinetics is realized in an epitaxial thin film that has the OVCs open to the surface.

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